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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 181-188

Impact of the Drying Techniques on the Functional Properties of Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Fruit − A Review

1 Department of Food Process Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology (SRM IST), Kattankulathur, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Dietetics and Nutrition Department, AL − Khor Hospital − Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar
3 Q3CG Research Institute (QRI), Research &, Policy Division, 7227 Rachel Drive, Ypsilanti, MI 48917
4 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, CAMS, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

Correspondence Address:
PhD G. Nagamaniammai
Associate Professor, Department of Food Process Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology (SRM IST), Kattankulathur, Chengalpattu District – 603203, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_14_21

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Citrus sinensis, commonly known as sweet orange, is rich in antioxidants and widely produced worldwide. Sweet orange consists of the water-soluble vitamins C, B1, B2, essential oils, and phenolic components. This fruit is known for its health benefits such as immune booster, digestive aid, anticancer activity, and cardioprotective activity. Its shelf life is low and also it contains high moisture content and so drying of oranges can be done. This review compared the following drying methods: sun drying, spray drying, freeze-drying, microwave drying, inert fluidized bed drying, ultrasonic drying, and infrared drying. Both thermal and nonthermal drying techniques had an influence on the functional properties of the dried orange powder. The comparison of the drying techniques determined relationship between the temperature of the drying process and its subsequent changes on the orange components. At higher drying temperature, it was reported to have a lower color, higher browning effect, lower total phenol content, lower total flavonoid content, and lowered antioxidant activity in dried orange samples. Further studies should be done to determine a method for drying oranges which provides high yield with low power consumption, temperature, and cost.

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