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   2017| October-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 6, 2017

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A Systematic Review on Etiology, Epidemiology, and Treatment of Cerebral Palsy
Mahendra Rana, Jyoti Upadhyay, Amita Rana, Sumit Durgapal, Arvind Jantwal
October-December 2017, 7(4):76-83
The most common physical disability in childhood is cerebral palsy (CP). It is difficult to assess and clarify the risk factors associated with this disorder. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature relating to etiology, epidemiology, and advances in the treatment of CP. A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles with keywords “cerebral palsy” and “neurodisability” since 1980 was performed. An investigational research on CP offers an excellent opportunity in understanding the risk factors associated with this disorder as well as its incidences and prevalence. Various new techniques have evolved in the management of CP, such as traditional physiotherapy, occupational therapy, selective dorsal rhizotomy, sensory integration, botulinum toxin injection, and intrathecal baclofen. The care and management of CP in an individual is a very complex process. Although a number of therapeutic interventions have been used by healthcare professionals, but the efficacy of only few has been established by scientific research. To prevent the chances of CP, we need to understand the causes as well as risk factors associated with this disorder.
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A Narrative Review on Evidence-based Antidiabetic Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum)
A. Mooventhan, L. Nivethitha
October-December 2017, 7(4):84-87
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. Adverse effects of the conventional antidiabetic therapy are increasing. Many herbs have strong antidiabetic properties, and fenugreek is one among them. Although fenugreek is one of the most common herbs used for diabetes, its antidiabetic effects are not well-documented. The aim of this review was to report the evidence-based antidiabetic effects of fenugreek. We performed PubMed/Medline search to review relevant articles in English literature using keywords “trigonella foenum graecum for the management of diabetes.” Out of 26 articles found, 18 articles were reported in this review. Based on the available literature, this review suggests that the fenugreek has the evidence-based antidiabetic effect, such as stimulating and/or regenerating effect on β cells along with the extrapancreatic effect, that is effective in reducing blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
  6,952 457 3
Protective Effects of a Polyherbal Formulation, Freemodex, Against Acute Models of Pain, Inflammation, Arthritis, and Immunosuppression
Laxit Bhatt, Swati Maithani
October-December 2017, 7(4):88-93
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and immunomodulatory activities of Freemodex. Materials and Methods: Acute models of pain – formalin-induced paw licking, inflammation – egg albumin induced paw edema, arthritis – turpentine-induced arthritis, and immunosuppression – carbon clearance test and cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia were evaluated using rats and mice. The degree of protection was determined for antiarthritic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities by measuring the paw volume, percentage inhibition, the number of writhing movements, the duration of paw licking in the injected paw, paw linear circumference, and the joint diameter. The estimation of phagocytic index, the total leukocyte count, and the percentage reduction in the neutrophil count were indexed for the evaluation of immunosuppression. Freemodex was administered at 40 and 80 mg/kg to rats and 80 and 160 mg/kg to mice. Results: Dose-dependent reduction in paw licking was observed in the formalin model. Reduction in paw volume was seen in the animals treated with egg albumin and Freemodex. Arthritis was also found to be decreased on the basis of the synovial joint size and phagocytic index. Leukocytes and neutrophils were also normalized in mice. Conclusion: The study’s findings suggest a protective role for Freemodex.
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Response to the Burden and Impact of Dementia Through Policy and Innovation
M Walid Qoronfleh
October-December 2017, 7(4):73-75
  3,523 105 1
1st IBRO-APRC Banasthali School of Neuroscience

October-December 2017, 7(4):107-131
  3,309 122 -
Validation of Fat-Free Mass Estimation Using Prediction Equations in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chandan Vinay Srigiripura, Asna Urooj, Chaya Sindaghatta Krishnarao, Mahesh Padukudru Anand
October-December 2017, 7(4):94-100
Context: The use of predictive equations in hospital settings lacking access to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be beneficial because cachexia, muscle wasting and related increase in morbidity and mortality are known occurrences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aim: To analyse the predictive performance of reported equations for fat-free mass (FFM) prediction against BIA-derived FFM in patients with stable COPD. Design/Materials and Methods: Seventy-two male patients aged between 40 and 75 years with stable COPD were evaluated for FFM by BIA. FFM was also predicted for the same patients using equations reported by Kulkarni et al., Solomon Yu et al., Janmahasatian et al., as well as Deurenberg equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The predictive performance was assessed by Bland–Altman plots, with subsequent calculations of bias, precision and accuracy. The performance was also analysed across the age and body mass index sub-groups. Results: The mean differences (95% confidence intervals) in the prediction of FFM using equations by Kulkarni et al. and Deurenberg equation were −0.33 kg (−4.910, 4.258) and 0.31 kg (−3.330, 3.946), respectively. The equation by Solomon Yu et al. and Janmahasatian et al. overestimated FFM with a mean difference of 3.99 kg (−2.449, 10.428) and 3.76 kg (−0.443, 7.956), respectively. Conclusion: The equation by Kulkarni et al. provides an acceptable prediction of FFM in patients who were underweight or had normal weight with COPD and were aged between 50 and 69 years. The Deurenberg equation was used to predict FFM in patients aged between 40–49 and 60–75 years. Further validation of the predictive performance in overweight and obese COPD patients is required.
  2,953 115 2
Effect of Myricetin on the Oxidative Stress Markers in the Brain of Transgenic Flies Expressing Human Alpha-Synuclein
Gulshan Ara, Mohammad Afzal, Smita Jyoti, Yasir H Siddique
October-December 2017, 7(4):101-106
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder having no permanent cure, but there has been a great deal of interest in finding the role of complementary and alternative medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in the progression of PD. Objective: Since ancient time, natural plant products have been studied for their protective action. In this study, the effect of myricetin was studied on transgenic flies expressing human alpha-synuclein in the neurons. Materials and Methods: The PD flies were allowed to feed on a diet supplemented with 5, 10, and 20 μM of myricetin for 24 days. The flies with PD were then subjected to the study of oxidative stress markers. Results: The results of this study reveal that the exposure of flies with PD to myricetin showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in oxidative stress compared to unexposed flies with PD (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Myricetin is potent in reducing oxidative stress in the brain of flies with PD induced by the expression of human alpha-synuclein and the formation of Lewy bodies.
  2,515 90 1
Retraction: Pattern and Determinants of Physical Activity in Rural and Urban Adolescents of North India: A Population Based Study

October-December 2017, 7(4):132-132
  1,567 63 -