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   2016| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 11, 2016

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Survival outcomes of buccal mucosa carcinoma patients with multimodal therapy: An institutional study
Ramasamy Padma, Ramamurthy Thilagavathi, Sivapatham Sundaresan
April-June 2016, 6(2):76-80
Background/Objectives: The buccal mucosa carcinoma is the most common site for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma has classical method of surgical resection and post-operative adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy. Despite, this multimodality treatment five year survival remains poor. Therefore, this study had been conducted to assess survival outcome of buccal mucosa carcinoma by different treatment strategies. Materials and Methods: Demographic, pathologic, treatment and survival data was retrieved from hospital registries from 2013-2015 in Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kanchipuram. Actuarial overall and relapse-free survivals were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Results and Discussion: A total of 198 buccal mucosa carcinoma subjects comprised 125(63.1%) male and 73(36.9%) female in 1.7:1 ratio. Type of treatment had significant association of subjects age, cellular differentiation, clinical stage of disease and regional lymph nodes by chi-square analysis (P < 0.05). Three years estimated overall survival and time to recurrence (TTR) was 96.46% and 3.54% respectively. Subjects receiving multimodality treatment (post operative radiotherapy and with adjuvant chemotherapy) improved overall and time to recurrence (TTR) compared to radio and chemo radiotherapy alone (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that adding adjuvant chemotherapy with post operative radiotherapy improves better survival outcomes.
  19,571 294 2
An overview of oral carcinogenesis
Shanmugam Manoharan, Sekar Karthikeyan, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Asokan Manimaran, Renganathan Selvasundram
April-June 2016, 6(2):51-62
Cancer, a life-threatening global burden, is characterized by clonality, autonomy, anaplasia, invasion, and metastasis. Each and every year, the incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide. Most of the cancers arise due to changes in the lifestyle, including tobacco, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Although 100 different types of cancers were reported so far worldwide, oral cancer, skin cancer, mammary cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer are the most predominant cancers. Cancer of the oral cavity remains life-threatening disease for more than 50% of the newly diagnosed patients. Lack of awareness, delay in diagnosis, and patient's delay are attributed to the high incidence of oral cancer, despite easy physical examination of the oral cavity. Moreover, the survival outcome of oral cancer patients was not drastically improved despite recent advancement in the treatment of oral cancers. The present review presents the epidemiology and etiology of oral cancer in detail. Furthermore, the biochemical and molecular changes occurring in oral carcinogenesis are also explored. The chemopreventive agents that are evaluated against experimental carcinogenesis are also briefly summarized.
  6,355 654 3
Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent students in Pondicherry, South India
R Vishnu Prasad, Joy Bazroy, Zile Singh
April-June 2016, 6(2):72-75
Context: The adolescent period of human life is one of the vital times when most of the body growth and development occur. Nearly 35% of the global burden of disease has its root emergence in adolescence. Overweight and obesity are defined as "abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health." Aims: The present study aims to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent students (aged 10-18 years) in Pondicherry. Settings and Design: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 10-18-year-old students in Pondicherry. The study was conducted among 2,465 students from 5 schools and 2 polytechnic colleges. Materials and Methods: The students were classified as "overweight" or "obese" based on the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) guidelines. Statistical Analysis Used: Data entry was done in MS Excel 2013 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for the statistical analysis. Chi-square test was used to identify statistical difference in proportions. Results: The study results showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in our study population was 9.7% and 4.3%, respectively. There was no difference in prevalence between males and females. The prevalence of overweight/obesity increased as the age advanced. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was predominant among the students of private schools in the urban region in our study population.
  6,171 509 3
Abrogation of locomotor impairment in a rotenone-induced Drosophila melanogaster and zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease by ellagic acid and curcumin
Dharmendra Kumar Khatri, Archana Ramesh Juvekar
April-June 2016, 6(2):90-96
Background: In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of ellagic acid and curcumin against the toxicity induced by rotenone (ROT) in zebrafish and Drosophila melanogaster. Materials and Methods: Adult zebrafish were concomitantly exposed to ROT 5 μl/L and ellagic acid (20, 40 mg/kg) and curcumin (20, 40 mg/kg) intramuscularly for 14 days whereas adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to ROT (500 μM), respectively and ellagic acid (0.05% and 0.1%) and curcumin (0.05% and 0.1%) in the food during 7 days. Results: ROT produced marked decreased in the zebrafish swimming behavior and flies had a poorer performance (21-31%) in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e., climbing capability) when compared to control group. Ellagic acid and curcumin treatment offered protection (54-80%) against the ROT-induced locomotor impairment and performed better in zebrafish and in the negative geotaxis assay suggesting attenuation of ROT-induced locomotor deficits. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that ellagic acid and curcumin was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by ROT in zebrafish and D. melanogaster as well as confirm the significance of this model to explore possible therapeutic approaches on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease.
  3,442 268 5
Effect of vitamin A and zinc on circulating profile of IL-2, IL-12, and IFNγ cytokines in pulmonary tuberculosis patients
Irfan Ahmad, Khalid Al-Ahmare
April-June 2016, 6(2):63-71
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem throughout the world and one of the leading causes of mortality. Vitamin A and zinc deficiency is frequently observed in patients of pulmonary TB and thus, diminish the activity of their immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on sputum conversion time and immunological profile in pulmonary TB patients receiving antitubercular treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.   The cases comprised those outpatients with active pulmonary TB (new sputum smear positive) who had attended the DOTS center in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Results: Total 260 patients were enrolled and randomly grouped into four categories of intervention. After completion of the follow-up, some patients dropped out from the study so that total 208 patients completed it. The level of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, and interferon gamma (IFNγ) was significantly (P = 0.001) changed and the sputum smear conversion was significantly early in the vitamin A and zinc supplemented group. Conclusion: We demonstrated that vitamin A and zinc may directly or indirectly influence the activation of cytokines. The circulating cytokines play an especially important role in the pathogenesis of active pulmonary TB.
  2,758 200 -
Gender dysphoria in an Omani female
Ahlam Ali, Hamed Al Sinawi, Mohammed Al Alawi
April-June 2016, 6(2):97-99
A case of a girl who presented with symptoms of gender dysphoria is described here. She received cognitive behavioral therapy that helped her explore her thoughts and address any distorted cognition. She was able to live as a female and changed her mind about undergoing sex change surgery. This article explores the concept of gender dysphoria and the role of psychological interventions in its management.
  2,575 77 -
Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of novel 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist 2-[4-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazin-1-yl]-1,8-naphthyridine -3-carboxylic acid (7e)-: An approach using rodent behavioral antidepressant and anxiolytic test battery
Shvetank Bhatt, Shreyas Mukund Bagal, Sandeep Butola, Arghya Kusum Dhar, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
April-June 2016, 6(2):81-89
Aim: Depression and anxiety are among the most common and prevalent forms of mental disorder. The 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists modulate serotonergic pathways and show antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect in various animal models of depression. The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potential of 2-[4-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazin-1-yl]- 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid (7e), a novel 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist in rodent behavioral models of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods: The compound 7e was tested using different behavioral models for depression and anxiety such as forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mechanistic models such as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch, elevated plus maze (EPM), hole-board (HB) test, open field test (OFT), and light and dark (L and D) aversion test. Results:  The compound 7e (1 and 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) exhibits antidepressant-like effect in FST. In addition, compound 7e (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibits antidepressant-like effect in TST after acute treatment without any significant effect on base line spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, compound 7e (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-HTP-induced head twitch responses in mice. In interaction studies, compound 7e" (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of bupropion. Furthermore, compound 7e also exhibited anxiolytic-like effect in EPM, HB test, OFT, and L and D aversion test. Conclusion: These preliminary studies reveal that compound 7e exhibits antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect in behavioral rodent models of depression and anxiety.
  2,505 117 -