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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 218-222

Effect of Isolated and Combined Training of Aerobic and Yoga on Creatine Kinase Among Sports Women


Department of Physical Education, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission19-Jul-2020
Date of Decision20-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance21-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication01-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Vasudevan Shelvam
Professor & Director, Department of Physical Education, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_77_20

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   Abstract 


Aims: To find out the effect of isolated and combined training of aerobic and yoga on creatine kinase among sports women. Methods: Creatine kinase (CK) is a protein that is found almost exclusively in muscle tissue. When skeletal muscle damage or disruption of muscle fibre occurs as a result of acute exercise, CK gets leaked into the blood stream. Hence it is considered as the most common plasma marker of muscle damage. Sixty female students (age between 18 to 25 years) were selected as subjects from various departments of Annamalai University, India to participate in this study. They were divided into four equal groups, group I underwent aerobic training, group II underwent yogic training, group III underwent combined training and group IV acted as control (who did not participate in any special training apart from their routine activities). The subjects were tested on selected criterion variable such as creatine kinase prior to and immediately after the training period. Results: The study indicates that there is a significant difference among aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group. Conclusion: There is a significant difference among the experimental and control group on the activities of CK, which confirms that the skeletal damage or disruption of muscle fibre happening in subjects recruited in our study.

Keywords: Aerobic training, athletes, combined training, creatine kinase, yogic training


How to cite this article:
Shelvam V, Aljinroy. Effect of Isolated and Combined Training of Aerobic and Yoga on Creatine Kinase Among Sports Women. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2020;10:218-22

How to cite this URL:
Shelvam V, Aljinroy. Effect of Isolated and Combined Training of Aerobic and Yoga on Creatine Kinase Among Sports Women. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 24];10:218-22. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2020/10/4/218/297510




   Introduction Top


The primary objective of sports training is to stress various bodily systems to bring about positive adaptation in order to enhance sporting performance. To achieve this objective, coaches and athletes systematically apply a number of training principles including overload, specificity and progression, organized through what is commonly termed periodization. The application of these principles involves the manipulation of various program design variables including choice of exercise, order of training activities/exercises, training intensity (load and repetition), rest periods between sets and activities/exercises and training frequency and volume in order to provide periods of stimulus and recovery, with the successful balance of these factors resulting in positive adaptation.[1] Aerobic exercise is vigorous, oxygenated large muscle exercise, which stimulates heart and lungs activity for a specific period of time to bring about beneficial changes in the cardiovascular system. The main objective of aerobic dance, like any other form of aerobics is to increase the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can process in a given amount of time. The aerobic effect depends on the body’s ability to (a) rapidly breathe large amounts of air, (b) forcefully deliver large volumes of blood, and (c) effectively deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. In simplest terms, the aerobic effect is large muscle activity that brings about a reduction in resting heart rate and aerobic conditioning is synonymous with the first component of health-related fitness such as cardiovascular efficiency. Improved cardio respiratory endurance is one of the key benefits of aerobic training programs.[2] The Sanskrit word “Prana” means “vital force” or “cosmic energy”. It also signifies “life” or “breath”. “Ayama” means ‘control’. Hence, Pranayama means the control of the vital force through concentration and regulated breathing. Numerous recreational exercisers complete their cardiovascular and strength training workouts either during the same training session or within hours of each other. This sequential exercise regime is referred to as “concurrent training”.[3] The “fatigue hypothesis,” which theorizes that strength performance is reduced due to fatigue caused by prior cardiovascular work. Muscle fatigue is a multifactorial phenomenon, however, caused by an increase in cellular protons (due to acidosis), a decrease in energy-providing substrates and neural drive, and structural damage to the muscle cells.[4]

In the context of physical fitness, “exercise” refers to any activity involving a fairly high degree of physical movements that makes one breathless and sweaty if it is done vigorously. During physical exercise one has to breathe more deeply to get more oxygen into the lungs and the heart must beat harder and faster to pump blood to the muscles. The physical benefits of exercise are unarguable but there are physiological benefits also. Studies suggest that many people have sound sleep after exercise, wake up with more refreshed, more alert and able to concentrate better. Exercise of the right sort should make one feel better, live longer and have less illness.[5]

Primarily on increased or enlargement of chemical factories (mitochondria) in muscle, endurance training helps to raise the level of some enzymes, increase the capacity to generate adenosine tri phosphate and increase or enlarge the chemical factories (mitochondria) in muscles. Some researchers have reported that endurance exercise can adaptively change anaerobic type muscle tissue to an aerobic variety by increasing the size and number of the components.

During physical activity the body’s nutrient need increases, consequently its chemistry changes. Endocrine system and hormones are key players in managing the body’s chemistry and it is a well-known fact that during physical activity hormonal regulation happens. Increase or decrease in the levels of hormones relies upon various factors such as age, gender and nature of exercise. Androgens are male hormones and they have an anaerobic action, helping the body to build strong bones and muscles. Dehydroepiandrostreone and testosterone are both androgens and both respond to exercise.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a protein that is found almost exclusively in muscle tissue. When skeletal muscle damage or disruption of muscle fibre occurs as a result of acute exercise, CK gets leaked into the blood stream. Hence it is considered as the most common plasma marker of muscle damage. The important role of the PCr–CK system is based on the metabolic compartmentation of adenine nucleotides and modular organization of energy metabolism − both are system-level properties not predictable from properties of isolated components of the cell. This current study was aimed to find out the effect of isolated and combined training of aerobic and yoga on creatine kinase among women players.

Methodology

In the present study all the students from various departments of Annamalai University were considered as population for the study. A representative sample of 60 women students in the age of 18-25 years was chosen and the selected participants were divided into four groups. Group I underwent aerobic training, group II underwent yoga training, group III underwent combined training and group IV act as control group. The experimental groups underwent twelve weeks of training in their particular workout. We have used creatine kinase as dependent variable in this study. The study was approved by ethical committee.

Blood collection

Venous blood was collected in the early morning after the subjects were abstained from all food and drink except water for 8 hours and from vigorous activity for at least 24 hours to estimate the selected enzyme and hormonal variables.

Estimation of creatine kinase (CK)

Instrument: Bio Chemistry Analyser RX-50, Medi Biotronics, Bangalore, India

The values were expressed as “iu/l”.

Data analysis

The data obtained were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After collecting the raw scores, the data analyzed by using the 24.0 version of SPSS. Analysis of covariance was computed for any number of experimental groups, the obtained ‘F’ ratio compared with critical F value for significance. When the F ratio was found to be significant, Scheffe’s post hoc test was used to find out the paired mean significant difference.[6]


   Results Top


[Table 1] shows that the pre-test means of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group are 230.23, 230.42, 230.58 and 229.94 respectively. The obtained “F” ratio of 1.14 for pre-test means is less than the table value of 3.16 for df 3 and 56 required for significance at 0.05 level. The post-test means of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group are 227.54, 220.47, 225.46 and 229.12respectively. The obtained “F” ratio of 15.83 for post-test mean is more than the table value 3.16 for df 3 and 56 required for significance at 0.05 level.
Table 1 Analysis of covariance of data on creatine kinase between pre-test and post-test of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group

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The adjusted post-test means of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group are 227.63, 219.68, 225.31 and 229.34 respectively. The obtained “F” ratio of 85.42 for adjusted post-test means is more than the table value of 3.03 for df 3 and 55 required for significance at 0.05 level.

The results of the study indicate that there is a significant difference among adjusted post-test means of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group. To determine the significant difference among the four-paired means, Scheffe’s post-hoc test was applied and the results are presented in [Table 2].
Table 2 Scheffe’s test for the difference between the adjusted post-test paired means of creatine kinase

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[Table 2] shows that the adjusted post-test mean dThe results of the study indicate that there is a significant difference among adjusted post-test means of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group. To determine the significant difference among the four-paired ifference in creatine kinase between aerobic and yoga training, aerobic and combined training, yoga and combined training, yoga and control, and combined and control groups are 7.95, 2.32, 5.63, 9.66 and 4.03 respectively, which are higher than the confidence interval value of 1.82. But aerobic and control groups mean difference is 1.71, which is lesser than the confidence interval value of 1.82.

The adjusted post-test mean values of aerobic, yoga, combined training groups and control group on creatine kinase were graphically represented in [Figure 1].
Figure 1 The pre, post and adjusted post test for aerobic, yoga, combined and control group on creatine kinase

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   Discussion Top


Creatine kinase, a protein that is found almost exclusively in muscle tissue gets leaked into the blood stream as a result of skeletal muscle damage or disruption of muscle fibre due to exercise and CK is considered as one of the most common plasma markers of muscle damage. High levels of serum CK in apparently healthy subjects may be correlated with physical training status, as they depend on sarcomeric damage: strenuous exercise that damages skeletal muscle cells results in increased total serum CK. Serum CK activity has been theoretically expected to be useful as a marker in exercise physiology and sports medicine for the detection of muscle injury and overwork.[7]

Serum CK activities were decreased significantly by yoga and combined training groups when compared with control group. Further it reveals that yoga group was significantly reducing the CK level when compared with combined and aerobic training groups. It also found significant difference in favor of combined group compared with aerobic group. But fails to have significant difference between aerobic and control groups.

Unaccustomed exercise has been shown to result in temporary, repairable skeletal muscle damage. Extensive disruption of muscle fibres also occurs after short-term concentric and eccentric exercise. Damage of muscle fibres causes leakage of muscle proteins like creatine kinase into the blood stream this could be because CK is found almost exclusively in muscle tissue, it is the most common plasma marker of muscle damage.[8]

It is clear that elevation of creatine kinase is the result of muscle damage. Muscle damage might have occurred due to lipid peroxidation by the free radicals that might have been produced due to exercise. It may be inferred that oxidative stress occurs as a result of exercise. The results of the study also show insignificant difference between aerobic and control groups.[9]

Plasma creatine kinase activity in index of muscle damage increased after exercise in trained athletes.[10] A study by Manfredi et al.[11], the resistance exercise induces a rise in circulating CK, illuminates the various factors that affect the CK response to resistance exercise. Physical exercise or strenuous sporting activities can increase blood creatine kinase levels.[12] After exercise, CK serum activity depends on the level of training: although athletes experience greater muscle soreness when compared with untrained subjects, their peak serum activity is lower[13] and blood levels of CK are widely used as a marker to reflect muscle breakdown. Some individuals exhibit extreme increases in blood CK after exercise and have been characterized as high responders (HR). The phenomenon of differential CK responses to exercise, but different exercise protocols have been used, to include long duration exercise and isolated muscle group resistance workouts. Moreover, in some studies, CK levels after exercise were very high.[14]Total creatine kinase (CK) levels depend on age, gender, race, muscle mass, physical activity and climatic condition. High levels of serum CK in apparently healthy subjects may be correlated with physical training status, as they depend on damage of sarcomere: strenuous exercise that damages skeletal muscle cells results in increased total serum CK. The highest post-exercise serum enzyme activities are found after prolonged exercise such as ultra-distance marathon running or weight-bearing exercises and downhill running, which include eccentric muscular contractions.[15] The results of the study also reveal the same in conformity with the above studies.


   Conclusions Top


From our current study, we found out that the activity level of CK was reduced significantly in yoga training and aerobic training for women. Further, in the subjects who had combined training of aerobic and yoga also showed the significant reduction in the activity level of creatine kinase when compared with controls. However, the yoga and combined training have significantly better effect on and creatine kinase activity level when compared with other experimental group participants. The current results showed the link between the yoga and the sarcomere damage which was assessed by creatine kinase activity level. From our study we found out that to reduce muscle damage, combined aerobic and yoga training is highly recommended. This study warrants the further extensive research with more participants (including international athletes and various trainings) to find the exact mechanism of action and extend the training period and changing the asanas and gender.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Kirtani R. Physical Fitness for Health, Delhi: Vivek Thani Publications, 2003 45-48.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Stoll SK, Beller JM. The Professional’s Guide to Teaching Aerobics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989, 5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Fisher AG, Jensen CR. Scientific Basis of Athletic Conditioning. Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia, 1979.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Saraswati SPA. Patanjala Raja Yoga, New Delhi: S. Chand and Co., Pvt. Ltd., 1995, 161.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Befroy DE et al. Increased substrate oxidation and mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2008;105:16701-06.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Harrison CH, Clarke D. H. Advanced Statistics, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1972.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Clarkson PM, Tremblay I. Exercise-induced muscle damage, repair, and adaptation in humans. J Appl Physiol 1988;65:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ebelling CB et al. Exercise-induced muscle damage and adaptation. Sports Medicine 1989:7:207-34.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Baird MF et al. Creatine-kinase- and exercise-related muscle damage implications for muscle performance and recovery. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2012:960363 | 13  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Huertas JR et al. Stay fit, stay young: mitochondria in movement: the role of exercise in the new mitochondrial paradigm. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2019:7058350.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Manfredi TG et al. Plasma creatine kinase activity and exercise − induced muscle. Med Sci Sports 1991:23:1028-34.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Koch A, Pereira R, Machado M. The creatine kinase response to resistance exercise. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions 2014:14:68-77  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kindermann W. Creatine kinase levels after exercise. DeutscherArzte-Verlag International 2016;113:344.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Heled Y et al. CM-MM and ACE genotypes and physiological prediction of the creatine kinase response to exercise. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:504-10  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Maffulli N, Limongelli FM. Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine Paola Brancaccio. British Medical Bulletin 2007;81 and 82:209-30  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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