|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 210-217
Evaluation of Functional Quality of Indian Dosa Batter Prepared Using Different Processed Rice and Horse Gram
V. Snehal1, S. Karthikeyan2, G. Nagamaniammai1
1 Department of Food Process Engineering, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulthur, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Food Processing Technology, AMET Deemed to be University, Kanathur, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||01-Aug-2020|
|Date of Decision||19-Aug-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Aug-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||27-Oct-2020|
Associate Professor Department of Food Process Engineering, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulthur, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Context: In recent days, functionally developed foods seem to show a higher range of activity towards a given target and have sparked avid interest among the customers consuming such products. The increased importance given to such products has come with an increase in the need for adequate nutrition to maintain the balance between health, mental development, and productivity. Aim: To enhance the nutritional profile of dosa batter with an optimal study on raw source materials like raw rice, cooked rice, rice soaked overnight, and horse gram. Settings and Design: Base ingredient of dosa batter, i.e. cooked rice was replaced based on products suggested by several optimization studies on processed rice and horse gram. Protein quality can be enhanced using a combination of cereals over legumes. Methods and Materials: The physico-chemical properties and proximate composition of the dosa batter were calculated by standard methods. The final product was assesed based on its physical properties like pH, color, texture, and its proximate composition. Results: Textural studies of optimized dosa batter show 18.5% of variation when compare to controls. Microbial studies were carried out using dosa batter. The hardness of the control dosa batter was 46.24 g while that of other combinations lies between 41 g to 45 g. Overnight soaked rice sample formation batter possesses a good level of softness when compared to the control sample. The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all the four forms of batter was revealed from microbial analysis like gram staining followed by the catalase test. The total aerobic bacterial count in all the four formulations tends to increase in 16 hours. Conclusions: The present study reveals the incorporation of horse gram & fenugreek in dosa batter formulation significantly rising it the nutritional profile. Optimization studies reveals the potential activity starch from varying source also contributing in rising up the nutritional facts in prepared dosa batter.
Keywords: Cooked rice, dosa, horse gram, nutrition, physical properties, rice soaked overnight
|How to cite this article:|
Snehal V, Karthikeyan S, Nagamaniammai G. Evaluation of Functional Quality of Indian Dosa Batter Prepared Using Different Processed Rice and Horse Gram. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2020;10:210-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Snehal V, Karthikeyan S, Nagamaniammai G. Evaluation of Functional Quality of Indian Dosa Batter Prepared Using Different Processed Rice and Horse Gram. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 May 14];10:210-7. Available from: https://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2020/10/4/210/299269
| Introduction|| |
The primary function of food is enriching human dietary life by stimulating appetite and contributing to human health. Functionally, it is required that foods be nutritious, palatable, and physiologically functional. Nutrition is the most important basic need, being a major determinant of health, productivity, and mental development. But in most developing countries of the world, hunger and malnutrition are increasing due to population explosion, shortage of fertile land, and high food prices. Malnutrition affects physical growth, morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, reproduction, and physical work capacity. Fermentation is one of the oldest and most economical methods of producing and preserving food. It has been found to destroy undesirable components like anti-nutritional factors (tannin and phytic acid), which interfere with the absorption of Ca and Fe by forming an insoluble matrix, and enhance nutritive value, flavour, and taste of the food. Fermentation Process - produce a lot of beneficial compounds, which makes the product safer against pathogenic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were the predominant bacteria responsible for souring and leavening of dosa batter. Most indigenous fermented products are produced in Africa and Asia and a number of them utilize cereals in combination with legumes, thus improving the overall protein quality of the fermented product.
Cereals are deficient in lysine but rich in cysteine and methionine. Legumes, on the contrary, are rich in lysine but deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids. Thus, by combining cereal with legumes, the overall protein quality is improved. Dosa is a popular fermented breakfast food consumed in the Indian subcontinent. The main samples taken out were rice and black gram to start the progress. The sample suspensions are mixed well and allowed to undergo a natural fermentation, usually for 8 to 20 hours. To make dosa, a thin layer (1–5 mm thickness) of the fermented suspension is spread onto a heated pan smeared with a little oil or fat. A solution to gel transformation occurs during the heating process, and within a few minutes a circular, semisoft to a crisp product resembling a pancake is obtained, ready for consumption.,
Black gram (Phaseolus mungo) originated in India, where it has been cultivated from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of the country. This pulse plays an essential role in the Indian diet as it contains vegetable protein (albumins, globulins, and glutelins) and is the supplement to a cereal-based diet. The mucilaginous materials (arabinogalactan) present in black gram helps out to entrap the carbon dioxide evolved during fermentation and is also responsible for smooth, spongy texture in idli. This mucilaginous material makes a valuable ingredient in dosa preparation. Also, the mucilaginous materials present in the black gram are responsible for smooth, spongy texture of thick pancake (dosa). Addition of black gram has direct influence on increased volume of batter; this increased volume is a sign of good quality of batter and highly suitable for the preparation of dosa.
Parboiled rice (Oryza sativa) has a nutritional content of almost 80% of that of brown rice and is easy to digest. When the bran is removed from parboiled rice, it becomes white rice. Many processed breakfast bowls of cereal and snack foods, such as popped or puffed rice products, are produced from parboiled rice. The parboiling process makes the rice nutritionally superior to unconverted, that is, unparboiled, white rice. Thiamine, a vitamin of the B complex variety and important for good metabolism and nerve function, and the essential human nutrient niacin, in the rice bran, are moved into the grain before the bran is removed.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annular herb of Leguminosae and is used as a spice (its seeds) and a green vegetable (its leaves). Fenugreek seeds are the small stony seeds from the pod of a bean. The seeds are hard, yellowish-brown, and angular fenugreek seeds are reported to be rich in biogenic elements (P, S, Mg, Ca, and Zn) and biologically active compounds (proteins, lipids, and fatty acids) that prove its functional value and as potent herb widely used in traditional medicine. Fenugreek seeds also reported to hold rich sources of saponins, flavonoids, choline, carotene, and other essential oils containing trigonelline. Addition of fenugreek helps to hold the CO2 and thus ensure the softness of dosa. Fenugreek also helps to minimize the initial microbial load in the prepared dosa batter. Fenugreek is known for its unique antidiabetic, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties.
Horse gram (Dolichos uniflorus) is an underutilized legume of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dryland agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. The texture is defined as the attribute of a substance resulting from a combination of physical properties and perceived as the senses of touch, sight, and hearing. The evaluation of food texture is an essential part of mastication. It has been said that texture governs more than 30% of food palatability, and when limited to staple foods that require a large quantity in every meal, including rice, noodles, bread, and meat, the percentage is higher. Texture has profound effects on consumer acceptance of food products as people derive significant pleasure from eating with a perception of the changing texture. This also affects the release profile of flavor through the retronasal pathway. Fried batters are used to improve product quality. The basic quality factors in fried foods are texture, moisture and oil contents, porosity, color, taste, and nutrition. Porosity increases during the frying process and is linearly correlated with oil uptake.
| Methods and Material|| |
Collection of raw materials
Black gram, parboiled rice, fenugreek, horse gram, salt, and sunflower oil were purchased from a local market. Cooked rice was prepared. For the overnight soaked rice condition, rice was soaked in water and left undisturbed for a night and used the next morning for batter preparation.
Preparation of batter
The ingredients for the preparation of the dosa batter were brought from a local market and washed thoroughly to remove all the dirt. Black gram and rice along with fenugreek were soaked separately for 4 hours. These mixtures were then separately ground finely. Following this, the separate mixtures were combined and mixed well together with salt.
Three different samples were prepared with four different variations:
- Dosa batter with cooked rice.
- Dosa batter with overnight soaked cooked rice.
- Dosa batter with horse gram.
The variation of all three samples was accomplished by varying the proportion of cooked rice, cooked rice soaked overnight, and horse gram as 37%, 18.5%, 55.5%, 74% accordingly [Table 1].
For the batters prepared, the physiochemical analysis and sensory analysis were carried out.
Preparation of dosa
The prepared dosa batter was allowed to ferment for about 8 hours and this batter was then used for dosa preparation.
A nonstick pan was placed on a gas stove and allowed to heat. Oil was smeared across the surface of the pan. The required amount of batter was poured and spread over the pan, following which it was allowed to cook under the normal flame. The cooked dosa was then used for sensory evaluation.
Evaluation of all the parameters was done in triplicates and the results were presented as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was done using MS-Excel (2013) and the results showed that the values significantly differ at P < 0.05 by Student t test.
| Results|| |
Effects of volume, moisture, ash, and total sugars on the optimized samples (batter)
The increase in the volume of the optimized 18.5% variation dosa batter of horse gram and control was 90%, while that of cooked rice and cooked rice soaked overnight did not show a significant difference. The moisture content of all three samples along with the control did not show a significant difference and was noted to be 61.55%, 65.38%, 63.79%, and 60.06%, respectively. A very small quantity of ash content was identified in the dosa batter under the control, cooked rice, and rice soaked overnight conditions, while the horse gram batter had 1.01%.
Total sugars present were about 4.57% in control, while sugar content in the cooked rice, rice soaked overnight, and horse gram dosa batter stood at 4.00%, 4.50%, and 4.47%, respectively [Figure 1].
In the cofermentation of finger millet and horse gram, microbes and components present in the ingredients are responsible for the evolution of gaseous products, increasing the batter volume. The batter of fermented foods like idli or dosa is foamy in which gas molecules are entrapped in a solid-liquid phase. These foams are colloidal systems containing tiny air bubbles dispersed in a continuous phase. In such systems, surface-active agents decrease the interfacial tension facilitating gas-water interface system. Arabinogalactan is known to stabilize the network of foam formed by the surface-active protein and is essential for the rising of the rice/black gram batters and for the porosity of steamed puddings.
The availability of sugars was noted to support the rapid multiplication of microbial loads and favored the pronounced rise in the levels of various nutritional parameters besides acidification and leavening..
Effects of pH on optimized dosa batter
The fermentation of dosa batter for all three optimized samples along with control resulted in a considerable drop in pH. The pH decreased rapidly each hour due to fermentation [Figure 2].
Biochemical changes such as drop in pH and increase in acidity, sugars, soluble proteins, and amino acids observed in this study are mainly attributed to the activities of fermenting microbes. These microbes secrete several hydrolytic enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase, phytase, etc.) that catalyze the hydrolysis of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and anti-nutritional factors. A drop in pH and the increase in titratable acidity during cofermentation of finger millet and horse gram are following the results of autofermentation of finger millet alone. A pH range of 3.6–4.1 is favorable for eliminating undesirable microbial flora (coliforms) in fermented foods.
In idli made with 1:1 proportion of rice to the black gram, batter volume increased about 47%, the pH fell to 4.5, and total acidity rose to 2.8% (as lactic acid) during 12 to 15 hours of fermentation at 30°C.
Effect of titratable acidity
The total acidity of the optimized dosa batter increased rapidly along with time as shown in [Figure 3]. The increase in total acidity was due to the involvement of fermentation owing to lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
Determination of viscosity of dosa batter
Viscosity is a principal parameter to assess the flow behavior of a fluid. It is the measure of the internal friction of a fluid. This friction becomes apparent when a layer of fluid is made to move to another layer. The greater the friction, the greater the amount of force required to cause this movement. The viscosity of the control and horse gram dosa batters was noted to be 2362 and 2381 cP, respectively [Figure 4]. The difference, however, was not significant. On the contrary, the viscosity of the cooked rice batter and rice soaked overnight batter was 2220 and 2000 cP, respectively.
The particle size of flour strongly influenced the viscosity, probably the finer flours, due to their greater surface area per unit weight, underwent easier and greater swelling in water compared to coarser flours and hence showed greater viscosity. The increase in viscosity with temperature may be attributed to the removal of water from the exuded amylase by granules as they swell. Miles et al. reported that an increase in viscosity might be due to the aggregation of the amylase molecules. The subtle difference in viscosity patterns may be attributed to the variation in size and shape of the granules.
Breakdown of starch structure often leads to liquefaction of the batter, leading to the loss of viscosity and gas-retaining capacity of the batter. Earlier, Iyer and Ananthanarayan had reported that on increasing the amylase concentration above a certain level, a drastic fall in batter viscosity occurred in idli batter, which is because the addition of amylase enzyme in excess amount is known to cause liquefaction of starch.
Determination of texture of dosa
The randomized top/uppermost layer of dosa was used for textural profile studies. Skin strength is the rate of penetration at the uppermost layers of the dosa samples. The force required to penetrate the first layer of the sample is calculated. There was a significant difference in force exerted on the top layer of the control dosa (46.24 g), while the force of the other three samples lay between 41 and 45 g [Figure 5].
Elasticity is the capacity to return to original dimensions after the deforming load is removed. The elasticity of the sample increased gradually to the extent of about 38.20, 38.52, 38.51, and 38.48 mm for control, cooked rice, overnight soaked rice, and horse gram dosa, respectively [Figure 6]. This gradual increase fell rapidly as it lost its elasticity when one point of force is applied.
Hardness inversely denotes the softness of the sample; the lower the hardness, the higher the softness of the sample. There is a significant difference between the control and the three other dosa samples [Figure 7]. The dosa made from rice soaked overnight had good softness when compared to the control dosa. The soft spongy texture observed in the leavened steamed idli or the puddings prepared from black gram is due to the presence of two components: surface-active protein (globulin) and arabinogalactan (polysaccharide) in black gram.
Microbial analysis of dosa batter
The microbial analysis of all the batter samples revealed the presence of LAB. The total aerobic bacterial count in the four different batter combinations increased in 16 hours. The presence of LAB was confirmed by the gram staining and catalase test that showed positive results [Table 2].Gram staining − positive pink colonies (rod- and round-shaped colonies).Catalase test − negative as no oxygen bubbles were generated when hydrogen peroxide was added.
|Table 2 Estimation of microbial load in dosa batter samples (all data were denoted as mean ± SE)|
Click here to view
According to Steinkraus et al., initial bacterial counts in rice–black gram mixture ranged from 103 to 105 cfu/g rising to 108–109 cfu/g after 20 to 24 hours of fermentation. In their study, Soni et al. had concluded that in the traditional idli batter, fermentation is due to microflora from the raw materials and the environment bringing about several changes leading to digestibility and nutritional value. In this regard, there is much to be learned about the role of individual microorganisms.
| Discussion|| |
The dosa batter was prepared with four different variations, and functional stability, texture, hardness, and proximate analysis was done to ensure the enhancement of the nutrition in it. The ingredients included rice, black gram, cooked rice, rice soaked overnight, and horse gram. Replacing rice with cooked rice, overnight soaked rice, and horse gram, respectively, had a good impact on the nutritive value by increasing protein, fat content, fiber, and carbohydrates in the batter.
The proximate composition of cooked rice, overnight soaked rice, and followed by the horse gram is reported to share significant results comparatively. The cooked rice samples possess higher calorific value (164 ± 1.07) than other samples (149 ± 0.89, 139 ± 0.96, respectively). Comparatively, the addition of horse gram ensures the increased level of fiber, moisture content, and the volume of the particular batter. All four different samples share a significant pH value until the complete fermentation period. The titratable acidity of control batter and horse gram samples showed a significant range of activity when compared to other sample’s. The viscosity of the dosa batter was strongly influenced by particle size in the batter. It is probable that the finer flours, owing to their greater surface area per unit weight, underwent easier and greater swelling in water compared to coarser flours and hence showed greater viscosity. The horse gram sample batter is reported for its higher viscosity range than others. The skin strength of sample batters is observed between 41 and 45 g, and the control sample was observed with 46.24 g skin strength. Approximately, the elasticity and the hardness value of all four different variations of batters were observed to be more similar. Considerably, the texture of the dosa batter samples showed a significant range of results, and this may be due to the combination of the ingredients while the microbial flora present was LAB and the total aerobic bacterial count showed an increase in the count with an increase in time. The horse gram added batter samples seem to have a lower microbial load during the fermentation process. The microbial load of the horse gram added dosa batter samples ranges between 6.34 ± 0.05 and 7.76 ± 0.05. The observed value exhibits the higher antimicrobial potential of horse gram added dosa batter samples than the other existing dosa batter samples. Our findings represent the successful quality evaluation studies on the functional value of prepared dosa batter using different processed rice and horse gram materials.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study focused on the optimal formulation of blends in dosa to enhance its nutritional functionality. Studies on the various types of starch with the nutritional factor in the preparation of dosa batter ensure the novelty of the work. The addition of fenugreek and horse gram ensures the availability of adequate micronutrient in the prepared batter and is also responsible for increased batter volume after fermentation. Owing to the health benefits of the blends, it can be demonstrated that the batter prepared out of it is more nutritious compared to the normal batter. Future studies evaluating the toxicity levels can be undertaken to increase the marketability of the product.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Chaudhary A, Sharma D, Arora A. Prospects of Indian traditional fermented food as functional foods. Indian J Agric Sci 2018;88:1496-1501.
Vadivel V, Janardhanan K. Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of seven South Indian wild legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2005;60:69-75.
Mahgoub O, Kadim IT. Effects of body weight and sex on carcass tissue distribution in goats. Meat Sci 2004;67:577-85.
Ashenafi M. A review on the microbiology of indigenous fermented foods and beverages of Ethiopia. Ethiop J Biol Sci 2006;5:189-245.
Das A, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review. J Food Sci Technol 2012;49:665-72.
Palanisamy BD, Rajendran V, Bhat R, Venkatesan BP. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012;63;5-15.
Kavitha1 B, Hemalatha G, Kanchana S, Sivasubramaniam K. Evaluation of some selected black gram varieties for preparation of fermented idli. Intl J Food Ferment Technol 2015;5:153-9.
Zyk-Golaszewska K, Wierzbowska J. Fenugreek: productivity, nutritional value and uses. J Elem 2017;22:1067-80.
Bhartiya A, Aditya JP, Kant L. Nutritional and remedial potential of an underutilized food legume horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum): a review. J Animal Plant Sci 2015;25:908-20.
Mohamed S, Hamid NA, Hamid MA. Food components affecting the oil absorption and crispness of fried batter. J Sci Food Agric 1998;78:39-45.
Nisha P, Ananthanarayan L, Singhal RS. Effect of stabilizers on stabilization of idli (traditional south Indian food) batter during storage. Food Hydrocoll 2005;19:179-86.
Sandhu DK, Sont SK. Optimization of physicochemical parameters for Indian dosa batter fermentation. Biotechnol Lett 1988;4:277-82.
Sonawane SK, Kandu VR, Patil S. An overview on characterization and value addition of traditional Indian fermented food: idli. Clin J Nutr Diet 2019;2:1-6.
Miles MJ, Morris VJ, Orford PD, Ring SG. The roles of amylose and amylopectin and retrogradation of starch. Carbohydr Res 1985;135:271-81.
Iyer BK, Ananthanarayan L. Effect of α-amylase addition on fermentation of idli—A popular south Indian cereal—Legume-based snack food. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2008;41:1053-59.
Asha MR, Susheelamma NS, Guha M. Rheological properties of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) batter: characterization of flour from native and modified rice and their effect on batter viscosity. Int J Food Sci Technol 2007;42:669-77.
Steinkraus KH, Van Veen AG, Thiebeau DB. Studies on idli − an Indian fermented black gram rice food. Food Technol 1967;21:110-13.
Soni SK, Sandhu DK, Vilkhu KS, Kamra N. Microbiological studies on dosa fermentation. Food Microbiol 1986;3:45-53.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
[Table 1], [Table 2]