Users Online: 65

Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 90-96

Colocasia esculenta: A potent indigenous plant

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission19-Feb-2011
Date of Acceptance18-Apr-2011
Date of Web Publication23-Aug-2011

Correspondence Address:
Rakesh Prajapati
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot - 360 005, Gujarat
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.84188

Rights and Permissions

Colocasia esculenta (CE) Linn. (Family: Araceae) is an annual herbaceous plant with a long history of usage in traditional medicine in several countries across the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. The herb has been known since ancient times for its curative properties and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments such as asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, neurological disorders, and skin disorders. The juice of CE corm is widely used for treatment of body ache and baldness. A wide range of chemical compounds including flavonoids, β-sitosterol, and steroids have been isolated from this species. Extracts from this plant have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hypolipidemic effects presented in this review in order to evaluate the potential use of this plant in pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Araceae, Colocasia esculenta, chemical constituents, ethnomedical uses, pharmacological profile

How to cite this article:
Prajapati R, Kalariya M, Umbarkar R, Parmar S, Sheth N. Colocasia esculenta: A potent indigenous plant. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:90-6

How to cite this URL:
Prajapati R, Kalariya M, Umbarkar R, Parmar S, Sheth N. Colocasia esculenta: A potent indigenous plant. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 Dec 8];1:90-6. Available from:

   Introduction Top

It is a well-known fact that traditional systems of medicines have always played important role in meeting the global healthcare needs. They are continuing to do so at present and shall play major role in future as well. The system of medicines that are considered to be Indian in origin or the systems of medicine, which came to India from other countries and assimilated in Indian culture are known as Indian Systems of Medicine. India has the unique distinction of having six recognized systems of medicine in this category. They are Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Yoga, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy. [1]

Among them, Ayurveda has been practiced for thousands of years. Considerable research on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical therapeutics has been carried out on Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Natural products, including plants, animals, and minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. The current accepted modern medicine or allopathy has gradually developed over the years by scientific and observational efforts of scientists. However, the basis of its development remains rooted in traditional medicine and therapies. [2]

Plants have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality of human life since long and have served humans well as valuable components of medicines, seasoning, beverages, cosmetics, and dyes. The popularity of herbal medicine in recent times is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illness. Therefore, the focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional system. There are many herbs that are predominantly used to treat cardiovascular, liver, central nervous system (CNS), digestive, and metabolic disorders. Given their potential to produce significant therapeutic effect, they can be useful as drug or supplement in the treatment or management of various diseases. Herbal drugs or medicinal plants, and their extracts and isolated compounds have demonstrated a wide spectrum of biological activities. Ethnopharmacological studies on such herbs or medicinally imported plants continue to interest investigators throughout the world. [3]

Selection of scientific and systematic approach for the biological evaluation of plant products based on their use in the traditional systems of medicine forms the basis for an ideal approach in the development of new drugs from plants. One such plant is Colocasia esculenta Linn, commonly known as taro (English); aravi (Hindi) and alupam (Sanskrit). It is a tall and perennial herbaceous plant growing throughout India.

Plant profile

Colocasia esculenta Linn. (Family: Araceae) [Figure 1] is also known as Arum esculentum L. and Colocasia antiquorum Schott. [4] It is commonly called as taro (English); alavi, patarveliya (Gujarati); arvi, kachalu (Hindi); alu (Marathi); alupam, alukam (Sanskrit); and sempu (Tamil). Geographically, it occurs throughout India and is cultivated worldwide. [5],[6]
Figure 1: Colocasia esculenta

Click here to view

Geographical distribution

It is a wild plant and cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. It is cultivated in all hot countries.

Habitat [7]

For taroleaf production, magnesium was found to have a significantly favorable effect. Under the agroclimatic conditions of Kerala, a spacing of 60Χ45 cm, and the use of green leaf mulch, significantly increased the yield, but did not affect the quality aspect of the cormels, such as starch and oxalate content. Use of leaf mulch increased the protein content of the cormels. The growth and yield of taro were found to increase by using Dadap (Erythrina spp.) and Panicum maximum Linn. as soil mulches, the former being more effective than the latter.

Botanical description

Parts used: Leaves and corms [Figure 2]
Figure 2: Corm of C. esculenta

Click here to view

Morphology [8]

  • Colocasia esculenta Linn. is a tall herb [Figure 1], tuberous or with a stout short caudex, flowering and leafing together.
  • Leaves are simple, with a stout petiole, lamina peltate, ovate-cordate or sagittate-cordate. Spadix shorter than the petiole and much shorter than the spathe, appendix much shorter than the inflorescence.
  • Petiole erect, up to 1.2-m long, rarely longer with a triangular sinus cut one-third to half way to petiole, with a dull, not polished surface above, paler or colored beneath, but rarely glaucous.
  • Peduncle shorter than the petiole, spathe pale yellow, 15- to 35-cm long; tube greenish, oblong; lamina narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, convolute, never widely open, and curved slightly backwards in flower.
  • Female inflorescence short, male inflorescence long, cylindrical, usually interposed neuters between the two. Appendix erect, elongate-conical or fusiform, subulate or abbreviate. Male flowers 3-6 androus.
  • Female flowers 3-4 gynous; ovary ovoid or oblong, one-locular; ovules several or many, biseriate; style 0 short in the beginning, later on 0; stigma depressed-capitate, very shortly 3-5 sulcate.
  • Berries obconic or oblong, many seeded. Seeds oblong, sulcate. Albumen copious; embryo axile.
  • Stem above ground 0, or slightly swollen at the base of the leaf-sheaths, arising from a hard tapering rhizome or in cultivated forms a tuberous rhizome suckers and stolons sometimes present.
  • Spadix much shorter than the spathe rather than slender. Female inflorescence as long as the sterile male inflorescence. Appendix much shorter than the inflorescence, style very short; stigma discoid.

Microscopical features of C. esculanta leaf [9]

Upper Epidermis

Epidermis is made up of single layer of spherical to polygonal cells with straight to slightly beaded anticlinal walls, wavy in shape. Chlorophyll is present in epidermal cells. The outer surface is cutinized.


It shows dorsiventral arrangement and mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Palisade cells filled with chlorophyll and phenolic compounds.

Spongy parenchyma

The leaf is monocot, so it shows presence of vacuoles. It is made up of parenchymatous cells with varying size and shape, which measures about 7-9 cells in thickness, with intermittently interspersed vascular elements. A majority of cells are filled with compound-type starch grains. Starch grains are simple, spherical with centric helium and less prominent striations.

Lower epidermis

Epidermis is made up of single layer of polygonal cells with straight to slightly beaded anticlinal walls. It shows the presence of paracytic type of stomata and papillae.

Conducting tissue system

Each vascular bundle is simple and surrounded by a single layer of parenchymatous bundle, while larger vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchymatous bundle sheath. This extends up to the upper or lower or both epidermis.

Traditional uses [8]

  • The pressed juice of the petiole is stypic, and may be used to arrest arterial hemorrhage.
  • It is sometimes used in ear ache and otorrhoea, and also as stimulant and rubefacient and also in internal hemorrhages.
  • Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia.
  • The juice expressed from the leaf stalks with salt is used as an absorbent in cases of inflamed glands and buboes.
  • Cooked vegetable contains mucilage and found to be an effective nervine tonic.
  • Decoction of the peel is given as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea.
  • Increases body weight, prevents excessive secretion of sputum in asthmatic individuals.
  • Juice of the corm is used in cases of alopecia.
  • Internally, it acts as a laxative, demulcent, anodyne, galactagogue and is used in cases of piles and congestion of the portal system; also used as an antidote to the stings of wasps and other insects.
  • Corm is used by people of the Munda tribe as a remedy for body ache.


Mainly leaves contain calcium oxalate, fibers, minerals (calcium phosphorus, etc.), and starch, vitamin A, B, C, etc. [5] Phytochemically, these also contain flavones, apigenin [Figure 3], luteolin [Figure 4], and anthocyanins [Figure 5]. [10]
Figure 3: Apigenin

Click here to view
Figure 4: Luteolin

Click here to view
Figure 5: Anthocyanin

Click here to view

CE tubers contain globulins accounting for 80% of the total tuber proteins, belonging to two unrelated globulin families. [11] The total amino acids recorded in the tubers are in the range of 1,380-2,397 mg/100 g. The lysine concentration was relatively low. [10]

The starch content of the flour varies from 73-76% and the starch yields are in the range of 51-58%. The nitrogen content in the flours varies from 0.33-1.35%. The starch contains 0.23-0.52% lipid and 0.017-0.025% phosphorus in the form of phosphate monoester derivatives. [11]

Corm contains starch, mucilage, dihydroxysterols, fat, calcium oxalate, vitamin B, iron, etc. [5] Besides starch, the tubers contain natural polysaccharide with 56% neutral sugars and 40% anionic components. Steamed corms contain 30% starch and 3% sugar. [10] From the tubers, two dihydroxysterols, 14α-methyl-5α-cholesta-9, 24-diene-3b, 7α-diol and 14α-methyl-24-methylene-5α-cholesta-9, 24-diene-3α, 7 α-diol, besides b-sitosterol [Figure 6] and stigmasterol, nonacosane and cyanidin 3-glucoside [Figure 7] have been isolated. In addition, five novel aliphatic compounds tetracos-20-en-1, 18-diol; 25-methyl triacont-10-one; octacos-10-en-1, 12-diol; pentatriacont-1, 7-dien-12-ol and 25-methyl-tritriacont-2-en-1, 9, 11-triol, along with nonacosane and cyanidin 3-glucoside have been reported. An antifungal compound, 9, 12, 13-trihydroxy-(E)-10-octadecenoic acid, and two enzymes, lipoxygenase and lipid hydroperoxide-converting enzyme, which are responsible for the production of antifungal lipid peroxides, were detected in taro tubers infected by Ceratocystis fimbriata0.[7]
Figure 6: β - Sitosterol

Click here to view
Figure 7: Cyanidine 3-glucoside

Click here to view

Phytochemical investigations


Iwashina et al. carried out isolation and identification of the flavonoids in the leaves of C. esculenta plant. The flavonoids were identified by UV spectral analysis. They isolated eight flavonoids viz. orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vicenin-2, orientin 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 3'-O-glucoside, vitexin X" -O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside [12] [Table 1] and [Figure 8].
Table 1: Structural variation in fl avonoids isolated from C. esculenta leaves

Click here to view
Figure 8: Structure of flavonoids isolated from C. esculenta leaves

Click here to view

Further, Nakayama et al. investigated anthocyanin composition in the plant. In his study, anthocyanins were extracted with 50% methanol, further isolated by adsorption on insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and purified by thin layer chromatography. The pigments were identified by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods as pelargonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Levels of anthocyanins were highest in the skin of the corm, 16.0 mg%, with equal amounts, 3.29 mg%, in both corm and petiole. Anthocyanogens ere also present in the plant. [13]

Oxalate content

Huang et al. measured oxalate contents in Colocasia corms, using strong anion-exchange column chromatography. In the study, the column was developed with a mobile phase of 3 mM phthalic acid with its pH adjusted to 3.5 using lithium hydroxide. The flow rate was adjusted at 1.0 ml/min. The system was compatible with a conductivity detector. Total oxalates and soluble oxalates were measured in 1 N HCl and water extracts, respectively. Insoluble oxalate contents were the differences between them by calculation. In nine taro cultivars, total oxalate contents were in the range of 33-156 mg/100 g of fresh weight and soluble oxalate contents in the range of 19-87 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Insoluble oxalate contents were calculated to be 29.35-73.97% of the total oxalate contents in tested plant corms. [14]



Cooked vegetable contains mucilage and is an effective nervine tonic. Leaf juice is a stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. The juice expressed from the leaf stalks with salt is used as an absorbent in cases of inflamed glands and buboes. Decoction of the peel is given as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea. The juice of the corm is used in cases of alopecia. Internally, it acts as a laxative, demulcent, anodyne, galactagogue and is used in cases of piles and congestion of the portal system, as well as an antidote to the stings of wasps and other insects.

Pharmacological reports

Hypoglycemic property

Grindley et al. screened the anti-diabetic action of the CE plant. As part of the study, they investigated carbohydrate digestion and intestinal ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed extract of the plant. In the study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained for four weeks on the plant extract or commercial linamarin. Rats fed commercial linamarin had significantly lower blood glucose level compared to the diabetic rats fed normal diet. Feeding of commercial linamarin to diabetic rats significantly decreased the activity of intestinal amylase compared to that on normal rats. Plant extract or commercial linamarin significantly increased the activities of intestinal disaccharidases compared to diabetic rats fed normal diet. Na + /K + ATPase activity in the lower segment of the intestine was significantly reduced in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. In the upper segment of the intestine, plant extract or commercial linamarin supplementation increased the activity of the enzyme above the normal level. Those observations reveal that the plant possesses hypoglycemic activity and that may be due to its cyanoglucoside content. [15]

Antifungal activity

Yang et al. evaluated the antifungal activity of taro, along with molecular cloning and recombinant gene expression studies. A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms using both degenerated primers/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and 5′-/3′-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) extension. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was over-expressed in  Escherichia More Details coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Thus, the investigation clearly revealed a toxic effect of the plant on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi. [16]

Anti-cancer action

Brown et al. evaluated in vitro anti-cancer effect of the plant on colonic adenocarcinoma cells. In the study, soluble extracts of plant were incubated at 100 mg/ml in vitro for antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. 3H-thymidine incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the plant inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When plant extract was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic changes. The plant enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells, suggesting that the plant is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive immunostimulatory role. Thus, the plant showed the anticancer action by two distinct mechanisms: one, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; and the second, by non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which, in turn, can lyse cancerous cells. [17]

Hypolipidemic effect

Sakano et al. tested ethanolic extract of the taro plant (CE) along with other 130 vegetables, for inhibition of human lanosterol synthase (hOSC) in order to find the compounds to suppress cholesterol biosynthesis. During the study, 12 samples showed significant inhibition, while highest inhibition (55% inhibition at 300 mg/ml) was found with taro. Moreover, examination of activity variation among eight taro cultivars indicated that "Aichi-wase" and "Yatsugashira" had the most potent activity for hOSC inhibition. In order to identify the active constituent of taro, ethanolic extracts of "Aichi-wase" were partitioned with hexane and aqueous methanol and fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. Inhibitory activity was concentrated in two major active fractions. Further purification of these fractions by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) yielded three monogalactosyl diacylglycerols and five digalactosyl diacylglycerols as active compounds that showed 28-67% inhibitory activities at the concentration of 300 mg/ml. [18]

Moreover, Boban et al. studied the effects of mucilage, isolated from taro (CE), fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum), and Dioscorea esculenta on metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins by using experimental animal models. The mucilages identified were a galactomannan from fenugreek seeds; a glucomannan from D. esculenta tubers, and an arabinogalactan from CE tubers. Rats were fed these mucilages at a dose of 3 mg/100 g body weight per day for 8 weeks. All these mucilages decreased the lipid levels both in serum and tissues. Among these mucilages, glucomannan showed the most hypolipidemic effect followed by galactomannan and arabinogalactan. Further, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of mucilage-fed rats. There was a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins, mainly very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), by hepatocytes isolated from mucilage-fed rats when compared to control (P<0.05). Further, this was confirmed by pulse-chase analysis. Among different mucilages, mannose-rich glucomannan showed the prominent effect, followed by galactomannan, and mannose-free arabinogalactan showed minimal effect. The study results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of dietary fiber from the plant involved a decrease in hepatic production of VLDL and that it varied with the nature of the fiber. [19]

Anti-inflammatory activity

Shah et al. investigated anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of CE in Wistar rats using the carrageenan-induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. It inhibited leukocyte migration, reduced the pleural exudates, and reduced the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control. [20]

Nervine tonic

Manisha et al. evaluated the neuropharmacological activities of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of CE using several experimental models. In the study, adult Wistar albino rats were subjected to behavior despair and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Thiopental-induced sedation and rotarod tests were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The effects of the plant extract on anxiety, depression, thiopental-induced sleeping time, and rotarod performance were evaluated. The anxiolytic activity of extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per os (p.o.) was characterized by increased time spent and number of entries in open arms in the EPM paradigm as compared to control group (P<0.001). The extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a dose-dependent significant reduction in the duration of immobility (P<0.01) in the behavior despair test. The plant extract at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to produce a significant reduction in motor coordination (P<0.001) and prolongation of thiopental-induced sleeping time (P<0.001). Thus, results of the study showed that the plant possesses various neuropharmacological activities such as anti-depressant, anxiolytic, sedative, and smooth muscle relaxant activity. [21]

   Discussion and Conclusions Top

Medicinal plants are local heritage with the global importance. The world is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants play an important role in the lives of rural people, particularly in remote parts of developing countries with few health facilities. The present review revealed that CE is utilized for the treatment of some common diseases. In the present review, we have congregated information pertaining to botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies. The plant has been studied for various pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diarrheal, astringent, nervine tonic, and hypolipidemic activity. Moreover, chemically, the plant contains various biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, and other micronutrients. Therefore, it is necessary to exploit it to its maximum potential in the medicinal and pharmaceutical field.

   References Top

1.Prasad LV. Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy Traditional Medicine in Asia. In: Chaudhury RR, Rafei UM, editors. New Delhi: WHO- Regional Office for South East Asia; 2002: p. 283-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Vishnukanta, Rana AC. Melia azedarach, Pharmacog Rev 2008;2:173-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Arulmozhi S, Mazumber PM, Ashok P, Narayanan LS. Pharmacological activites of Alstonia scholaris Linn. (Apocynaceae) - A Review. Pharmacog Rev 2007;1:163-70.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Wiersema JH, Leon B. World Economic Plants, A standard reference. New York: CRC Press; 1999. p. 143.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Sheth AK. The Herbs of Ayurveda. Ahmedabad: A.K. Sheth Publishers; 2005. p. 356.   Back to cited text no. 5
6.Pullaiah T. Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Regency Publication; 2006;6:18.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Anonymous. The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. New Delhi: NISCSIR; 2001:2:157.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Dehradun: International Book Distributors; 2005;4:2615.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Kalariya MV, Rakesh PP, Parmar SK, Sheth NR. Pharmaconostic evaluation of Colocasia esculenta leaves: Dissertation conducted at Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra Uni., Rajkot, India; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Springer; 2007. p. 167.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Anonymous. The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. New Delhi: NISCSIR; 2005;1:225.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Iwashina T, Konishi T, Takayama A, Fukada M, Ootani S. Isolation and identification of the flavonoids in the leaves of taro. Ann Tsukuba Botanical Garden 1999;18:71-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Nakayama TO, Harvey TJ, Tsung Hui CK. Anthocyanin composition of taro. J Food Sci 2006;42:19-21.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Huang AS, Tanudjaja LS. Application of anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in determining oxalates in taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms. J Agric Food Chem 1992;40:2123-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Grindley BA, Omoruyi F, Asemota HN, Morrisona A. Carbohydrate digestion and intestinal ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed extract of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) or dasheen (Colocasia esculenta). Nut Res 2002;22:333-41.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Yang AH, Yeh KW. Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no.1). Planta Med 2005;221:493-501.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Brown AC, Reitzenstein JE, Liu J, Jadus MR. The anti-Cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In Vitro. Phytother Res 2005;19:767-71.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Sakano Y, Mutsuga M, Tanaka R, Suganuma H, Inakuma T, Toyoda M, et al. Inhibition of Human Lanosterol Synthase by the Constituents of Colocasia esculenta (Taro). Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:299-304.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Boban PT, Nambisan B. Sudhakaran PR. Hypolipidaemic effect of chemicaly different mucilages in rats: A comparative study. Brit J Nutr 2006;96:1021-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Shah BN, Nayak BS, Bhatt SP, Jalalpure SS, Sheth AK. The anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Sau Pharm J 2007;15:3-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Kalariya M, Parmar S, Sheth N. Neuropharmacological activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Pharm Biol 2010;48:1207-12.  Back to cited text no. 21


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]

  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Climate change and cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) production: assessing impacts and potential adaptation strategies in Zimbabwe
Abel Chemura, Dumisani Kutywayo, Danisile Hikwa, Christoph Gornott
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2022; 27(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Phenotypic characterization of taro [Colocasia esculenta (l.) Schott.] accessions for yield and nutrient composition in Ghana
Esther Fobi Donkor, Daniel Nyadanu, Richard Akromah, Kingsley Osei
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used by Mizo tribes in Champhai district of Mizoram, India
T. B. C. Laldingliani, Nurpen Meitei Thangjam, R. Zomuanawma, Laldingngheti Bawitlung, Anirban Pal, Awadhesh Kumar
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2022; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Clinical Evidence for the Effectiveness of Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of an Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder: A Review Study
Maryam Hosseini Abrishami, Mohamad Reza Noras, Atefeh Soltanifar, Roshanak Salari, Lida Jarahi, Hamideh Khorram Pazhouh
Current Drug Discovery Technologies. 2022; 19(5)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Differential Occurrence of Cuticular Wax and Its Role in Leaf Physiological Mechanisms of Three Edible Aroids of Northeast India
Facundo Pieniazek, Madhumita Dasgupta, Valeria Messina, Mayengbam Premi Devi, Yumnam Indrani Devi, Sansuta Mohanty, Satyapriya Singh, Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo, Potshangbam Nongdam, Gobinda Chandra Acharya, Manas Ranjan Sahoo
Agriculture. 2022; 12(5): 724
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Apoptosis Induction Associated with Enhanced ER Stress Response and Up-Regulation of c-Jun/p38 MAPK Proteins in Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis Hassk Extract
Natharika Chomlamay, Watcharaporn Poorahong, Sukanda Innajak, Ramida Watanapokasin
Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2022; 90(3): 45
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Identification of Forest by GIS and Ethnomedicinal Plant Survey in Rayagada, Odisha, India
Sunil Kumar Bishoyi, Upendra Prasad Tripathy, Subhransu Sekhar Gouda
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2022; : 121
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Biologically active substances in the aboveground part of three Stellaria speciesx
Natalya Garnova, Alla Filippova, Mikhail Kasatkin, Yuliya Tikhonova
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; : 3153
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Wild Food Harvest, Food Security, and Biodiversity Conservation in Jamaica: A Case Study of the Millbank Farming Region
Donovan Campbell,Alex A. Moulton,David Barker,Tashana Malcolm,Lance Scott,Adrian Spence,Jhannel Tomlinson,Tiffany Wallace
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021; 5
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Ethnomedicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Jaundice (Icterus) in Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya—A Review
Disha Raghuvanshi,Rajni Dhalaria,Anjali Sharma,Dinesh Kumar,Harsh Kumar,Martin Valis,Kamil Kuca,Rachna Verma,Sunil Puri
Plants. 2021; 10(2): 232
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Chemical features of rejected taro tuber flour (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) and its effect on productive performance in post-weaning pigs
Willan Orlando Caicedo,Felipe Norberto Alves Ferreira,Manuel Lázaro Pérez Quintana,Clarice Speridião Silva Neta,Walter Motta Ferreira
Ciencia & Tecnología Agropecuaria. 2021; 22(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Effect of taro [ Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] flour and different shortening ratio on physical and chemical properties of gluten-free cookie
Nazik Meziyet Dilek,Nermin Bilgiçli
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Evaluation of improved taro (Colocasia esculenta(L.) Schott) genotypes on growth and yield performance in North-Bench woreda of Bench-Sheko zone, South-Western Ethiopia
Tewoderos Legesse, Tilahun Bekele
Heliyon. 2021; 7(12): e08630
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Investigation on the effect of Colocasia esculenta extract on the fresh properties of cement paste
Anish Thankaswamy,Belarmin Xavier C.S.
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Taro (Colocasia esculenta); Zero wastage orphan food crop for food and nutritional security
Santwana Aditika,Bhuvnesh Kapoor,Saurabh Singh,Pankaj Kumar
South African Journal of Botany. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Green synthesis of silver nanoplates using the special category of plant leaves showing the lotus effect
Sangeeta Agarwal,Manisha Gogoi,Smritirekha Talukdar,Pinky Bora,Tarun Kumar Basumatary,N. Nirjanta Devi
RSC Advances. 2020; 10(60): 36686
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Traditional Herbal Medicines Against CNS Disorders from Bangladesh
Md. Josim Uddin,Christian Zidorn
Natural Products and Bioprospecting. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Herbal medicines and phytochemicals for obsessive–compulsive disorder
Zahra Ayati,Jerome Sarris,Dennis Chang,Seyed A. Emami,Roja Rahimi
Phytotherapy Research. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Stellaria media (L.) Vill.- A plant with immense therapeutic potentials: phytochemistry and pharmacology
Oluwole Solomon Oladeji,Abel Kolawole Oyebamiji
Heliyon. 2020; 6(6): e04150
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Benefits of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Corms, an Underexploited Tuber Crop
Patrícia Ribeiro Pereira,Érika Bertozzi de Aquino Mattos,Anna Carolina Nitzsche Teixeira Fernandes Corrêa,Mauricio Afonso Vericimo,Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 22(1): 265
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Used in Cataract Management
Devesh Tewari,Ovidiu Samoila,Diana Gocan,Andrei Mocan,Cadmiel Moldovan,Hari Prasad Devkota,Atanas G. Atanasov,Gokhan Zengin,Javier Echeverría,Dan Vodnar,Bianca Szabo,Gianina Crisan
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2019; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Evaluation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) germplasm collection in South Africa
A.S. Gerrano,W.S. Jansen van Rensburg,M. Bairu,S. Venter
Acta Horticulturae. 2019; (1255): 77
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Potential of Colocasia leaves in human nutrition: Review on nutritional and phytochemical properties
Kritika Gupta,Ashwani Kumar,Vidisha Tomer,Vikas Kumar,Mona Saini
Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2019; : e12878
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Identification of functional properties of non-timber forest produce and locally available food resources in promoting food security among Irula tribes of South India
Mohammed Kirthika P,Mohammed Janci Rani P R
Journal of Public Health. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Tarin, a Potential Immunomodulator and COX-Inhibitor Lectin Found in Taro (Colocasia esculenta )
Patricia Ribeiro Pereira,Anna Carolina Nitzsche Teixeira Fer Corrêa,Mauricio Afonso Vericimo,Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Phytochemical Content and In Vitro Antimycelial Efficacy of Colocasia esculenta (L), Manihot esculenta (Crantz) and Dioscorea rotundata (Poir) Leaf Extracts on Aspergillus niger and Botryodiplodia theobromae
John M. Ehiobu,Gideon I. Ogu
Journal of Horticulture and Plant Research. 2018; 1: 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases
Diego Baião,Cyntia de Freitas,Laidson Gomes,Davi da Silva,Anna Correa,Patricia Pereira,Eduardo Aguila,Vania Paschoalin
Nutrients. 2017; 9(9): 1044
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent
Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi,Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar,Maryati Mohamed,Siti Fatimah Sabran,Muhammad Murtala Mainasara
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Thermal and chemical denaturation of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin from a2ß2 to unfolded state
Himadri Biswas,Rajagopal Chattopadhyaya
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Biochemical efficacy, molecular docking and inhibitory effect of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride on insect acetylcholinesterase
Kabrambam D. Singh,Rajendra K. Labala,Thiyam B. Devi,Ningthoujam I. Singh,Heisnam D. Chanu,Sonia Sougrakpam,Bunindro S. Nameirakpam,Dinabandhu Sahoo,Yallappa Rajashekar
Scientific Reports. 2017; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 2, 3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-Dimethyl-2, 5-furandione): A plant derived insecticidal molecule from Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott
Yallappa Rajashekar,Ngaihlun Tonsing,Tourangbam Shantibala,Javagal R. Manjunath
Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 20546
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Process optimization for extraction of bioactive compounds from taro (Colocasia esculenta), using RSM and ANFIS modeling
Vivek Kumar,H. K. Sharma
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Chromium Accumulation in Medicinal Plants Growing Naturally on Tannery Contaminated and Non-contaminated Soils
S. Jaison,T. Muthukumar
Biological Trace Element Research. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Documentation of traditional Siddha medicines for skin diseases from Katpadi taluk, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India
Sudharsana Sundarrajan,Mohanapriya Arumugam
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Physicochemical and Nutritional Characterization of Starch Isolated fromColocasia antiquorumCultivated in Oaxaca, Mexico
Karina Ríos-Ríos,Edith González-Mondragón,Maira Segura-Campos,Mariela Ramírez-Jiménez,Jesús López-Luna,Irma López-Martínez,David Betancur-Ancona
Journal of Chemistry. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Crude extract from taro (Colocasia esculenta) as a natural source of bioactive proteins able to stimulate haematopoietic cells in two murine models
Patrícia R. Pereira,Joab T. Silva,Mauricio A. Verícimo,Vânia M.F. Paschoalin,Gerlinde A.P.B. Teixeira
Journal of Functional Foods. 2015; 18: 333
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Purification and Characterization of the Lectin from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and Its Effect on Mouse Splenocyte Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo
Patrícia Ribeiro Pereira,Eduardo Mere Aguila,Maurício Afonso Verícimo,Russolina Benedeta Zingali,Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin,Joab Trajano Silva
The Protein Journal. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh
Mohammad Humayun Kabir,Nur Hasan,Md Mahfuzur Rahman,Md Ashikur Rahman,Jakia Alam Khan,Nazia Tasnim Hoque,Md Ruhul Quddus Bhuiyan,Sadia Moin Mou,Rownak Jahan,Mohammed Rahmatullah
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2014; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Are Famine Food Plants Also Ethnomedicinal Plants? An Ethnomedicinal Appraisal of Famine Food Plants of Two Districts of Bangladesh
Fardous Mohammad Safiul Azam,Anup Biswas,Abdul Mannan,Nusrat Anik Afsana,Rownak Jahan,Mohammed Rahmatullah
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties
Rui F. Gonçalves,Artur M.S. Silva,Ana Margarida Silva,Patrícia Valentão,Federico Ferreres,Angel Gil-Izquierdo,João B. Silva,Delfim Santos,Paula B. Andrade
Food Chemistry. 2013; 141(4): 3480
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation
International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2013; 31(2): 361
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Further Knowledge on the Phenolic Profile ofColocasia esculenta(L.) Shott
Federico Ferreres,Rui F. Gonçalves,Angel Gil-Izquierdo,Patrícia Valentão,Artur M. S. Silva,João B. Silva,Delfim Santos,Paula B. Andrade
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012; 60(28): 7005
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Discussion and C...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded2888    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 42    

Recommend this journal