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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 179-187

Migraine: Update and Future Perspectives


1 Biomedical Genetics Research Laboratory (BMGRL), School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Anne S.T. Sahithi
Biomedical Genetics Research Laboratory (BMGRL), School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu-632014
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_26_20

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Migraine is a disease known as polyneuropathy, which is intolerable to the sufferer, family and community. Persistent headaches mark this condition in patients with migraine. The primary focus of this review article is to summarise the current findings of the migraine epidemiology, prevalence, neuroimaging tools, risk factors and prospects. Currently, a rise in migraine cases has been reported for persons of age between 25 and 55 years. A rapid increase in migraine cases was reported for people having lower socioeconomic status. Patients with migraine have shown an increase in the incidence of mental illness and co-morbidity. These patients are diagnosed using various neuroimaging tools such as (a) computerized tomography (CT), (b) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (c) functional (fMRI), (d) PET (Positron Emission Tomography), (e) SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography), (f) CEPs (Cortical Evoked Potentials), (g) MEG (Magnetoencephalography), and (h) Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In clinical practice, Headache Impact Test (HIT-6 ™) is used to measure the pain impact in patients with migraine. Precipitating factors such as (a) caffeine, (b) sleep apnea, (c) sleep deprivation, (d) stress, and (e) depression that cause migraine have been discussed in detail. The prospects for the future research have been discussed based on (a) Pain and psychological factors, (b) cognitive techniques, (c) new developments in treatment, and (d) neuromodulation. In this review, it is concluded with the possibility of reducing the progression of migraine disease through pathopsychological knowledge. Also, the progression can be reduced by implementing high research standards in clinical studies.


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