Users Online: 200

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 
     

   Table of Contents      
PHARMACOLOGY - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 225-233

Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Potential of Plant Extract of Litchi chinensis and Glycine max


1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M M College of Pharmacy, M. M. (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission23-Mar-2021
Date of Decision09-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance30-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication11-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Sumeet Gupta
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M. M. College of Pharmacy, M. M. (Deemed to be University), Mullana, (Ambala), Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_13_21

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Background: Diabetes mellitus, an endocrine disease, is a major health concern all over the world. Litchi chinensis Gaertn. and Glycine max (L.) Merr have been traditionally used in Chinese medicines for the treatment of various disorders. The present study was carried out to explore the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential of ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis fruit pericarp and G. max seed coats. Methods: Phytoconstituents of ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis fruit pericarp and G. max seed coat were investigated using preliminary qualitative techniques. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) free radical scavenging, reducing power assays, total phenol content, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In vivo antihyperglycemic activity was assessed using alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were evaluated on 0, 7th, 14th, and 28th day of the study. Results: Hydroethanolic extracts of both plants exhibited superior antioxidant activity to ethyl acetate extract. A marked increase in levels of serum glucose was observed in diabetic rats. Ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic extract treatment for 28 days accounted for decreased blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis fruit pericarp and G. max seed coats possess potent antioxidant antihyperglycemic activities and have potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetes.

Keywords: Antioxidant, G. max, hypoglycemic effect, L. chinensis


How to cite this article:
Chauhan S, Gupta S, Yasmin S, Saini M. Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Potential of Plant Extract of Litchi chinensis and Glycine max. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2021;11:225-33

How to cite this URL:
Chauhan S, Gupta S, Yasmin S, Saini M. Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Potential of Plant Extract of Litchi chinensis and Glycine max. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 19];11:225-33. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2021/11/3/225/318209




   Introduction Top


Noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common in daily human life. Among diseases, diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent diseases that affects very severely. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which functioning of the endocrine system is disturbed leading to hyperglycemia.[1] Many factors such as lifestyle changes, dietary habits, comorbidities, and oxidative stress may be responsible for this.[2]

Oxidative stress is a common factor for many disease conditions including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.[3],[4] It creates unfavorable conditions due to the high production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anions (OOH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH).[5] The imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the body leads to cell death. Thus, there is a requirement for antioxidants of natural origin to protect the human body from diseases caused by free radicals.[6]

Natural antioxidant sources are plants and vegetables, which contain many active constituents that may help in preventing oxidative stress. Many studies reported various active constituents derived from plant sources that act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. The intensity of antioxidant activity may vary from plant to plant and depend upon environmental factors, geographical regions, and species. Different plant sources contain high flavonoids, polyphenols, and anthocyanins and show promising results in preventing disease induced by oxidative stress.[7],[8]

Two plants, namely, L. chinensis Gaertn. and G. max (L.) Merr, show high potential for various pharmacological activities. L. chinensis Gaertn., family Sapindaceae, is a tropical seasonal fruit cultivated worldwide for its delightful taste.[9] Pericarp of litchi is a rich source of flavonoids and anthocyanins, including procyanidin B2, B4, epicatechin, cyanidin-3-retinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-retinoside, and quercetin-3-glucoside. These compounds are already established for their high free radical scavenging properties.[10] Hydroalcoholic leave extract of L. chinensis exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and is also reported as a potent analgesic agent.[11] L. chinensis water extract showed a significant hypoglycemic effect with decreased body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels.[12] Furthermore, litchi flower water extract possesses significant anti-obesity activity against diet-induced obesity in rats.[13] Oligonol, a polyphenol derived from litchi fruit, has a significant role in improving cognitive impairment in mice.[14]

G. max (L.) Merr is also known as black soybean, a species of legume that is used for conventional medicines and widely available all over the world. These are rich in flavonoid and nonflavonoid molecules, including anthocyanins, which are the important sources for the development of natural antioxidants as they can effectively scavenge oxygen free radicals.[15] In traditional Chinese medicine, black soybeans have been used for detoxification, as an anti-inflammatory, and to improve blood fluidity. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. Black soybean seed coat polyphenols potentially inhibit oxidative DNA damage. Their long-term administration maintained the body weight and attenuated fat accumulation in white adipose tissue in high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice.[16] Cynidine-3-glucoside, a key component of black soybeans, has been reported to also suppress the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Anthocyanins extracted from black soybean seed coat significantly managed hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.[17] Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of two different plant extracts (unexplored) of L. chinensis Gaertn. fruit pericarp and G. max (L.) Merr seed coat.


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection and authentication of plant material

The fruit pericarp of L. chinensis and seed coat of G. max were collected from the local market of Ambala, Haryana (India) and authenticated by Dr M. Chetty of Department of Botany, Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. The plant specimen voucher number was 1012 for L. chinensis and 0952 for G. max.

Drugs and chemicals

All the chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade. Ethyl acetate and ethanol were used for extraction. Other reagents such as alloxan monohydrate, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrotetrazolium Blue chloride (NBT), Ellman’s Reagent (DTNB [dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)]), 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) (Merck & Co., USA), ascorbic acid (Qualikem Fine Chem, New Delhi), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, sodium carbonate (Qualikem Fine Chem, New Delhi), potassium ferricyanide (Qualikem Fine Chem, New Delhi), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), hydrogen peroxide (Chemigens Research and Fine Chemicals, New Delhi), gallic acid (Nice Chemicals, India) were used.

Preparation of extract

Plant materials were shade dried and coarsely powdered. The powder was successively extracted with ethyl acetate followed by hydroethanol (40:60, ethanol:water) solvents by the maceration process with a magnetic stirrer for 72 hours. The residue obtained after extraction was concentrated using a rotary evaporator (40°C) under reduced pressure. The extracts were then exposed to preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant assays.

Preliminary phytochemical analysis

The preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigation was done for the identification of different phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids using appropriate test for each phytochemical.[18],[19],[20],[21]

Antioxidant activity

Estimation of total phenolic compounds

Estimation was done with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent using gallic acid as a standard phenolic compound.[22] According to the method, 1 mg/mL of extract solution was taken in a volumetric flask and the final reaction mixture was prepared by mixing 0.5 mL of plant extract solution with 2.5 mL of 10% Folin-Ciocalteu reagent dissolved in water and 2.5 mL of 7.5% of NaHCO3 aqueous solution. The samples were placed for 45 minutes at 45°C. The absorbance of the blue color was observed at 760 nm. The concentration of total phenols was expressed as mg/g of dry extract.[23] All determinations were performed in triplicate. The total content of phenolic compounds in plant extract was determined as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE).

Determination of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity

The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated by the hydrogen donating or radical scavenging ability using the stable radical DPPH.[24] In this, 0.1 mM solution of DPPH in methanol was prepared and 1.0 mL of this solution was added to 3.0 mL of extract solution in water at different concentrations (10–320 µg/mL). After 30 minutes, absorbance was measured at 517 nm. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference compound. The radical scavenging activity was expressed as the percentage inhibition of free radical by the sample and was calculated using the following formula:

% Inhibition = (A0At)/A0 × 100

Here, A0 is the absorbance of the control (blank, without extract), and At is the absorbance in the presence of the extract. This procedure was done in triplicate and the mean values ± standard deviation (SD) were calculated. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value was calculated from the concentration-absorbance graph.

Reducing power assay

Reducing power of the extracts was evaluated by using ascorbic acid as a standard. One milliliter of different concentrations of extracts and ascorbic acid, that is, from 10 to 320 µg/mL, was taken in different test tubes and the volumes were made up to 2 mL using distilled water and were mixed into the mixture of 2.5 mL of 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1% potassium ferricyanide. The mixture was then incubated at 500°C for 20 minutes. After that, 2.5 mL of 10% trichloroacetic acid was added to the mixture and then centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm. The solution’s upper layer (2.5 mL) was dissolved with distilled water (2.5 mL) and FeCl3 (0.5 mL) and the absorbance was measured at 700 nm. Increased absorbance of the reaction mixture indicated the increased reducing power.[25] This procedure was done in triplicate and the mean values ± SD were calculated. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) value was calculated from the concentration-absorbance graph and using ascorbic acid as a standard agent

Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity

The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of extracts was determined according to the method of Ruch et al.[26] The extracts (20–320 µg/mL) were mixed in 3.4 mL of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and mixed with 600 µL of 43 mM solution of hydrogen peroxide. The absorbance value of the reaction mixture was recorded at 230 nm. For each concentration, a separate blank sample was used for background subtraction. The percentage of hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect is calculated using the following formula:

Percentage H2O2 scavenging effect = 1–(A1A2)/A0 × 100

Here, A0 is the absorbance of the control (water instead of the sample), A1 is the absorbance of the sample, and A2 is the absorbance of the sample only (phosphate buffer instead of H2O2 solution). The IC50 value represented the concentration that inhibited 50% of H2O2.

Total antioxidant capacity

Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) was carried out according to the method suggested by Sun et al. [27]. Different concentrations (50–450 µg/mL) of extracts were prepared in water; 0.3 mL of the extract was mixed with 3 mL of reagent (a mixture of sulfuric acid [0.6 M], sodium phosphate [28 mM] and ammonium molybdate [4 mM]). It was then incubated for 90 minutes at 95°C and absorbance was recorded at 695 nm against the blank. EC50 values of extracts and ascorbic acid were calculated from the concentration-absorbance graph.

Animals

Wistar albino rats (170–200 g) were used for the study. All animals were kept in plastic rat cages with stainless steel coverlids and rice straw was used as a bedding material. The animals were facilitated with environmental conditions of photoperiod (12:12 h dark: light cycle) and temperature (25 ± 2°C). Animals were kept on the commercial diet and water ad libitum. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC) with protocol no. MMCP/IAEC/2016/01 and according to the guidelines of the committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animals (CPCSEA).

Alloxan-induced model

Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (170–200 g) using a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline. After 1 hour of alloxan administration, the animals were fed with a regular diet and water ad libitum. On the 3rd day after alloxan administration, the blood samples were collected from retro-orbital puncture using capillary tubes and blood glucose levels of animals were analyzed.[28] Animals having a blood glucose level >200 mg/dL were included for further study. The blood samples were collected on the 0, 7, 14, and 28th day of the study and the blood glucose level was estimated and compared with the marketed drug.

The selected diabetic rats were divided randomly into the following different groups with six animals in each group:
  • Group I: Normal control (saline)
  • Group II: Positive control (diabetes induced).
  • Group III: Diabetic rats treated with standard drug metformin (100 mg/kg) per orally (p.o) for 28 days.
  • Group IV: Diabetic rats treated with L. chinensis ethyl acetate extract (LCEA) − low dose (200 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group V: Diabetic rats treated with LCEA − high dose (400 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with L. chinensis hydro alcohol extract (LCHA) − low dose (200 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group VII: Diabetic rats treated with LCHA − high dose (400 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group VIII: Diabetic rats treated with G. max ethyl acetate extract (GMEA) − low dose (200 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group IX: Diabetic rats treated with GMEA − high dose (400 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group X: Diabetic rats treated with G. max hydro alcohol extract (GMHA) − low dose (200 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.
  • Group XI: Diabetic rats treated with GMHA − high dose (400 mg/kg) p.o for 28 days.


In vivo antioxidant activity of homogenate tissues

Tissue homogenates of the pancreas and brain were used to estimate the in vivo antioxidant activity of the extracts.

Preparation of tissue homogenate

Tissues were harvested from control and experimental groups after completion of the experiment. Tissues were rinsed with ice-cold saline and homogenized in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and centrifuged at 3000g for 10 minutes and after that supernatant was collected for further studies.

Reduced glutathione estimation

The reduced glutathione (GSH) level was estimated according to the method described by Beutler.[29] According to the method, equal volumes of the supernatant of tissue homogenate and 10% w/v trichloroacetic acid were mixed and centrifuged for 10 minutes (1000 rpm; 4°C) and the supernatant was collected. Then 2 mL of 0.3 M disodium hydrogen phosphate with 0.25 mL of 0.001 M DTNB was added to the supernatant and absorbance was measured at 412 nm. Results were expressed as µM/mg protein.

Superoxide dismutase estimation

In this method, 50 µL of a homogenate of the sample was dissolved in 1.15 mL of distilled water and 1.2 mL of sodium pyrophosphate buffer (pH 8.3, 0.052 M). Then 300 µL of NBT (300 µM) and 200 µL of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) (780 µM) were added. For control reading, 50 µL of potassium phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 (0.1 M) in place of sample tissue homogenate was used. The activity was expressed as unit enzyme/mg protein.[30]

Estimation of lipid peroxidation

The estimation was performed according to the method described by Ohkawa et al.[31] According to the method, 0.2 mL supernatant of tissue homogenate was added to the mixture of 0.2 mL of 8.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.5 mL of 30% acetic acid (pH 3.5), and 1.5 mL of 0.8% of TBA and the volume was made up to 4 mL with distilled water. The reaction mixture was then heated for 1 h at 95°C and then cooled to room temperature. A solution of 15 mL n-butanol-pyridine and 1 mL distilled water (15:1 v/v) was added to form the final solution and was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. The organic layer was recovered and absorbance was taken at 532 nm. The result was compared between the absorbance of extracts treated groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) standard, expressed as nM/mg of protein.

Statistical analysis

All the data obtained from various groups were expressed as the mean ± SD and statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey multiple range test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant.


   Results Top


In vitro antioxidant activity

Total phenol content

The total phenol content in ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic extracts of both plant extracts (L. chinensis and G. max) were found to be 20.25, 26.65, 27.43, 32.56 of GAE, as shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1 Gallic acid standard graph for the estimation of total phenol content

Click here to view


2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity

Results of radical scavenging activity by DPPH indicated the scavenging effects of all extracts of both plants. Ethyl acetate extract of this plant was found to have a lesser inhibition effect than hydro ethanol extract at all concentrations, whereas ascorbic acid was found to have a good inhibition effect at 10 to 320 μg/mL. The maximum inhibition effect was 76.93 ± 0.61 in glycine hydro ethanol extract and 73.07 ± 1.4 was showed by litchi hydro ethanol extract. The IC50 values of LCEA and LCHA extracts were found to be 140 and 108.18 µg/mL, respectively, and GMEA and GMHA extracts were found to be 125.19 and 82.37 µg/mL, respectively, while that of ascorbic acid was found to be 76.12 µg/mL [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Results suggest that both plant extracts exhibit significant DPPH scavenging activity and it was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid.
Table 1 Results showing various phytoconstituents present in both extracts of L. chinensis and G. max

Click here to view
Table 2 DPPH free radical scavenging activity of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max

Click here to view


Reducing power activity

The reducing power of all extracts LCEA, LCHA, GMEA, and GMHA were assessed at different concentrations (10–320 µg/mL). The reducing power of ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis and G. max was found to increase with increase in concentration. The highest reducing power of extracts was obtained at 320 µg/mL. EC50 was found to be 64.5 μg/mL with ethyl acetate and 34.5 μg/mL with hydroethanolic extract of L. chinensis, whereas 70 and 39.5 μg/mL was shown by G. max ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extract, respectively. It was 21.42 μg/mL for ascorbic acid (standard) [Table 3].
Table 3 Reducing power activity of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max

Click here to view


Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity

The maximum percentage inhibition of hydroxyl radicals from the ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants was 82.39%, 88.95%, 86.70%, and 78.83%, respectively, at the maximum concentration of 320 µg/mL. In comparison to extracts, ascorbic acid showed 86.51% inhibition. The scavenging of these radicals was increased with increasing concentration of the extracts.

The IC50 value of ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis was 68.22 and 114.33 µg/mL, respectively, whereas ethyl acetate and hydroethanolic extracts of G. max was 63.56 and 120.95 µg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ascorbic acid was found to be 62.96 µg/mL [Table 4].
Table 4 Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max

Click here to view


Total antioxidant capacity

The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of LCEA, LCHA, GMEA, and GMHA extracts was assessed according to their concentrations (50–450 µg/mL). The hydroethanolic extract was found to be maximum among all extracts at a dose of 250 µg/mL onward. EC50 was found to be 62.25 μg/mL with ethyl acetate and 44.1 μg/mL with hydroethanolic extract of L. chinensis. About 27.25 μg/mL ethyl acetate and 14.75 μg/mL hydroethanolic extracts of G. max were noted. About 10.14 μg/mL was found with ascorbic acid [Table 5].
Table 5 Total antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max

Click here to view


Antidiabetic activity

Results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in extract treated rats when compared to the diabetic control group. Hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis and G. max at higher doses produced a consistent reduction in the blood glucose levels after 14 days and a marked decrease at 28 days. It is comparable to the standard group (i.e., MET-100). In the untreated diabetic rat group, there was a continuous increase in blood glucose level throughout the entire study period [Table 6].
Table 6 Effect of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max on blood glucose level

Click here to view


In vivo antioxidant activity

In the diabetic control group, a decrease in GSH level and superoxide activity was observed and administration of the different extracts of L. chinensis, G. max and metformin increased the content of GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the pancreas and brain of the diabetic rats [Table 7]. TBA reactive species are responsible for the lipid peroxidation, and the administration of the different extracts of L. chinensis, G. max, and metformin significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and that was comparable to the normal [Table 7].
Table 7 Effect of hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of L. chinensis and G. max on level of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation (TBARS)

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Stress induced by oxidant radicals in the body affects glucose metabolism.[32],[33] Unwanted stage of hyperglycemia leads to complications. Alloxan monohydrate induced diabetes by generating free radical and destroying the insulin-secreting islets cells of the pancreas that resulted in hyperglycemia. Lifestyle modification, environmental factors, and genetic factors may cause fatal diseases. Advanced pharmacological drugs are available in the market but somehow health care system cannot manage with existing drugs due to serious adverse effects. Nutraceuticals are the natural food that can be used as supplementary food for various purposes. The current study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of L. chinensis and G. max in the diabetic rat model. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts confirms the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins, which is confirmed by reported studies.[34],[35] Furthermore, among different extracts, hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis and G. max showed potent free radical scavenging activities by inhibiting DPPH and H2O2 radicals and exhibited excellent reducing power activity. Previous studies reported similar results in which litchi pulp fractions and Korean black soybean showed significant superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and high reducing power.[35],[36] The concentration of GSH and lipid peroxidation are both important parameter to check antioxidant activity, and it is also associated with glucose levels in diabetes mellitus. It is indirectly proportional to oxidative stress. Our study showed a significant increase in GSH and SOD activity and reduced lipid peroxidation compared to similar studies reported by Chang et al. and Sun et al.[37],[38] These shreds of evidence suggest that the significant antidiabetic activity of both plant extracts may be due to the presence of active phytoconstituents such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and their potent antioxidant potential that may help in the reduction of metabolic oxidative stress in the body. Polyphenols play a significant role in litchi and they have numerous nutrients for humans. Literature reported that phenolic compounds in litchi contain proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. The probable mechanism of litchi constituents is to regulate glucose metabolism by inhibiting α-glucosidase, which is the main enzyme that catalyzes the final step of carbohydrate digestion.[39] The other probable mechanism of procyanidins could reduce gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the activation of p66 and regulating the balance of mTORC1/mTORC2 and increase glycolysis by enhancing the expression of proteins such as glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase.[40] Glycine max is a rich source of proteins, fibers, phytosterols, and isoflavones. Genistein, a phytoestrogens present in G. max, have positive effect on the homeostasis of glucose by limiting the uptake of glucose into the intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. Additionally, G. max is also involved in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance activity through tyrosine kinase activity.[41] Overall, L. chinensis and G. max have been consumed as a potential traditional medicine since ancient times. Our research findings are limited to in vivo studies. These findings have been implemented to reference molecular mechanistic studies for the management of the neurodegenerative experimental rat model in type-2 diabetes. The data may reflect in the next publication. We can predict that both the plant extracts and their active constituents can treat endocrine patients in further clinical trials.


   Conclusion Top


Hydroethanolic extracts of L. chinensis fruit pericarp and G. max seed coat have potent hypoglycemic activity. They have the potential to inhibit free radicals, which can also be used in the treatment of several other diseases caused by generation of free radicals and oxidative stress, but further pharmacological exploration is required to find the exact mechanism of action and the different biological activities of these active plants.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Baynest HW. Classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. J. Diabetes Metab 2015;6:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Yaribeygi H, Farrokhi FR, Butler AE, Sahebkar A. Insulin resistance: review of the underlying molecular mechanisms. J Cell Physiol 2019;234:8152-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Waris G, Ahsan H. Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions. J Carcinogenesis 2006;5:14.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Klein JA, Ackerman SL. Oxidative stress, cell cycle, and neurodegeneration. J Clin Investig 2003;111:785-93.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 2008;4:89-96.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Aruoma OI. Free radicals, oxidative stress, and anti oxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1998; 75:199-212.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Anyasor GN, Ogunbiyi B, Akinlusi IA. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of selected polyherbal preparations: Oroki herbal, Swedish bitters and Yoyo bitters. Oxidants Antioxidants Med Sci 2017;6:25-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Diniyah N, Alam MB, Lee S-H. Antioxidant potential of non-oil seed legumes of Indonesian’s ethnobotanical extracts. Arabian J Chem 2020;13:5208-17.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gontier E, Boussouel N, Terrasse C, Jannoyer M, Menard M, Thomasset B, Bourhaud F. Litchi chinensis fatty acid diversity: occurrence of the unusual cyclopropanoic fatty acids. Biochem Soc Trans 2000;28:578-80.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Li J, Jiang Y. Litchi flavonoids: isolation, identification and biological activity. Molecules 2007;12:745-58.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chauhan S, Kaur N, Kishore L, Singh R. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Litchi chinensis Gaertn. (Sonn.). Int J Pharmacy Pharm Sci 2014;6:116-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Guo J, Li L, Pan J, Qiu G, Li A, Huang G, Xu L. Pharmacological mechanism of Semen Litchi on antagonizing insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes. J Chinese Medi. Material. 2004; 27(6):435-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Wu Y-HS, Chiu C-H., Yang D-J., Lin Y-L., Tseng J-K., Chen Y-C. Inhibitory effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower-water extracts on lipase activity and diet-induced obesity. J Funct Foods 2013;5:923-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Sakurai T, Kitadate K, Nishioka H et al. Oligomerised lychee fruit-derived polyphenol attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice and endoplasmic reticulum stress in neuronal cells. Br J Nutr 2013;110:1549-58.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Tsoyi K, Park HB, Kim YM et al. Protective effect of anthocyanins from black soybean seed coats on UVB-induced apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. J. Agric Food Chem 2008;56:10600-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kanamoto Y, Yamashita Y, Nanba F et al. A black soybean seed coat extract prevents obesity and glucose intolerance by up-regulating uncoupling proteins and down-regulating inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet-fed mice. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:8985-93.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Chen Z, Wang C, Pan Y, Gao X, Chen H. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of anthocyanins extract from black soybean seed coat in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Food Funct 2018;9:426-39.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2007;40:344-52.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Sun J-S., Tsuang Y-H., Chen I-J., Huang W-C., Hang Y-S., Lu F-J. An ultra-weak chemiluminescence study on oxidative stress in rabbits following acute thermal injury. Burns 1998;24:225-31.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Poornima G, Ravishankar RV. Evaluation of phytonutrients and vitamin contents in a wild yam, Dioscoreabelophylla (Prain) Haines. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:971-3.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Onyilagha JC, Islam S. Flavonoids and other polyphenols of the cultivated species of the genus Phaseolus. Int J Agric Biol 2009;11:231-4.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Sasidharan S, Aravindran S, Latha LY, Vijenthi R, Saravanan D, Amutha S. In vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Lentinula edodes against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Molecules 2010;15:4478-89.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kim D-O., Jeong SW, Lee CY. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem 2003;81:321-6.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 1958;181:1199-200.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reaction. Jpn J Nutr Diet 1986;44:307-15.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Ruch RJ, Cheng S-J., Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis 1989;10:1003-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Sun L, Zhang J, Lu X, Zhang L, Zhang Y. Evaluation to the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids extract from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 2011;49:2689-96.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
El Batran SAES, El-Gengaihi SE, El Shabrawy OA. Some toxicological studies of Momordicacharantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;108:236-42.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Beutler E. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan P. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Ind J Biochem Biophys 1984;21:130-2.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Dahech I, Belghith KS, Hamden K, Feki A, Belghith H, Mejdoub H. Antidiabetic activity of levan polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Biol Macromol 2011;49:742-6.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Hamden K, Allouche N, Damak M, Elfeki A. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of phenolic extracts and purified hydroxytyrosol from olive mill waste in vitro and in rats. Chem Biol Interact 2009;180:421-32.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Zhao M, Yang B, Wang J, Liu Y, Yu L, Jiang Y. Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of flavonoids extracted from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pericarp. Int Immunopharmacol 2007;7:162-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Zhang R, Zeng Q, Deng Y et al. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pulp of different cultivars cultivated in Southern China. Food Chem 2013;136:1169-76.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Lee KJ, Baek DY, Lee GA, Cho GT, So YS, Lee JR et al. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Korean black soybean (Glycine max L.) landraces. Antioxidants 2020;9:213.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Chang Y-Y., Yang D-J., Chiu C-H., Lin Y-L., Chen J-W., Chen Y-C. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-rich litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)-flower-water extract on livers of high-fat-diet fed hamsters. J Funct Foods 2013;5:44-52.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Sun J, Wen X, Liu J et al. Protective effect of an arabinogalactan from black soybean against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;117:659-64.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Zaho L, Wang K, Wang K, Zhu J, Hu Z. Nutrients components, health benefits and safety of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.): a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020;19:2139-63.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Liu L, Xie B, Cao S, Yang E, Xu X, Guo S. A type procyanidins from Litchi chinensis pericarp with antioxidant activity. Food Chem 2007;105:1446-51.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Ahmad A, Hayat I, Arif S, Masud T, Khalid N, Ahmed A. Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of soybean (Glycine max). Int J Food Prop 2014;17:1332-54.  Back to cited text no. 41
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
     Introduction
   Materials and Me...
     Results
     Discussion
     Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed891    
    Printed22    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded58    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal