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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 146-151

Role of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A mechanism-based short review


Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Dnyanteerth, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431 606, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.191660

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Prevalence of neurobehavioral disorder is increasing worldwide. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorder observed in the children. It is associated with behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, attention deficit, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity. The wide range of conditions and factors produces abnormality in neuronal functioning. Alteration in the prefrontal cortex and its links to the striatum and cerebellum; and change in the level of catecholamine are predominantly responsible for ADHD. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) released in these areas regulate network activity. Physiological actions of catecholamine are regulated through activation of receptors such as α1, α2 , β1, β2 , β3 , and D1. The less release of DA or NE leads to insufficient activation of postsynaptic D 1 and α2 A receptors, whereas overstimulation of these catecholamines in conditions such as stress creates abnormal behavioral response and attention. NE reuptake inhibitors selectively enhance the level of catecholamine by interfering with transport proteins, metabolizing enzyme, blocking different sites on receptor and neuronal activity index. The present review gives insights of the role of NE reuptake inhibitors in ADHD.


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