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   2016| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 12, 2016

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Isolation, identification, and in vivoevaluation of flavonoid fractions of chloroform/methanol extracts of Rheum emodi roots for their hepatoprotective activity in Wistar rats
Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Aamna Habib, Amanat Ali, Sajid Bashir
January-March 2016, 6(1):28-34
Objective: Even though the rhizome of Rheum emodi (Chinese rhubarb) has been used since centuries as a traditional medicinal plant in treating a number of disease conditions, the bioactive components responsible for its hepatoprotective activity have not been identified. Therefore, we isolated, identified, and evaluated in vivo the compounds in chloroform/methanol extracts of Rheum emodi roots for their hepatoprotective activities in rats. Materials and Methods: Nine different fractions were collected by column chromatography and were further isolated and identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis for the presence of flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids containing fractions were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. Silymarin [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was used as a control hepatoprotective drug. To assess liver functions, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and bilirubin (total and direct) were determined. Results: Only five collected fractions (F1to F5) showed the presence of different flavonoids and the fraction F2showed the presence of five different types of flavonoids. The isolated flavonoid containing fractions of Rheum emodi were significantly effective in decreasing the elevated the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin (total and direct) due to paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The fractions at dose level of 0.125 mL/kg BW showed significant hepatoprotective effects in rats. The fraction F2at a dose level of 0.5 mL/kg BW showed the maximum therapeutic efficacy followed by the same fraction at 0.25 mL/kg BW and 0.125 mL/kg BW, fractions F1, silymarin, F3, F4and F5. Conclusion: The results suggest that isolated fractions of Rheum emodi roots contained flavonoids, which showed significant hepatoprotective activity in Wistar rats. Further investigations are however, required for the identification of individual flavonoids as well as other bioactive components in Rheum emodi roots, and to establish their structure and mechanism of action for their hepatoprotective activity.
  6 3,819 294
Assessment of prevalence of anemia in and its correlates among community-dwelling elderly of Assam, India: A cross-sectional study
Rashmi Agarwalla, Anku Moni Saikia, Mamta Parashar, Rambha Pathak, Farzana Islam
January-March 2016, 6(1):23-27
Background: Anemia in the elderly can have tremendous impact on their health and functionality. Many a time, anemia in the elderly is overlooked and due priority is not given regarding its causes and impact. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anemia in the elderly and study the various correlates associated with it. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012 in Boko-Bongaon block, Kamrup District, Assam, India. A total of 30 clusters were selected and 11 elderly from each cluster were taken to get the desired sample size of 330. Hemoglobin estimation was performed to assess the presence of anemia. Results: Prevalence of anemia was 45.5% in the present study. Elderly with severe anemia constituted 15.3%. The associations of anemia with age, gender, calorie intake, type of diet, iron supplementation, and worm infestation were found to be significant. Conclusion: Further in-depth studies are needed regarding the causes of anemia and the role of nutritional prophylaxis. The provisions for adequate health care measures and services to combat anemia in the elderly is needed for timely action.
  5 3,503 317
The impact of epilepsy on the manifestation of anxiety disorder
Alina Arulsamy, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
January-March 2016, 6(1):3-11
Epilepsy affects the neuronal activity of our brain and leads to the development of behavioral disorders such as depression and anxiety. Epilepsy-induced anxiety is a debilitating disorder that burdens almost 45% of the global population and has a severe impact on the quality of life led by the patients. This disorder affects men, women, children, families, and even society at large. Although there is no clear pathophysiological pathway for the manifestation of anxiety in epilepsy patients, there are many theories proposed by researchers that include neurological and psychological pathways. Based on this knowledge, pharmacological treatments are constantly being discovered to help patients with their disorder. Nonpharmacological treatments (such as psychotherapy) are strongly encouraged as first-line treatment, more so than reliance on medication due to the high possibility of adverse effects associated with the latter. Nevertheless, comprehensive diagnosis of the disorder is needed prior to treatment in order to avoid false negatives or positives. In conclusion, the quality of life of epilepsy patients with anxiety can only be improved once full understanding of the disorder is achieved through research.
  2 5,734 239
Wernicke&'s encephalopathy in hyperemesis gravidorum
Tariq Bhat, Muzafar Naik, Mohammed Farooq Mir, Irfan Robbani, Muzafar Mohiuddin
January-March 2016, 6(1):46-49
Wernicke&'s encephalopathy (WE) is potentially a fatal complication due to the deficiency of vitamin B1 and presents with a neurological triad of nystagmus, encephalopathy, and ataxia. It is most commonly seen in alcoholics and is a rare complication of pregnancy associated with hyperemesis gravidorum (HG). Since it is a rare condition, difficult to diagnose in pregnancy, and can prove to be fatal, a high index of suspicion should be made in case of pregnancy complicated by HG. We hereby report a case of WE caused by HG successfully treated with a high dose intravenous thiamine. This case is the first of its kind from our part of world.
  1 1,604 76
Elucidating the neuropsychological profile of apathetic syndrome and disinhibition syndrome in a brain-injured population in Oman
Samir Al-Adawi, Aziz Al-Naamani, Yahya Al-Farsi, Musthafa M Essa, David T Burke, May El-Bouri, Kerry Amstrong, Jason Edwards, Sura Al-Muscati, Aida Saihi MacFarland, Ali Al Maashani
January-March 2016, 6(1):35-45
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the neuropsychological performance of two frontal dysexecutive phenotypes - disinhibited&' syndrome (DS) and &'apathetic&' syndrome (AS) following a traumatic brain injury in a non-western population, Oman. Methods: The study compared the performance of DS and AS in neuropsychological measures including those tapping into verbal reasoning ability/working memory/attention planning/goal-directed behavior and affective ranges. Results: The present analysis showed that DS and AS participants did not differ on indices measuring working memory/attention and affective ranges. However, the two cohorts differed significantly in measures of planning/goal-directed behaviour. Conclusion: This study lays the groundwork for further scrutiny in delineating the different characteristics of what has been previously labelled as frontal dysexecutive phenotype. This study indicates that DS and AS are marked with specific neuropsychological deficits.
  1 2,295 86
Food, medicine, and disease: A biological tangle for humans
Mohammed Abdul Sattar Khan
January-March 2016, 6(1):1-2
  - 1,843 121
Acceptability of reformulated whole-grain products using net acceptance score (NAS) and relative acceptance score (RAS)
Annamalai Manickavasagan, Ihsan Abbas, Lorna Cork, Mohib Ahmed Khan, Sawsana Al-Rahbi, Kabaly Subramanian, Marla Reicks
January-March 2016, 6(1):12-22
Objectives: (1) To determine the proximate composition and sensory qualities of three traditional, commonly consumed Omani grain products (samoon, khubs, and rekhal), while replacing refined refined-wheat flour by whole wheat flour at three levels (0%, 50%, and 100%). (2) To develop the Net Acceptance Score (NAS) and Relative Acceptance Score (RAS) based on the Net Promoter Score (NPS) using sensory evaluation results. Materials and Methods: Samoon, khubs, and rekhal were reformulated with whole wheat flour at three levels: (i) RF100 (refined flour 100%, control), (ii) RF50 WWF50 (refined flour 50% + whole wheat flour 50%), and iii) WWF100 (whole wheat flour 100%). Proximate composition analysis and sensory evaluation [using the hedonic scale (9–1)] were conducted for each product type. The hedonic scores received from the panelists were then used to calculate the Net Acceptance Score (NAS) and the Relative Acceptance Score (RAS). The NAS is an indicator of the net acceptability of an individual product, whereas RAS is the relative acceptability of the reformulated product with respect to the control product. Results: Among all three product types, NAS of taste was the highest for WWF100. The NAS values of the taste attribute for WWF100 were 42%, 73%, and 16% for rekhal, khubs, and samoon, respectively. Both RF50 WWF50 and WWF100 rekhal products yielded the RAS value of 100%.
  - 2,689 127