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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 282-290

Perceived Wellness Measured by the National Wellness Institute’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool among Women in Al Ain, UAE: A Sentinel Study


1 Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
2 College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
3 Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al–Khoud, Muscat 123, Oman

Date of Submission25-Aug-2022
Date of Decision20-Sep-2022
Date of Acceptance23-Sep-2022
Date of Web Publication30-Nov-2022

Correspondence Address:
Shamsa Al Awar
Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University (UAEU), Al Ain
United Arab Emirates
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_64_22

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   Abstract 


Objectives: While there is a plethora of women’s studies conducted on psychosocial variables such as mental health, quality of life, and burden of care, there is a dearth of studies on the dimension of “wellness,” particularly from the Arabian Gulf population. This study was designed to investigate perceptions of personal wellness among women residing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) using six dimensions of wellness, namely; Spiritual, Emotional, Intellectual, Occupational, Physical, and Social. The related aim was to examine the relationship between perceived wellness and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: This online cross-sectional study was carried out from August 2021 to October 2021 among women residing in the UAE. The outcome measure included the National Wellness Institute’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool, which was adapted to suit local dialect and social modesty. The newly adapted questionnaire was translated into Arabic. The study also included pertinent socio-demographic variables. Results: A total of 325 women living in Al Ain, UAE participated in the study. Out of the participants, 60.8% were Emiratis, aged between 31 and 40 years (37.3%) and married (57.8%). The participants were mainly employed (59.7%) and most of them lived in private (61.5%) accommodation. The analysis reveals the following ranking order of the six dimensions of wellness; Spiritual (mean = 4.30, SD = 0.84), followed by Social (mean = 4.05, SD = 0.85), Occupational (mean = 3.93, SD = 1.05), Emotional (mean = 3.76, SD = 0.91), Intellectual (mean = 3.73, SD = 1.01), and Physical (mean = 2.41, SD = 1.04). Among the women’s characteristics, age and marital status were found to be significantly associated with the Emotional Dimension. Moreover, nationality and accommodation were significantly associated with the Intellectual Dimension. Overall, using factor analysis of the instrument, we found that only one component was sufficient to adequately explain either the Occupational or Spiritual Dimensions, while two components were needed to explain each of the following; Intellectual, Emotional, Social, and Physical dimensions of wellness. Conclusion: Wellness is of great importance to UAE women, with significant associations with some socio-demographic characteristics. The Spiritual Dimension, in particular, was perceived to be of highest importance, closely followed by Social, Occupational, Emotional, Intellectual, and Physical dimensions. In particular, age and marital status had significant association with the Emotional Dimension, while nationality and accommodation were significantly associated with the Intellectual Dimension. These findings are of importance to future endeavors that are aimed towards the betterment of the quality of life of women in the UAE, by indicating which spheres of wellness are prioritized and which ones require further scrutiny.

Keywords: Cross-sectional survey, perception, social wellness, UAE, wellness, women


How to cite this article:
Al Awar S, Khair H, Osman N, Ucenic TE, Sallam G, Maki S, Ganesh A. Perceived Wellness Measured by the National Wellness Institute’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool among Women in Al Ain, UAE: A Sentinel Study. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2022;12:282-90

How to cite this URL:
Al Awar S, Khair H, Osman N, Ucenic TE, Sallam G, Maki S, Ganesh A. Perceived Wellness Measured by the National Wellness Institute’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool among Women in Al Ain, UAE: A Sentinel Study. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];12:282-90. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2022/12/4/282/362421




   Introduction Top


The medical revolution, including the development of highly effective medications, powerful antibiotics, and vaccines, has resulted in the diminution of high morbidity and mortality rates in both industrialized countries and emerging economies. As a result, medical systems are widely adopting the biomedical model, or “cosmopolitan medicine,” which is largely focused on fighting pathological disease processes using evidence-based medicine that supposedly transcends culture and ethnicity, while relegating subjective wellness and quality of life to secondary roles of healthcare. According to Granello,[1] the prevailing bio-medical model of healthcare is based on a reductionist, bottom-up approach due to a targeted focus on disease. In contrast, the concept of “wellness” provides a broader view that aspires to achieve individual optimal functioning.

Wellness is described as an individual’s subjective experience of overall life satisfaction, which includes physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social, economic, occupational, and environmental aspects of life.[2] The concept of wellness has also become increasingly featured in various definitions of health and development. For example, the concept of wellness is prominently featured in the World Health Organization’s definition of health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”[3] The concepts of wellness appear to encapsulate the biopsychosocial approach towards health as well, where the tandem contribution of social, psychological, and biological factors are strongly intertwined in both the states of health and illness.[4] The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) formulated in 2015 also emphasizes “the promotion of well-being for all” as one of its 17 keystone goals.

While many psychosocial variables, such as the metric of wellness that is presently under scrutiny, have received ample attention in the extant literature globally, few studies dedicated to this subject have been forthcoming from Arabian Gulf countries (collectively known as the Gulf Cooperation Council, or, the GCC).[5] This is a region where human development has been internationally lauded due to rapid modernization and improved standards of living. Healthcare focus in the GCC is increasingly tilting towards non-communicable diseases or lifestyle diseases, as well as the eradication of communicable diseases. This is consistent with the emerging “double-edged sword” hypothesis, whereby overburdened healthcare systems in developing nations that have yet to adequately deal with communicable diseases are increasingly overwhelmed with non-communicable diseases, lifestyle diseases, and psychological disorders.[6] The existing model of health services in most of the GCC—top-down, professionally driven, and cure-oriented—is increasingly unable to deal with this new assortment of health problems. Therefore, attempts should be geared toward bringing new wellness paradigms into the midst.

The population structure in the GCC has been labeled as having a “youth bulge,” manifesting as a pyramid-like structure.[7] This is due to the population currently undergoing the second phase of demographic transition, characterized by increased life expectancy and birth rates couple with low death rates.[8] Such a demographic trend is generally associated with increased standards of living, the spread of education, and a decreased gender gap due to the empowerment of women through societal and policy changes, such as increased accessibility to contraception.[9] With the higher standards of living in the GCC, the resultant growth of education has increased the literacy rate of society in general and women in particular. This has resulted in the gradual erosion of traditional gender roles, where women were previously “segregated” to the domestic front, and are instead increasingly becoming a part of the labor force. Despite this, the general conservatism of Arab societies requires women to fulfill their duties in domestic spheres as well, resulting in many women having to juggle between traditional patriarchal culture and national efforts toward gender equality. According to Storie and Marschlich,[10] the position of women in Emirati society is defined not only by official laws but also by socio-cultural beliefs ingrained in Emirati society and by women themselves. Western feminist ideas are seen as foreign to the Emirati patriarchal and tribal society, and are often met with resistance by men and women alike (p. 2). Some surveys in these regions have suggested that women are more prone to developing “internalizing” psychiatric disorders than their male counterparts, resulting in a silent epidemic of depression.[11],[12] However, it is not clear whether such surveys have used instruments that take into account the different culturally-unique idioms of distress. One way to circumvent this limitation is to explore the overall well-being of women in the GCC.

The concept of wellness is marred with adequate operational definitions. One such definition is that which has been developed by the National Wellness Institute (NWI)—“Wellness is an active process through which people become aware of, and make choices toward, a more successful existence.”[13] Hettler[14] describes six interdependent constituents of wellness. One is Occupational wellness, which assumes that work provides personal fulfillment and richness in one’s life. The second dimension is Physical wellness that postulates that to be physically optimized, one has to have a balanced diet and avoid hazardous foods and items. The third constituent of wellness is Social wellness, which emphasizes the importance of contributing to the environment and community’s well-being, as well as living in harmony with people. The fourth dimension is Intellectual wellness, which involves accessing cognitive challenges as well as exposing oneself to creativity and other enriching mental faculties. The fifth constituent is Spiritual wellness, which requires humans to find purpose and meaning in their lives. The sixth and final dimension is Emotional wellness, which requires one to recognize and come to terms with the vagaries of afflictive emotions. These six dimensions were used to design the Wellness Focus Survey Tool.[15]

To date, such conceptualization of wellness has been paid little attention to in non-western populations, such as the GCC nations. Even in the western population, most of the studies have focused on occupational wellness and resultant workplace wellness programs.[16],[17] One of the GCC countries, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is witnessing increased efforts towards women’s empowerment, as well as increased access to universal free biomedical services. The present sentinel study aimed to fill the gap in literature regarding how women in the UAE fare in the dimensions of wellness, so as to lay the groundwork for further possible scrutiny for the rest of the GCC. This study, therefore, aimed to determine women’s perceptions regarding the six dimensions of well-being in the UAE as defined by the National Wellness Institute’s (NWI) Wellness Focus Survey Tool.[13] A related aim was to assess the related socio-demographic characteristics.


   Methods Top


Setting and participants

A cross-sectional survey was carried out from August 2021 to October 2021, similar to the protocol followed by Abdelrahman et al.[18] The study was conducted in one of the principalities of the UAE, Al Ain, located in the Eastern Region of Abu Dhabi. The UAE is a high-income country with a youthful demography and a high literacy level (>97%),[19] which has resulted in the predominance of people who are well-versed users of online social media. Due to a shortage of local skilled labor amid rapid industrialization and modernization, the UAE relies on contract workers who constitute a large proportion of the UAE population.[19] Recent estimation suggested that 99% of the population have access to the internet.[20] The inclusion criteria included residents or Emiratis over 15 years of age living in Al Ain. In Islamic society, upon reaching puberty, individuals cease to be minors and carry all the attributes of an adult.[21] Thus, the present study has included consenting participants who are 15 years of age or older.

The invitees were emailed an electronically signed, printable consent form stating that they were required to give their consent before answering the questions in the study proforma. Inclusion criteria included all women of age 15 years and above who reside in the UAE. Exclusion criteria included incomplete responses or women who are less than 15 years of age or who do not reside within the UAE.

Outcome measures

Among many varied measures of perceived well-being, the Wellness Focus Survey Tool developed at the National Wellness Institute, USA, has received adequate empirical support. The instrument is publicly accessible.[22],[13] NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool taps into six dimensions of Wellness—Occupational, Intellectual, Emotional, Social, Spiritual, and Physical. The 36 item Wellness Focus Survey Tool is a questionnaire that solicits Likert-type responses, ranging from 1 (“Almost Always”), 2 (“Often”), 3 (“Sometimes”), 4 (“Rarely”), and 5 (“Almost Never”). The scale is scored in terms of priority to the dimension of wellness. The scores of High priority ranged between 1 and 1.4, Moderate priority ranged between 1.5 and 2.4, and Low priority ranged between 2.5 and 3.

To date, there is no Arabic version of NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool. This study specifically has embarked to translate the Arabic version of NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool. The present translation was derived from the protocol of back-translation.[23] Academicians, physicians, and nurses who were involved in women’s health and well-versed in both spoken and written English and Arabic were asked to participate in the translation. One team was asked to translate the original version into Arabic. Once the Arabic version was established and consensus was reached, another team of academicians, physicians, and nurses was asked to translate the Arabic version of NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool into English. The two teams met face to face to scrutinize the items and the content of the NWI Wellness Focus Survey Tool and further changes were undertaken. The newly drafted Arabic version of NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool was piloted among volunteers (n = 25) towards women escorting their relatives to the gynecology clinics, where they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. The internal validity of the newly translated NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool was calculated to have a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.847. In addition to NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool, the study survey also sought various sociodemographic characteristics, including age, nationality, accommodation, marital status, and occupation.

Sample size calculation

The questionnaire was distributed using email and WhatsApp applications so that a representative sample of local Emirati and expatriates residing in the UAE was obtained. The sample size was calculated using the MedCalc software program (www.medcalc.org/index.php) at 5% significance level (95% CIs) and 20% β error (80% power of the study).

Ethical consideration

The ethical approval was obtained from the Social Sciences Ethical Committee at United Arab Emirates University (Reference Number: ERS_2020_6171). All the participants were informed of the study’s objectives and the research procedure, and they voluntarily participated in it.

Statistical analysis

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Numbers and percentages were used to describe qualitative data. Continuous variables were presented as means ± (plus or minus) standard deviation. A Chi-square statistic was used to test existence of a relationship between two categorical variables. As per established protocol, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Furthermore, factor analysis using principal components was performed to identify potential components under each dimension of wellness.


   Results Top


The survey was sent to a total of 329 women living in Al Ain, UAE, out of which a total of 325 women responded (response rate of 98.7%). Out of the participants, 60.8% were Emiratis, aged between 31 and 40 years (37.3%) and married (57.8%). The participants were mainly employed (59.7%) and most of them lived in private (61.5%) accommodation [Table 1].
Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of female participants from Al Ain, UAE (n = 325)

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In [Table 2] we present findings of socio-demographic characteristics by wellness priority assessed by the six wellness domains. The Chi-square tests were performed to ascertain the relationship of the six wellness domains across the women’s socio-demographic characteristics. The age of women was found to be significantly associated with the Emotional dimension (P = 0.03), while the other dimensions’ priorities (Occupational, Intellectual, Social, Spiritual, and Physical) were found not to be statistically significant (P > 0.05). Accordingly, there was a variation among who stated the Emotional dimension was significant across age. The Emotional dimension was viewed as a high priority across two age categories of 21–30 years (low versus high: 12% versus 16%) and 41–50 years (17% versus 29%), while those in the ages below 21 years (13% versus 11%), 31–40 years (40% versus 36%), and above 50 years (18% versus 8.5%) viewed the Emotional dimension as a low priority. Across nationality, the Intellectual dimension was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.04), the Social dimension only marginally significant, while the rest of the four dimensions (Occupational, Emotional, Spiritual, and Physical) were not significantly associated with nationality. The majority of the Emiratis perceived Intellectual dimension as being of a low priority (66% versus 55%), whereas more of the other nationalities rated it as a high priority (34% versus 45%). Like age, marital status was found to be significantly associated with the Emotional dimension, but only marginally associated with the Physical dimension. The majority of the women who were single perceived the Emotional dimension as being of low priority (50% versus 38%) compared to those who were married (50% versus 62%). Under accommodation, Intellectual dimension was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.04), while the rest of the four dimensions (Occupational, Emotional, Social, Spiritual, and Physical) were not significantly associated with the type of accommodation. The majority of the women in public accommodation perceived the Intellectual dimension as being of a high priority (33% versus 44%), whereas more of those living in private accommodation rated it as a low priority (67% versus 56%). On the other hand, the occupation (unemployed or employed) of the women only appeared to be marginally associated with the Intellectual dimension (P = 0.07), while the other dimensions were not significantly associated with the occupation of the participant (P > 0.05).
Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics by the wellness priority as defined by the National Wellness Institute’s (NWI) 36-item Wellness Focus Survey Tool among women in Al Ain, UAE (n = 325)

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In [Table 3], we present the results of the assessment based on itemized descriptive and factor analysis of the perception of the participants across the six dimensions. The descriptive analysis provides the mean and standard deviation of the overall dimension as well as each item under the given dimension. The mean score is derived from the coded five level Likert-scale with codes of 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often, and 5 = always, which implies that the higher the mean score the better the item score by the participants. According to our findings, we can rank the positivity of the participants’ perception of the six dimensions as follows based on their mean scores, with the first dimension being Spiritual (mean = 4.30, SD = 0.84), followed by Social (mean = 4.05, SD = 0.85), Occupational (mean = 3.93, SD = 1.05), Emotional (mean = 3.76, SD = 0.91), Intellectual (mean = 3.73, SD = 1.01), and Physical (mean = 2.41, SD = 1.04) comes last. It was noted that the rating for the items under the Spiritual dimension were all above four on the scale of five, and with the minimum standard deviations. The item, “Prayer and/or meditation are a regular part of my daily routine” was rated as the highest aspect of wellness (mean = 4.70, SD = 0.66). On the contrary, the rating for the items under the Physical dimension were all below three (3) on the scale of five, and with the highest standard deviations. The item, “I consume 4 or more soft or energizing drinks daily” was rated as the lowest aspect of wellness (mean = 1.31, SD = 0.72).
Table 3 Descriptive and factor analysis of the six dimensions of wellness as defined by the National Wellness Institute’s (NWI) 36-item Wellness Focus Survey Tool among women in Al Ain, UAE (n = 325)

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In [Table 3], under the column factor analysis, we sought to perform dimensionality reduction to understand the importance of each item under the six dimensions of wellness through assessing variance contributions of the items. The first column presents the percentage of total variance explained by each item, the second column is the cumulative percentage, while the fourth and fifth column show the coefficients or relationships of the derived components with the items for measuring wellness. Overall, using a 50% threshold, we derive one component each for the Occupational and Spiritual dimensions, while two dimensions are derived each for the rest of the dimensions, including; Intellectual, Emotional, Social, and Physical dimensions of wellness. Furthermore, using a threshold of a coefficient of 0.60, we can associate the items with the components, derived. For instance, we can say that all the items under the Occupational dimension are associated with component 1, implying that all of the six items were important in the study of wellness. However, since they were all related, measurement of the Occupational dimension could be sufficiently explained by only one component.


   Discussion Top


Wellness, much like health, has many definitions and interpretations, with a “well person” being best described as one whose awareness and decision-making capacity align with their values and aspirations.[24] Wellness can also be considered as an ongoing, continuous process that is constantly evolving, from the daily practicing of healthy habits to attaining physical and mental balance. The result is that instead of just surviving, the person is thriving and has achieved a sense of well-being as a lifestyle pattern. In the present study, we have evaluated how the six dimensions of wellness, as defined by the National Wellness Institute’s (NWI) Wellness Focus Survey Tool, are perceived among women in Al Ain, UAE, and correlated them with the participants’ demographic factors. These six dimensions, together with their perceived priority to women, are important to both the female population of GCC nations and policymakers of these countries. Physical and mental health are only two aspects of overall wellness, and deeper understanding of the other factors (described in our study) that are perceived important or lacking in the lives of women, in particular, can greatly benefit them as well as society as a whole.

The study results showed that, on a total wellness scale, 60% of the participants perceive all six dimensions as a high priority. This may indicate that the female population in the UAE share the same self-values, self-esteem, and desires compared to women from developed countries.[25] In our study, 79% of participants reported high priority regarding the Spiritual dimension, which is similarly reported by Odrovakavula et al.[26] Such findings highlight the importance of Spiritual wellness, especially in conservative societies. This finding is also in agreement with a study by Shaikh.[27] among UAE women, which supports the finding that spirituality and faith were important factors that aided in coping with challenges faced by the sample.

The importance of Emotional and Social (60%) dimensions were reported to be second highest and third highest in priority, respectively. This signifies the importance of social stability and emotional integrity in the wellness perception of women in the UAE. This also illustrates that social bonding and personal relationships are strong factors for self-evaluation and self-regulation. These findings correlate with findings by Andersen and Chen.[28] The perception of the importance of the Emotional dimension with total wellness can be possibly justified by the fact that most of the participants were Emirati women, who generally receive tremendous support from their families as a cultural norm, which leads to emotional, mental, and spiritual satisfaction. In contrast, the perception of priority given to the Emotional domain was low among divorced women and widows. This may be due to the fact that divorced women in the UAE experience greater difficulty with integration into society after divorce, due to a lack of psychological and social care services, as reported by the Sharjah Supreme Council for Family Affairs.[29] The Social dimension was perceived with high priority in the group of UAE nationals, particularly among those who were married and aged 30 to 50 years. As a majority of the participants from this age group are employed, the results might be due to the impact of workplace hierarchy and the ethnicization of class differences on the impact of women’s social positions, particularly in highly stratified societies such as those in the MENA region.[30] The UAE is also a collectivistic society, and working women generally express that a desire to contribute to the development of the country is an important motivating factor.[31]

Certain socio-demographic characteristics have been found to be key factors in assessing wellness perceptions. In our study, age was found to be significantly associated with the Emotional dimension, where the women age between 21–30 and 41–50 years assessed the Emotional dimension as one of the most important dimensions. On the contrary, the women aged below 21, 31–40, and above 50 years assessed the Emotional dimension as of low priority. The reasons explaining this variation is uncertain, since these findings do not clearly support the conclusions from other studies, which established that older adults may differentially react to negative mood induction.[32] However, our findings are in agreement with conclusions drawn from other studies that there is a significant relationship between age and the Emotional dimension.[33] Similar results have been established for marital status, which show a significant relationship with the Emotional dimension. Our results show that women who are single are less likely to prioritize the Emotional dimension than those who are married. Thus, single women think that the Emotional dimension has low priority, whereas married women perceive the Emotional dimension as of a high priority, a finding supported by other studies.[34],[35]

Nationality and type of accommodation were found to be significantly associated with the Intelligence Dimension. The Emirati women and the women living in private accommodations perceived the Intellectual dimension as of a low priority. While many theories may support this finding, on the contrary, women of other nationalities and those living in public accommodation regard the Intellectual Dimension as of a high priority. This difference may be due to the transient nature of the employment of expatriate and non-national individuals hinging on the perceived value placed on their professional skills by institutions, resulting in instability.[36],[37] Thus, intellectualism might be a needed dimension for self-providing, life fulfillment, and satisfaction. Further, Murat et al.[31] emphasizes that although the educative levels of Emirati women have become comparable to or generally overtaken the educative levels of men, there is still pressure for them to choose educative specialties that are considered appropriately “feminine” in the labor force, but may not match their skill sets or passions.

Finally, more than half of the participants indicated that their perception of the importance of total wellness was of high priority to them. In contrast, less than one-fifth of them indicated that total wellness was of low priority. These results may be attributed to the UAE’s interest in women and the development of long-term strategies to improve women’s health and wellbeing in the country.[38] Failure to establish significant relationships between some socio-demographic characteristics and wellness dimensions may be due to cultural practices in the country.[39]

The reduction of wellness items from six to one component for the Occupational and Spiritual dimensions and two components for the Intellectual, Emotional, Social, and Physical dimensions clearly shows a clustering tendency of Emirati women. It shows that the six items are not a necessity to measure their wellness perception levels, but rather two components, at most, can explain their wellness. Depressive symptoms are on the rise in the UAE, particularly among the adolescent population.[40] The inclusion of wellness-enhancement programs in risk-based prevention programs for depression targeted towards children can be an important step towards ensuring that the wellness of women in the UAE increases among future generations.[41] By extrapolating the results of the present study, the design of such prevention programs with a focus on spiritual and emotional wellness might be most effective and culturally sensitive among UAE women.

Limitations

These types of studies often tend to have various limitations. First, while the internet penetration is high and the sample size appears to meet the study objective, a larger sample size would have resulted in more generalization of the results of this study. Second, since online surveys should be made simply to encourage more participants, future studies could include more socio-demographic data, as well as include other measures tapping into other correlates of wellness. Based on these results, we recommend further studies to focus on other categories (age, education, other UAE regions, number of children, family income, and working hours) of the female and male population. Third, this sentinel study is limited in that it was conducted only within Al Ain. Future studies should be expanded to the whole of the UAE to assess differences found based on geographical distribution. Fourth, this is a cross-sectional online survey, which only captures the scenario at the time of data collection. As wellness is a continuous effort, future studies should employ a more robust methodology to capture the longitudinal variations of wellness in a population over time. Finally, the concept of wellness is continuing to evolve along with social circumstances. As a result, there is a wide variety of outcome measures assessing wellness through different ideals and principles.[42] The NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool is a relatively new instrument, and its validity in various populations has not yet been subjected to prolonged empirical scrutiny and standardization. With increased efforts to heighten scientific interest in women’s wellness, instrument validation and comparable statistics from other populations may help to provide contextualization of the present studies’ results.


   Conclusion Top


The female participants drawn from the city of Al-Ain, UAE, endorse interesting aspects of wellness, as defined by the NWI’s Wellness Focus Survey Tool. The results of this study suggest that more than half of the participants perceived their wellness as high. Only a few of the women’s sociodemographic characteristics, such as age and marital status, had a significant relationship with the Emotional dimension, while nationality and type of accommodation had a significant association with the Intellectual dimension of wellness. The spiritual dimension surpasses all other dimensions in priority of women’s wellness perception in the UAE. Social and Occupational domains of wellness were also highly endorsed, while Intellectual and Physical domains were of lower priority. These findings are of importance to future endeavors that are aimed towards the betterment of women in the UAE, by indicating which spheres of wellness are already fulfilled and which spheres require further scrutiny.

Ethical Approval: The ethical approval was obtained from the Social Sciences Ethical Committee at United Arab Emirates University (Reference Number: ERS_2020_6171). All the participants were informed of the study’s objectives and the research procedure, and they voluntarily participated in it.

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank all women who participated in this study. A special thank you to Mrs. Shaikha Al Yahyaee, Senior administrator in the Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, UAEU, for her administrative work and tremendous support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflict of interest.



 
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