Users Online: 303

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 325-331

Anxiolytic potential of medicinal plants

Department of Pharmacology Division, Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Railmajra, (Near Ropar), SBS Nagar, Punjab, India

Date of Submission16-Dec-2012
Date of Acceptance05-Feb-2013
Date of Web Publication15-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Priyanka Thakur
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, Railmajra - 144 533, (Near-Ropar), SBS Nagar, Punjab
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.119838

Rights and Permissions

There is a high prevalence of mental and neurological disorders worldwide; these account for 13% of total disability adjusted life years lost due to all diseases and injuries in the world. World Health Organization estimates that 450 million persons suffer from mental illness. Anxiety is widespread, with life-time prevalence rates ranging from 13.6% to 28.8% in Western countries. Individuals aged between 10 years and 25 years are at highest risk for developing an anxiety condition. A large number of herbs are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Herbs such as valerian, ginkgo, laghupatha, etc., are the herbs that are used to treat anxiety disorder. These anxiety herbs have lots of common adverse drug reactions such as drowsiness, dizziness, headache, etc. However, most of the herbal drugs are safe for treatment and although, the available pharmacological treatments for these disorders are not much effective, they have many limitations. We have not much treatment options that could safely and effectively alleviate anxiety. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain and discuss the anxiolytic potential of some medicinal plants present in the lap of nature. It is hoped that the more efficient and effective application of natural products will improve the drug discovery in anxiety. Comprehensive review will pave a way to focus the anxiolytic potential of medicinal plants.

Keywords: Anxiety, anxiolytics, chamomile, medicinal plants, passion flower

How to cite this article:
Thakur P, Rana A C. Anxiolytic potential of medicinal plants. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2013;3:325-31

How to cite this URL:
Thakur P, Rana A C. Anxiolytic potential of medicinal plants. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2013 [cited 2022 Jun 30];3:325-31. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Anxiety is a complex progressive behavioral and physiological alteration of the organism, which ultimately leads to wide variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, if remain untreated. In addition to individual genetic factors external influences, such as nutrition, smoking, alcohol, socioeconomic status, environmental conditions etc., can strongly contribute to its anticipated appearance. [1] During the whole life a human being is confronted with social, psychological, and emotional stress. Chronic social stress is one of the most important factors responsible for precipitation of depressive disorder in humans. In recent years, the impact of social stress on the development of psychopathologies has been thoroughly investigated in pre-clinical animal studies. It is an emotional state, unpleasant in nature, associated with uneasiness, discomfort and concern or fear about some defined or undefined future threat. Some degree of anxiety is a part of normal life. Treatment is needed when it is disproportionate to the situation and excessive. Some psychotics and depressed patients also exhibit pathological anxiety. Anxiety is a universal phenomenon and to experience it in appropriate circumstances is the normal response. It may serve to enhance the vigilance and drive. However, if anxiety symptoms are frequent and persist in severe form, they are a cause of distress/suffering and markedly impair performance. It should be treated with drugs only when excessive and disabling in its own right. [1]

Types of anxiety

There are many types of anxiety such as General anxiety, Obsessive compulsive disorder, Panic disorder, Performance Anxiety, Post-traumatic stress disorder, Separation anxiety, Social anxiety, Specific phobias, State anxiety, and Trait anxiety. [2]

Symptoms of anxiety

Anxiety includes, mental, emotional, physical, behavioral and social symptoms. [3],[4] Mental symptoms of anxiety such as confusion, hyper-reactivity, hyper-sensitivity, hyper-vigilance, poor concentration, poor judgment, and poor memory. [5]

Some of the emotional symptoms of anxiety include: Agitation, Anger, Confusion, Fear about specific things, health problems, spiders, memories general fears for self and loved ones, safety, health, and financial security. [3] Some of the physical symptoms of anxiety include: Headaches, Heart palpitations, Joint pain, Muscle aches, Pain, Rapid breathing. Some of the physiological symptoms of anxiety include: Sweating. [6]

Some of the behavioral symptoms of anxiety include: As in the case of depression, people who suffer anxiety will tend to: Avoidance of performance, Avoidance of the feared thing, Drink excessively. Excessive attention to control or details in order to prevent mistakes, Indulge in promiscuity or reckless sex, other reckless behaviors such as excessive spending. Social avoidance, some people will avoid responsibility in order to decrease their anxiety. [4]

Pathophysiology of anxiety disorders

Behavioral traits are passed from parents to child, anxiety disorders tend to run through family structures. Studies comparing the risk of psychiatric illness in identical twins (who share 100% of their DNA) have found that, if one identical twin has a psychiatric condition, the risk that the other twin will have the same condition is approximately 50%. It appears that non-genetic factors, including, environmental influences occurring throughout the life-span, must also contribute to the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. The human body attempts to maintain homeostasis. Anything in the environment that disturbs homeostasis is defined as a stressor. Homeostatic balance is then re-established by physiologic adaptations that occur in response to the stress response. The stress response in humans involves a cascade of hormonal events, including, the release of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), which, stimulates the release of corticotropin leading to release of the stress hormones (glucocorticoids and epinephrine) from the adrenal cortex. The glucocorticoids typically exert negative feedback to the hypothalamus, thus, decreasing the release of CRF6. The stress response is hardwired into the brain of the typical mammal and is most often triggered when survival of the organism is threatened. The primate stress response can be triggered not only by a physical challenge, but also by the anticipation of a homeostatic challenge. As a result, when humans chronically believe that a homeostatic challenge is about to occur, they enter the realm of neurosis, anxiety, and paranoia. The amygdala is the primary modulator of the response to fear/anxiety inducing stimuli. It is registering the emotional significance of stressful stimuli and creating emotional memories. The amygdala receives input from neurons in the cortex and being stuck in traffic, in a crowded shopping mall, or on an airplane that may serve to trigger the anxiety response in a susceptible individual via this mechanism. The amygdala also receives sensory input that bypasses the cortex and tends to be subconscious. An example is that of a victim of sexual abuse who suddenly finds herself acutely anxious when interacting with a number of friendly people. [1] It may take her a few moments to realize that characteristics of the individuals with whom she is interacting remind her of the person who abused her. When activated, the amygdala stimulates regions of the midbrain and brain stem, causing autonomic hyperactivity, which can be correlated with the physical symptoms of anxiety. [7],[8] Thus, the stress response involves activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This axis is hyperactivein depression and in anxiety disorders.

Neurotransmitters involved in anxiety

Neurotransmitters are chemicals located and released in the brain to allow an impulse from one nerve cell to pass to another nerve cell. There are approximately 50 neurotransmitters identified. Some common neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Acetylcholine and norepinephrine are excitatory neurotransmitters while dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are inhibitory. Each neurotransmitter can directly or indirectly influence neurons in a specific portion of the brain, thereby affecting behavior. [8],[9]

Some of the receptors in the brain responsible for anxiety/anti-anxiety

  1. Benzodiazepine receptors [10]
  2. Serotonin receptors (5-hydroxytriptamine):
    1. 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5 HT 1A ) [11]
    2. 5-HT 3 receptor: 5-HT 3 receptor antagonism contributes the anxiolytic effect [12]
    3. Selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors.
  3. y-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA) [13],[14],[15]
  4. GABA A -benzodiazepine receptor
  5. Histamine receptor (H-receptor). H-receptor plays an important role in anxiety and other CNS disorders with reference to H 1 , H 2 , H 3 receptors [16]
  6. Opoid receptors [17]
  7. Adenosine A1 receptors [18]
  8. Dopaminergic receptor: (D 2 ) receptors [19]
  9. Somodendritic auto receptors [20],[21]
  10. Adrenergic receptors. [19]
Some brand drugs used in anxiety


Side effect of allopathic formulations/anxiolytics

Anxiolytic substances, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine group, occupy a prominent post in the ranking of the most utilized drugs by man [22] to minimize stress, tension and anxiety, [23] as a result of these effects, benzodiazepines are also able to treat insomnia. [24] However, the anxiolytic drugs have an unfavorable risk/benefit ratio, as they produce anterograde amnesia, dependence, abstinence syndrome, paradoxical reaction in humans and decay of psychomotor functions. [25],[26] These symptoms can lead to an increased possibility of car accidents and of fractures. Therefore, research has been conducted to identify safer, more specific medications possessing anxiolytic effect without the complications. In the past few years, several herbal medicines have been used for the management of anxiety in the world. [27]

Herbal/traditional medicinal plants with anxiolytic potential

Herbal medicines are popular as remedies for diseases and play a key role in the human health-care of a vast majority of world's population. World's populations rely on the use of traditional medicine, which is predominantly based on plant material. The traditional medicine refers to a broad range of ancient natural health care practices and these medicinal practices have originated from time immemorial and developed gradually, to a large extent, by relying or based on practical experiences, without significant references to modern scientific principles. Although, herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of various ailments, very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited or improperly used. Therefore, these plant drugs deserve detailed studies in the light of modern science.

Traditions are dynamic entities of unchanging knowledge. Traditional medicine is in an evolutionary process as communities and individuals continue to discover new techniques that can transform practices. Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery using natural products remain important issues in the current target-rich, lead-poor scenario. [28] Many modern drugs have their origin in ethnopharmacology. However, despite technological advances, the drug discovery process is facing a major innovation deficit that is adversely affecting the pharmaceutical industry. Many recent studies suggest that entry barriers have fallen over time for new drug introductions. [29] The ethnopharmacology knowledge and experimental base allows drug research from "Clinics to Laboratories" -a true Reverse Pharmacology Approach. [30] In this process, "safety" remains the most important starting point and the efficacy becomes a matter of validation. A golden triangle consisting of Traditional Knowledge, Modern Medicine, and Modern Science with systems orientation will converge to form an innovative discovery engine for newer, safer, affordable and effective therapies. [31] The medicinal plants that have anxiolytic potential are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Pharmacognosy of some plants with anxiolytic activity

Click here to view

   Discussion and Conclusion Top

Life without natural products is unimaginable. It has provided mankind with oxygen, water, fire, food, clothing, shelter, and medicine. Its public health impact is considerably high, especially of traditional medicines/herbal products and nature-based modern drugs. The traditional medicines, despite its limitations, are addressing the health needs of millions of people worldwide. [68] From the earliest times, herbs have been prized for their pain-relieving and healing abilities and today we still rely largely on the curative properties of plants. According to World Health Organization, 80% of the people living in rural areas depend on medicinal herbs as primary healthcare system. Science has long acknowledged the value of healing substances found in nature, such as digitalis, aspirin, penicillin, insulin, steroids, etc. There has been a resurgence of interest, both scientifically and popularly, in the utilization of natural approaches. [69] There are many historical examples in which the natural product has not just been the medicinal product but has also helped reveal a novel aspect of physiology. During past few decades, the traditional system of medicine has gained importance in the field of medicine. In developing countries, most of the people prefer traditional system of medicine for their treatment. Traditional medicines are increasingly getting more popular mainly because: (a) It is holistic system with less side-effect; (b) it is evolving as an evidence-based medicine; (c) its ethnomedical knowledge is applicable to modern drug discovery programs. Probably, traditional medicines could provide a solution in fighting them both as a health-care delivery mechanism and as a means of chemotherapeutic pool. Knowledge of traditional medicines and their development pave way for a new drug discovery. [69]

The review covered all aspects of traditional medicines and revealed that a detailed experimental as well as standardization study is required to explore the plants and their uses to treat serious complication like anxiety or anxiety like behavior. It is hoped that the more efficient and effective application of natural products/medicinal plants will improve the drug discovery process.

   References Top

1.LeDoux J. Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going? Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:1229-38.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Kumar R, Murugananthan G, Nandakumar K, Talwar S. Isolation of anxiolytic principle from ethanolic root extract of Cardiospermumhalicacabum. Phytomedicine 2011;18219-223.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Wittchen HU, Zhao S, Kessler RC, Eaton WW. DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:355-64.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Breslau N, Kessler RC, Chilcoat HD, Schultz LR, Davis GC, Andreski P. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998;55:626-32.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Davidson JR. Affective style, mood and anxiety disorders. An affective neuroscience approach. In: Davidson JR, editor. Anxiety, Depression and Emotions. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 88-108.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Ninan PT. The functional anatomy, neurochemistry, and pharmacology of anxiety. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Kumar S, Sharma A. Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turneraaphrodisiaca Ward. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005;2:117-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Jerald TA, Lieberman JA, editors. Psychiatry, 1 st ed. Essentials of Psychiatry. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 1997. p. 5.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Salgueiro JB, Ardenghi P, Dias M, Ferreira MB, Izquierdo I, Medina JH. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav1997;58:887-91.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Blier P, Lista A, De Montigny C. Differential properties of pre-and postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors in the dorsal raphe and hippocampus: II. Effect of pertussis and cholera toxins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993;265:16-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Eguchi J, Inomata Y, Saito K. The anxiolytic-like effect of MCI-225, a selective NA reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2001;68:677-83.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Johnson MR, Marazziti D, Brawman-Mintzer O, Emmanuel NP, Ware MR, Morton WA, et al. Abnormal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density associated with generalized social phobia. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43:306-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Short KR, Maier SF. Stressor controllability, social interaction, and benzodiazepine systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993;45:827-35.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Yu HS, Lee SY, Jang CG. Involvement of 5-HT1A and GABAA receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of Cinnamomum cassia in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007;87:164-70.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Yuzurihara M, Ikarashi Y, Ishige A, Sasaki H, Maruyama Y. Anxiolytic-like effect of saiboku-to, an oriental herbal medicine, on histaminergics-induced anxiety in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav2000;67:489-95.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Hirata H, Sonoda S, Agui S, Yoshida M, Ohinata K, Yoshikawa M. Rubiscolin-6, a delta opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, has anxiolytic effect via activating sigma 1 and dopamine D1 receptors. Peptides 2007;28:1998-2003.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Prediger RD, Batista LC, Takahashi RN. Adenosine A1 receptors modulate the anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol in the elevated plus-maze in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;499:147-54.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Kumar D, Bhat ZA, Kumar V, Shah MY. Nature: Anxiolytics in the lap of nature. Webmed Central Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011;2:WMC002140.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Satyan KS, Jaiswal AK, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Anxiolytic activity of ginkgolic acid conjugates from Indian Ginkgo biloba. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;136:148-52.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Gomes NG, Campos MG, Orfão JM, Ribeiro CA. Plants with neurobiological activity as potential targets for drug discovery. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33:1372-89.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Uhlenhuth EH, Balter MB, Ban TA, Yang K. Trends in recommendations for the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders by an international expert panel, 1992-1997. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1999;9:S393-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Argyropoulos SV, Nutt DJ. The use of benzodiazepines in anxiety and other disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 1999;9:S407-12.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Schneider-Helmert D. Why low-dose benzodiazepine-dependent insomniacs can't escape their sleeping pills. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1988;78:706-11.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Lader M, Morton S. Benzodiazepine problems. Br J Addict 1991;86:823-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Kan CC, Breteler MH, Zitman FG. High prevalence of benzodiazepine dependence in out-patient users, based on the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 criteria. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;96:85-93.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Patwardhan B, Vaidya AD, Chorghade M. Ayurveda and natural products drug discovery. Curr Sci 2004;86:789-99.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.DiMasi JA, Paquette C. The economics of follow-on drug research and development: Trends in entry rates and the timing of development. Pharmacoeconomics 2004;22:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Vaidya AD. Asian medicine-A global blessing. In: Indian Association of Studies in Traditional Asian Medicine (IASTAM) Silver Jubilee Convention Commemorative Volume. Pune, India: IJPRIF; 2005;821-7.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Mashelkar RA. India's R and D: Reaching for the top. Science 2005;307:1415-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Gloth FM 3 rd , Alam W, Hollis B. Vitamin D vs broad spectrum phototherapy in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder. J Nutr Health Aging 1999;3:5-7.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Walf AA, Frye CA. A review and update of mechanisms of estrogen in the hippocampus and amygdala for anxiety and depression behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31:1097-111.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Starkstein SE, Arndt SV. Influence of major depression on 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 1994;81:723-726.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Morris MS, Fava M, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Depression and folate status in the US Population. Psychother Psychosom2003;72:80-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet 1998;351:1213.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Castellanos A, Julie T, Nathan F, Joseph P, Rosenberg L, Jack M. Drugs and herbs: Do they mix. Drug Topics. JAAIM online; 2000. p. 35.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Bynum, WF, Hardy A, Jacyna S, Lawrence C, Tansey EM, Damasio AR. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM - IV. Vol. 327, 4 th ed. Washington, DC: Psychiatric Epidemiology, American Psychiatric Association; 1994;4:p. 432-6.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Kloss J. The Balenced Healing Guide To Anxiety and Depression, Back to Eden. New York, NY: Lancer Books; 1971. p. 37-40.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Lad V. The Science of Self Healing, Ayurveda. Wilmot, WI: Lotus Light; 1991. p. 38-53.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Lake J. Psychotropic medications from natural products: A review of promising research and recommendations. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6:36-46.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Henry C. Body Ecology Diet, Chinese System of Food Cures: Prevention and Remedies. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co. Inc.; 1986. p. 103-17.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Martindale G. The Extra Pharmacopoeia. Society, GB; IJPSR 1995;32:402-4.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Mindell E, Handell R. Quick and easy guide to better health. JAAIM-Online 1981:57:24-67.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Molina-Hernandez M, Tellez-Alcantara NP, Diaz MA, Perez Garcia J, Olivera Lopez JI, Jaramillo MT. Anticonflict actions of aqueous extracts of flowers of Achilleamillefolium L. vary according to the estrous cycle phases in Wistar rats. Phytother Res 2004;18:915-20.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Kim WK, Jung JW, Ahn NY, Oh HR, Lee BK, Oh JK, et al. Anxiolytic-like effects of extracts from Albizziajulibrissin bark in the elevated plus-maze in rats. Life Sci 2004;75:2787-95.  Back to cited text no. 44 Sousa FC, Monteiro AP, de Melo CT, de Oliveira GR, Vasconcelos SM, de França Fonteles MM, et al. Antianxiety effects of riparin I from Anibariparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice. Phytother Res 2005;19:1005-8.  Back to cited text no. 45
46.Sousa FC, Melo CT, Monteiro AP, Lima VT, Gutierrez SJ, Pereira BA, et al. Antianxiety and antidepressant effects of riparin III from Anibariparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004;78:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.López-Rubalcava C, Piña-Medina B, Estrada-Reyes R, Heinze G, Martínez-Vázquez M. Anxiolytic-like actions of the hexane extract from leaves of Annonacherimolia in two anxiety paradigms: Possible involvement of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Life Sci 2006;78:730-737.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB. Anxiolytic activity of Azadirachtaindica leaf extract in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1994;32:489-91.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.Yanpallewar S, Rai S, Kumar M, Chauhan S, Acharya SB. Neuroprotective effect of Azadirachtaindica on cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion and hypoperfusion in rats. Life Sci 2005;76:1325-38.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Rocha FF, Lapa AJ, De Lima TC. Evaluation of the anxiolytic-like effects of Cecropiaglazioui Sneth in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;71:183-90.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Wijeweera P, Arnason JT, Koszycki D, Merali Z. Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of Gotukola - (Centellaasiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models. Phytomedicine 2006;13:668-76.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Carvalho-Freitas MI, Costa M. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:1629-33.  Back to cited text no. 52
53.Peng WH, Wu CR, Chen CS, Chen CF, Leu ZC, Hsieh MT. Anxiolytic effect of berberine on exploratory activity of the mouse in two experimental anxiety models: Interaction with drugs acting at 5-HT receptors. Life Sci 2004;75:2451-62.  Back to cited text no. 53
54.Amos S, Binda L, Akah P, Wambebe C, Gamaniel K. Central inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract of Crinum giganteum. Fitoterapia 2003;74:23-28.  Back to cited text no. 54
55.Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Vaseghi G, Jafarian A. Anxiolytic effects of Echiumamoenum on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. Fitoterapia 2004;75:457-64.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Cabalion P, Rolland A, Dorfman P, Misslin R, et al. Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: Sedative and anxiolytic properties. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;29:189-98.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Ruiz MH, Jimenez Ferrer JE, Lima TC, Montes A, Garcila DP, Cortazar MG, et al. Anxiolytic and antidepressant like activity of standardized extract from Galphimiaglauca Phytomed 2006;13:23-8.  Back to cited text no. 57
58.Jung JW, Yoon BH, Oh HR, Ahn JH, Kim SY, Park SY, et al. Anxiolytic-like effects of Gastrodiaelata and its phenolic constituents in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:261-5.  Back to cited text no. 58
59.Navarro E, Alonso SJ, Trujillo J, Jorge E, Pérez C. Central nervous activity of elenoside. Phytomedicine 2004;11:498-503.  Back to cited text no. 59
60.Martínez AL, Domínguez F, Orozco S, Chávez M, Salgado H, González M, et al. Neuropharmacological effects of an ethanol extract of the Magnolia dealbata Zucc. leaves in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106:250-5.  Back to cited text no. 60
61.Abid M, Hrishikeshavan HJ, Asad M. Pharmacological evaluation of Pachyrrhizuserosus (L) seeds for central nervous system depressant activity. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;50:143-51.  Back to cited text no. 61
62.Mi XJ, Chen SW, Wang WJ, Wang R, Zhang YJ, Li WJ, et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of paeonol in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005;81:683-7.  Back to cited text no. 62
63.Rex A, Morgenstern E, Fink H. Anxiolytic-like effects of kava-kava in the elevated plus maze test - A comparison with diazepam. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002;26:855-60.  Back to cited text no. 63
64.Hui KM, Huen MS, Wang HY, Zheng H, Sigel E, Baur R, et al. Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellariabaicalensis Georgi. Biochem Pharmacol 2002;64:1415-24.  Back to cited text no. 64
65.Vishwakarma SL, Pal SC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of Zingiberofficinale. Phytother Res 2002;16:621-6.  Back to cited text no. 65
66.Png WH, Hsieh MT, Lee YS, Lin YC, Liao J. Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphusjujube in mouse model of anxiety. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:435-41.  Back to cited text no. 66
67.Bhat ZA, Kumar D , Shah MY. Angelicaarchangelica Linn. Is Angal on earth for the treatment of diseases: A review. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:35-49.  Back to cited text no. 67
68.Arumugama S, Kavimanib S, Kadalmanic B, Ahmedd AB, Akbarshac MB, Raod MV. Antidiabetic activity of leaf and callus extracts of Aegle marmelos in rabbit. Science Asia 2008;34:31.  Back to cited text no. 68
69.Sundaram S, Verma SK, Dwivedi P. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Indian medicinal plants used traditionally to treat cancer. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2011;4:27-9.  Back to cited text no. 69


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Galinsoga parviflora (Asteraceae) in a Mice Model
Rajesh Yadav, Venkatesan Natarajan, B.A. Vishwanath
Journal of Plant Sciences. 2022; 17(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Overview on Phyto-based Treatment for Anxiety
Jyoti Alambayan,Vandana Garg
Current Psychopharmacology. 2020; 9(3): 185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Discussion and C...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded456    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal