|NUTRITION - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 194-198
Soy – Sorghum Milk as a Functional Drink Source of Antioxidants
Dzul Fadly1, Fadila Tulaseket2, Rahmawati Rahmawati3, M Sakriawati3, Armenia Eka Putriana4, Septiyanti Septiyanti5, Fatimah Fitriani Mujahidah6, Ika Wirya Wirawanti6, Nicen Suherlin7, Anisa Febristi7, Yuges Saputri Muttalib2
1 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak, Indonesia
2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esa Unggul University, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia
3 Study Program of Nursing, Akademi Keperawatan Yapenas 21 Maros, Maros, Indonesia
4 Study Program of Nutrition, Stikes Widya Nusantara Palu, Palu, Indonesia
5 Study Program of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia
6 Study Program of Nutrition, Universitas Megarezky, Makassar, Indonesia
7 Akademi Keperawatan Baiturrahmah, Padang, Indonesia
|Date of Submission||04-Apr-2021|
|Date of Decision||05-May-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Jun-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jul-2021|
Department of Food Technology, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: With the increasing need for antioxidants as a support for health, this study was conducted to determine the functional potential of drinks made from soybeans and sorghum by determining organoleptic, proximate, and antioxidant activity properties. Methods: In this study, the formulations of soy milk (Glycine max (L.) Merill) added with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were including F1 (100% soy milk), F2 (90% soy milk: 10% sorghum), F2 (80% soy milk: 20% sorghum), and F3 (70% soy milk: 30% sorghum). The organoleptic test consisted of a hedonic test and a hedonic quality test involving 25 semitrained panelists measured using an analogue visual scale (0–10). Antioxidant activity identification was determined through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results: This study found that sorghum’s addition to soy milk significantly affected the hedonic quality value of aroma and texture (P<0.05). Meanwhile, it also significantly affected the protein, fat, and ash content (P<0.05). The addition of 20% sorghum in F2 showed the best characteristics of organoleptic values, with carbohydrate 4.02±2.07%, protein 1.91±0.35%, fat 1.07±1.07%, water 92.74±2.13%, and ash 0.26±0.001%. The addition of sorghum tends to increase the antioxidant capacity of soy-sorghum milk functional drinks. The soy milk products with 20% sorghum possessed antioxidant capability in Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) about 28.45 ppm and categorized as strong antioxidants. Conclusion: Thus, this soy-sorghum milk product potentially being a functional drink source of antioxidants.
Keywords: Antioxidant, functional drink, sorghum, soybeans
|How to cite this article:|
Fadly D, Tulaseket F, Rahmawati R, Sakriawati M, Putriana AE, Septiyanti S, Mujahidah FF, Wirawanti IW, Suherlin N, Febristi A, Muttalib YS. Soy – Sorghum Milk as a Functional Drink Source of Antioxidants. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2021;11:194-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Fadly D, Tulaseket F, Rahmawati R, Sakriawati M, Putriana AE, Septiyanti S, Mujahidah FF, Wirawanti IW, Suherlin N, Febristi A, Muttalib YS. Soy – Sorghum Milk as a Functional Drink Source of Antioxidants. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 25];11:194-8. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2021/11/3/194/322480
| Introduction|| |
In Indonesia, the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is still high. The prevalence of each NCD in Indonesia by 2013 was cancer by 1.4%, diabetes mellitus by 1.5%, coronary heart disease CHD 0.5%, heart failure 0.13%, and stroke by 7.0%. From these data, the four types of NCD, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, are considered high in Indonesia.
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the number of free radicals and the number of antioxidants in the body. Therefore, antioxidants are needed by the body to prevent oxidative stress. Healthy foods are recommended to ward off free radicals, especially those containing antioxidants. The source of natural antioxidants is usually the result of natural load extraction. Natural plant antioxidants are generally phenolic compounds in flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarin, and tocopherols. People need food products with nutritional value and delicious taste to maintain their health. They choose foods that cprovide more health benefits, called functional foods.
The advantage of sorghum as a food, feed, and industrial ingredient is its functional food components. Antioxidant compounds let sorghum become a functional food, including mineral elements (especially Fe), fiber, oligosaccharides, and β-glucans (including the nonstarch polysaccharide. The uniqueness of sorghum is tannins and phytic acid, which raise negative and positive health controversies.
With the increasing need for antioxidants as health support, this study focused on developing a soy-sorghum milk functional drink. This research aimed to determine the functional potential of soy-sorghum milk as a source of antioxidants.
| Methods|| |
The main ingredients used in this study were soybean (G. max (L.) Merill) and sorghum (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) purchased at Ganesha Farmhouse Bandung. In preparing the product, there were several steps with specific formulation [Table 1].
Preparing soy milk was initialized by washing the soybeans, soaking in water for 12 hours, boiling for 15 minutes, then peeling off the bran. The soybeans were added to water, blended, and filtered. This soy milk was added with sugar and salt and then brought to a boil.
Sorghum was prepared by starting the process of cleaning and boiling until soft. It was then crushed to get the paste. Furthermore, the thick sorghum paste and the stabilizer were ready to be added to soy milk according to the formulation levels given in [Table 1].
The organoleptic test consisted of the hedonic test and the hedonic quality test. Both tests involved 25 semitrained panelists who met the assessment criteria. An analogue visual scale was used in the value range of 0 to 10 to measure the hedonic and hedonic quality parameters.
In the hedonic test, all parameters (color, aroma, taste, and texture) were assessed in the range from very dislike to very like (0–10 point). In the hedonic quality test, the color rating ranged from very dark to very bright (0–10 point), the aroma ranged from very unpleasant to very fresh aroma (0–10 point), the taste ranged from very bitter to delightful (0–10 point), while the texture ranged from very liquid to very thick (0–10 point).
| Proximate analysis|| |
Proximate analysis of drinks was carried out by referring to the method developed by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Analysis of moisture content and ash content was conducted by the oven method. Fat content was measured by the Soxhlet method. The Kjeldahl method was used to measure protein content. Then, the carbohydrate content was calculated by the difference method.
Antioxidant analysis with the DPPH method
The antioxidant analysis was carried out according to the studies by Dewi et al. and Fadly et al., A total of 100 μL of sample (0.62–4.96 mg/mL) or 19% ethanol or ascorbic acid (as standard) is mixed with 50 μL of 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) and then added to 5 μL of 500 M (2.5 mg/mL) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). About 90% of ethanol was used as the blank solution, and the DPPH solution without sample was presented as the control. The mixture is then shaken vigorously for 1 to 3 minutes and allowed to stand at room temperature for 30 minutes in dark conditions. The absorbance of the solution was measured using a spectrophotometer with a wavelength of 517 nm. Antioxidant activity was expressed in % inhibition. The amount of antioxidant power is calculated by the formula:
In this study, the antioxidant was expressed in half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50); a value showed the concentration effectively inhibits 50% of oxidation. It was determined by using a linear regression found after calculating the antioxidant capability.
The data obtained were processed using Microsoft Excel 2010, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 for Windows. Statistical tests were carried out on organoleptic and proximate data using the one-way ANOVA test at a significant level of 5%.
| Result and Discussion|| |
Organoleptic assessment of products in soy milk with the addition of sorghum can be seen in [Table 2]. The hedonic test analysis results showed that the most preferred product was F2, soy milk with 20% sorghum. F2 products tended to have a better hedonic value than the others, even though it was not statistically significant.
|Table 2 The hedonic test values of soy milk with the addition of sorghum|
Click here to view
In the hedonic quality test, especially color characteristics, the color of milk products were brown to yellowish-white. It was due to the addition of sorghum, which contains polyphenol compounds. The aroma is very subjective and difficult to measure because everyone has different sensitivities and preferences. Although they can detect, each individual has different preferences. The aromas of food are caused by the formation of volatile compounds and are different for each food. Besides, different cooking methods will create different aromas. In the hedonic quality test, aromas range from unpleasant to distinctive fresh soy aromas. The unpleasant aroma (beany flavour) itself was a less liked taste arose due to the lipoxygenase enzyme activity, which is naturally found in soybean seeds. This enzyme will be active when soybean are broken and contact with air (oxygen).
The taste characteristic in the hedonic quality test was determined from delightful-sweet to a slightly bitter taste. The sweetness was caused by the addition of sugar, while the bitter taste was caused by sorghum. Sorghum contains tannin compounds that make it taste a bit bitter. Tannins themselves were antinutritional substances and acted as antioxidants in sorghum.
In the hedonic quality test of texture characteristics, its texture was from liquid to thick. The more sorghum was added to soy milk, the thicker the texture of the product became. It was due to the semisolid texture of the sorghum paste. Sorghum was a type of complex carbohydrate, mainly starch. Starch from sorghum consisted of 20% to 30% amylose and 70% to 80% amylopectin. Starch is the main ingredient in various food processing systems, including the primary energy source, determining the structure, texture, consistency, and appearance of food ingredients.
The proximate values observed were carbohydrate, protein, fat, water, and ash contents. [Table 3] presents proximate data of four soy-sorghum milk product formulations.
Based on the proximate analysis results, the highest carbohydrate level was F3 (8.21 ± 0.11%) and the lowest was at F2 (4.02 ± 2.07 %). However, the carbohydrate content of F3 was twice higher than other formulations. The more sorghum added to soy milk, the more was the carbohydrate content due to the starch of sorghum.
Protein content showed the amount of nitrogen in a substance. Based on the analysis, the highest level was F3 with the addition 30% sorghum valued at 2.00 ± 0.63%, and the lowest was F0 valued at 1.46 ± 0.38%. Since the protein in 100 g of sorghum was 10.4 g, the soy milk protein was 3.50 g. According to the results of protein in products, the increase in protein occurred at F2. With more addition of sorghum, the protein in soy milk also increased.
Based on the analysis results, the highest level of fat found in F2 valued 1.91 ± 0.35%, and the lowest was F1 with a value of 0.92 ± 0.17%. In general, after the processing of food, there will be a breakdown of fat. The degree of damage varies greatly depending on the temperature used and the length of processing time. The higher the temperature used, the more intense the fat breakdown.
The highest water level was at F0, with a value of 92.83 ± 0.02%, and the lowest was at F3, with a value of 88.58 ± 0.23%. The water content of 100 g sorghum is 14.15 g/100 mL, and soy milk is 87 g/100 mL. The water content decreases with the addition of more sorghum due to the starch in it. During boiling, water will enter the starch molecules, causing starch swelling, and then bind more water.
Product F0 showed the highest ash valued of 0.32 ± 0.001%, and the lowest was F3 with a value of 0.24 ± 0.001%. The total minerals in soy milk with sorghum come from the minerals of soy milk and sorghum. In soy milk, there are many minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus, and iron. However, most soy milk minerals are calcium and phosphorus, and they are good for bones and teeth.
The analysis of antioxidant activity using the DPPH method on soy milk products with sorghum addition can be seen in [Figure 1]. In the analysis of antioxidant activity using the DDPH method, the IC50 value indicated that soy milk products with sorghum’s addition effectively captured DPPH free radicals. DPPH scavenging activity is a well-known method in identifying the antioxidant activity. It is scavenging the DPPH free radical by donating H+, so the DPPH becomes a stable diamagnetic molecule.,, The IC50 values at F0, F1, F2, and F3 were 30.29 ppm, 29.53 ppm, 28.45 ppm, and 26.61 ppm.
The antioxidants of these drinks were derived from soy and sorghum. These antioxidants are including vitamin E, vitamin A, provitamin A, vitamin C, and isoflavone class flavonoids in soybeans. Particularly soy, it contains isoflavone in complex compounds or conjugations with sugar compounds through glucoside bonds. These isoflavone compounds are mainly genistein, daidzein, and glycine.
Sorghum contains tannins, phytic acid, anthocyanins, and general phenolic compounds that positively correlate with antioxidant activity. These substances are responsible for antioxidant activity. They are responsible for the high antioxidant levels in sorghum.
According to a previous study, polished sorghum contained anthocyanins, phenols, and tocopherols. Therefore, in this study, the more sorghum is added, the stronger the antioxidants. The two main ingredients for making the product contain antioxidants with flavonoids; plant polyphenol compounds are present in various food ingredients in various concentrations. It is also in line with Astuti finding that there are isoflavone levels in soybeans.
It is known that flavonoid compounds function to protect cells and tissues from free radicals. Several studies show that oxidative damage to cells, fats, and proteins can contribute to noncommunicable or metabolic diseases. Thus, the lowest IC50 value was at F3, which was classified as a strong antioxidant category. According to Fadly et al. and Molyneux, a compound is classified to be a very strong antioxidant if the IC50 value is less than 0.05 mg/mL (50 ppm), strong if the IC50 value is between 0.05 and 0.10 mg/mL (50–100 ppm), moderate if the IC50 value ranges from 0.10 to 0.15 mg/mL (100–150 ppm), and weak if the IC50 value ranges from 0.15 to 0.20 mg/mL (150–200 ppm)., However, the four soy-sorghum milk formulations were classified as very strong antioxidants since the IC50 value was less than 50 ppm.
The formulation selected from the four formulations was the F2 formulation with the addition of 20% sorghum. It was adjusted to the hedonic test results, hedonic quality test, antioxidant content, and nutritional content.
| Conclusion|| |
The functional drink of soy-sorghum milk F2 with 20% sorghum was the best organoleptic value. The sorghum addition significantly affected the hedonic quality parameters of aroma and taste (P<0.05). For proximate parameters, significance was only seen for protein, fat, and ash parameters at P<0.05. The addition of sorghum increased the antioxidant capacity of soy-sorghum milk functional drinks, and then considered as strong antioxidants. It considered that adding sorghum to the soy milk may be an innovation to improve the functional value of plant-based milk.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Kementerian Kesehatan RI, Jakarta, 2013.
Werdhasari A. The role of antioxidants for health. J BioMed In 2014;3:59-68.
Anagari H, Mustaniroh SA, Wignyanto W. Penentuan umur simpan minuman fungsional sari alang-alang dengan metode accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT). Agrointek 2011;5:133-40.
Suarni. Potensi Sorgum sebagai Bahan Pangan Fungsional. IPTEK Tanaman Pangan 2012;7:58-66.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, Vol. II. 17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (2000).
Dewi YSK, Lestari OA, Fadly D. Identification phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of various fractions of methanol extracts from bark of kulim tree (Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc). Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:217-21.
Fadly D, Kusharto CM, Kustiyah L, Suptijah P, Muttalib YS, Bohari. In vitro study of antioxidant activity of carboxymethyl chitosan derived from silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupa against human plasma lipid peroxidation. Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:76-81.
Meilgaard M. Effects on flavour of innovations in brewery equipment and processing: a review. J Inst Brew 2001;107:271-86.
Widowati S, Nurjanah R, Amrindah W. “Proses Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Nasi Sorgum Instan.” in Prosiding Pekan Serealia Nasional 2010;35-48.
Sirappa MP. Prospek pengembangan sorgum di Indonesia sebagai komoditas alternatif untuk pangan, pakan dan industri. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 2003;22:133-40.
Fitasari E. The effect of wheat starch addition level on moisture content, fat content, protein content, microstructure, and organoleptic quality of processed gouda cheese. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Ternak 2009;4:17-29.
Sofiana MSJ, Aritonang AB, Safitri I, Helena S, Nurdiansyah I, Risko, Fadly D, Warsidah. Proximate, phytochemicals, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Eucheuma spinosum seaweed. Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:228-32.
Sundari D, Almasyhuri A, Lamid A. Effect of cooking process of composition nutritional substances some food ingredients protein source. Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, 2015;25:235-242.
Pangastuti HA, Affandi DR, Ishartani D. Karakteristik Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tepung Kacang Merah (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) dengan Beberapa Perlakuan Pendahuluan. Jurnal Teknosains Pangan 2013;2:20-29.
Alauddin SS. In vitro remineralization of human enamel with bioactive glass containing denstrifice using confocal microscopy and analysis using SEM: an in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2012;3:61-7.
Minsas S, Nurdiansyah SI, Prayitno DI, Sofiana MSJ, Kalija TA, Fadly D, Warsidah. Screening of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of ale-ale shellfish (Meretrix meretrix) crude extracts from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:222-7.
Sofiana MSJ, Warsidah, Idiawati N, Nurdiansyah SI, Aritonang AB, Rahmawati, Adhyanti, Fadly D. The activity of lactic acid bacteria from ale-ale (fermented clams) and cincalok (fermented shrimp) as antioxidant and antimicrobial. Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:1676-9.
Warsidah, Masrianih, Sofiana MSJ, Safitri I, Sapar A, Aritonang AB, Muttalib YS, Fadly D. Protein isolation from sponge Niphates sp. as an antibacterial and antioxidant. Syst Rev Pharm 2020;11:518-21.
Atun S. “Potensi Senyawa Isoflavin dan Derivatnya dari Kedelai (Glycine Max. L) serta Manfaatnya untuk Kesehatan.” in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian 2009, pp. 33–41.
Lee YR, Woo KS, Kim KJ, Son RK, Jeong HS. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from germinated specialty rough rice. Food Sci Biotechnol 2007;16:765-70.
Awika JM, Rooney LW, Waniska RD. Properties of 3-deoxyanthocyanins from sorghum. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:4388-94.
Nisa CF. Extraction of natural antioxidant from local sorghum brown variety and its activity enhancement by germination and microwave. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 2010;11:184-95.
Winarsi H. Antioksidan Alami dan Radikal Bebas. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 2007.
Astuti S. Soybean isoflavone and its potentially as scavenger free radicals. Jurnal Teknologi Industri dan Hasil Pertanian 2008;13:127-36.
Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol, 2004;26:211-9.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]