|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 19-26
|Date of Web Publication||11-Mar-2011|
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
. Oral Presentations. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:19-26
Studies on The Impact of α- Tocopherol Supplementation on High-Fat Fed Hyperlipidemic Rat
C. Elanchezhiyan, A. Boopathy Raja, S. Hemalatha, and
Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, 1Raja Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Tamil Nadu
Most of the world's population suffers from a hyperlipidemic condition, which ultimately leads to different ailments. Food intake plays a major role in many of the diseases related to a hyperlipidemic condition. Nowadays, the food habits of the population are changing, with them turning to more intake of junk foods. Hyperlipidemic condition always brings atherosclerosis and other coronary risks. There is, therefore, a need to find out an alternative routs to overcome this hyperlipidemia, other than allopathic medicines. In the present study, an attempt is made to analyze the supplementation of ?-tocopherol in high-fat fed hyperlipidemic rats. The lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and phospholipids have been estimated and the results will be discussed in detail.
Protective Role of Black Cumin on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
V. Manju1, R. Revathi, M. Murugesan,
Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem-11.
Myocardial infarction is a major public health problem and the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Isoproterenol is also known to generate free radicals and to stimulate lipid peroxidation, which may be a causative factor for irreversible damage to the myocardial membrane. To study the effect of Black cumin on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats, four groups of rats, each comprising of ten animals, were selected for this study. Group I served as the control and group II animals were given isoproterenol (85 mg / kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p). Group III animals were orally administered Black cumin (150 mg / kg body weight) for 15 days. Group IV animals received both Black cumin (150 mg / kg body weight) and isoproterenol (at the end of the treatment), for 15 days. The status of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in both serum and heart tissue were estimated. Isoproterenol-treated rats showed elevated levels of lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbutric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH), significantly decreased in the plasma, erythrocyte, and heart tissues. Administration of the Black cumin at dose 150 mg / kg body weight by intragastric intubation for 15 days prevented the above-mentioned changes and showed improvement toward a normal condition. The study confirms the protective effect of Black cumin on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
The Inhibitory Effect of Quercitrin, A Bioflavonoid, on Lipid Peroxides and Antioxidant Status in Cardiovascular Diseases
R. Babujanarthanam and M. Rajasekarapandiyan1
Department of Biochemistry, K.M.G.College of Arts and Science, Gudiyattam, 1A.A.Government Arts College, Namakkal
The study was designed to evaluvate the inhibitory effects of quercitrin on cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory role of quercitrin on lipid peroxides and antioxidants in normal and isoproterenol (ISPH)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Subcutaneous injections of isoproterenol (200 mg/ kg, sc, ISO) were given to male albino Wistar rats at an interval of 24 hours for two days, and they showed a significant increase in the activity of serum heart tissue marker enzymes creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT), and a significant decrease in the activity of these enzymes in the heart tissues. Lipid peroxidative products (TBARS and lipid peroxidases) were significantly increased. The antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dimuitase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidases (Gpx), and reduced glutathione and vitamin C showed a significant decrease in isoproterenol injected rats. Pretreatment with quercitrin (30 mg / kg) to isoproterenol-treated rats, orally, for a period of 45 days, caused a significant protective effect. In normal rats treated with quercitrin, we could not observe any significant change in all the parameters studied. The present results show that quercitrin plays a protective and effective role in antioxidant studies in isoproterenol-induced experimental myocardial infarction.
Blood Fluke Correlated Cardiovascular Risks
K. Solai Arasi, N. Sasi Rekha, and D. Kannammal1
Department of Zoology and Microbiology Thiagarajar College,Madurai 1Sri Meenakshi Government College for Women (Madurai)
Schistosomiasis is a disease of parasitic infection. More often than not, the fresh water mollusks in the pond and river and some terrestrial mollusks act as intermediate hosts for blood flukes, and transfer the blood flukes to humans through water, during bathing and drinking. The blood fluke that enters into the human affects the esopagous and forms esophageal varices. Among these, 20% of the osophageal varices patients are affected by heart failure. Esophageal varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding. Portal hypertension is an increase in the blood pressure within a system of veins called the portal venous system. Normally, the veins that come from the stomach, intestine, spleen, and pancreas, merge into the portal vein, which then branches into smaller vessels and travels through the liver. If the vessels in the liver are blocked, it is difficult for the blood to flow causing high pressure in the portal system, When the pressure becomes too high, the blood backs up and finds other ways to flow back to the heart, and is pumped to the lungs, where it gets rid of waste products and picks up oxygen. Other causes of portal hypertension include blood clots in the portal vein, blockages of the veins that carry the blood from the liver to the heart. Hence, in the present investigations, the medical histories of esophageal varices patients were analyzed, to find their causative agents. Particularly the schistosomiasis-infected esophagus varices patients were chosen to analyze the risk of heart disease among them, due to portal hypertension.
Biochemical Screening of Antioxidant And Lipoprotein Profile in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease (Myocardial Infarction)
Sankara College of Arts and Science, Kanchipuram
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is mostly associated with smoking, obesity, hypertension, and chronic subclinical lack of antioxidants. A family history of CVD is one of the strongest predictors of CVD. Screening for CVD includes evaluating homocysteine level, lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and HDL cholesterol), and antioxidant status. The defense mechanisms of enhanced oxidative stress and impaired antioxidants play a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of CVD and myocardial complication.
The main objective of the present study is to provide a clear picture of blood lipid peroxidation, protein level, LDL-cholesterol, and antioxidant status in the serum and plasma of CVD patients, using colorimetric methods. This study has been conducted on ten adult CVD patients and an equal number of healthy subjects. Elevated lipid peroxidation and multidirectional changes in the antioxidant defense system have been noticed in CVD. The present study suggests that altered levels of protein profile and LDL-cholesterol are indicators of cardiovascular diseases. Our study concludes that the serum total protein and albumin levels have been reduced in patients with CVD, as compared to healthy subjects, due to the poor nutritional status, severe inflammation, and few infections, whereas, there is an increase in globulin level due to chronic inflammation. Also, altered levels of lipids and insufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in plasma were observed in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Dust Pollution And Incidence of Arrhythmia Among The Roadside Shopkeepers
N. Sasirekha and M. Chandran
Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai-9
Air pollution has become major concern in India in recent years. Large parts of the Indian urban population are exposed to some of the highest pollution levels in the world. Particularly, the dust fall rate in the urban road side is very high every day throughout India. The ultra fine particles present in this dust are probably capable of causing a greater level of tissue damage among the nearby inhabitants. The particles of dust smaller than 5 ΅m, particularly, are carried by inhalation to the alveolar region and deposited there. These cause various respiratory diseases. Hence, in the present study the dust fall rate in selected sites of Madurai District have been observed by the dust gauge method, which is correlated with the frequency of disease prevalence among the roadside shopkeepers. The observed statistically analyzed results showing a higher level of prevalence of various diseases among the roadside shopkeepers was compared with those from unexposed control population.
Influence of Sprouted Bean Diet Ldl Level and the Decline of Cardiovascular Risks
G. Chandran, K. Solai Arasi, and M. Chandran
Department of Zoology and Microbiology,Thiagrrajar College, Madurai-625009
Nuts come from around the world in a variety of shapes and sizes. Most nuts come from the seeds or dried fruits of trees and have an outer shell that both protects the nut and keeps the healthy fats inside the nut from spoiling. After being picked, most nuts are dried not only to improve the flavor and add more crunch to the texture, but to preserve them. These are known as raw nuts. Peoples do not like these raw nuts. Therefore, these nuts are subjected to various processes and appear in many forms, such as, shelled or unshelled, salted or unsalted, roasted, sprouted, candied, spiced, packaged, or bulk, and are prepared for human consumption. The nutritive values and the beneficial effects of these nuts are improved by following some traditional procedures, among these sprouting is an important one. Sprouted nuts clearly solve the nutrition problem of roasted nuts and the tastelessness of raw nuts. However, the process is not new. It dates back thousands of years and is still practiced today in the non-meat-eating cultures where nuts are a staple food. The subset compound of the lipid family called cholesterol is the main factor for cardiovascular disease, particularly the LDL, which plays a vital role in heart disease. LDL is considered 'bad' because it travels from the liver throughout the body and can deposit plaque in the artery and vessel walls that surround the brain and the heart. Eventually, the vessels and arteries narrow and harden, a condition called atherosclerosis, which increases the likelihood of heart attacks and strokes. HDL has the opposite effect and is considered 'good' because it travels through the blood, picking up LDLs and taking them back to the liver where they can be excreted or recycled, or delivering them to cells that need them. HDL protects against heart attacks and strokes and helps relax blood vessels. For the present research, 20 subjects with high serum cholesterol and atherosclerotic patients, were chosen from the government hospitals and were recommended to take sprouted bean daily in their diet. From the first day of experiment, once in three days, the total serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL were estimated. The estimation was continued up to 30 days. The results were analyzed to trace out the impact of sprouted bean in lowering the cholesterol. The analyzed result showed that 40% of patients had reduction of total cholesterol and LDL in their blood as compared to atherosclerotic patients.
A Study of Lipid Profile as a Predictor Of Cardiovascular Risk in Women With Subclinical Hypothyroidism
K.Suganthy, P.K.Mohanty, V.Shanmugapriya
Department of Biochemistry, Vinayaka Missions Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT) is a crippling latent morbidity attributed to the predisposition of Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Premature MI, Coronary Artery Disease, and so on. In recent years, it has emerged as a great public health problem. India being a country with a high prevalence of thyroid disorders relating to iodine deficiency, the importance of SHT cannot be underestimated. The present study highlights the association of SHT with lipid profile abnormalities assessing SHT as a contributing factor to various degenerative conditions. Forty-eight subclinical hypothyroid cases were taken up for study with a mean age of 33.4 7.5. Mean body mass index in SHT was significantly higher (P = 0.003) and 81.2% had a BMI > 23 kg/m2. Individual lipid parameter analysis revealed hypercholesterolemia (64.5%), hypertriglyceridemia (50%), and borderline high LDL-C (64.5%) in SHT. There was a positive and significant correlation of the TSH values with total cholesterol (r = 0.3, P = 0.03) and LDL-C (r = 0.28, P = 0.05). Increase in lipid ratios, total cholesterol / HDL-C (83.3%) and LDL-C / HDL-C (47.9%) were significant. Therefore, SHT and its association as a cause for obesity and hyperlipidemia with increased lipid ratios might increase the cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis, leading to premature CAD.
Cardioprotective, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Gmelina arborea (Ga) in Doxorubicin-Induced Myocardial Necrosis in Rats
T. Vijay1,2, K. Sarumathy1,3, S. Palani4, K. Sakthivel5 , Dhana Rajan6
1Research and Development Center, Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, 2P.G and Research Department of Biochemisry, KMG College of Arts and Science, Gudiyattam Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, 3P.G and Research Department of Biochemisry, DKM College for Women, Vellore, 4Department of Biotechnology, Anna Bioresearch Foundation, Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai, 5PG Research, Department of Zoology, CA Abdul Hakeem College, MelviGAram, 6Department of Biochemistry Jaya College of Arts and Science,Tiruninravur, Chennai-602 024, Tamil Nadu, India
The protective effects of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) in Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity and the antioxidant activity involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs; however, its incidence of cardiotoxicity compromises its therapeutic index. DOX-induced heart failure is thought to be caused by reduction / oxidation cycling of DOX, to generate oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte cell death. Male albino rats were used as in vivo models for the study. A Doxorubicin dose of 20 mg/kg was selected for the present study as this dose offered a significant alteration in biochemical parameters and a moderate necrosis in the heart. The effect of GA oral treatment for 14 days at two doses (250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated against Dox (20 mg/kg, sc)-induced cardiac necrosis. Lipid profile (LDL, VDL, VLDL, and TGs) and level of enzymes (SGP, SGOT) were assessed in the serum and heart; antioxidant parameters, namely, reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), triglycerides(TGs), and total cholesterol were assayed in the blood serum. Significant myocardial necrosis, depletion of endogenous antioxidants, and increase in serum levels of marker enzymes, proteins, alkaline phosphate, urea, and uric acid were observed in Dox-treated animals when compared with the normal animals. GA elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation and elevating the levels of HDL. The present findings have demonstrated that the cardioprotective effects of GA in Dox-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of the membranes. Gmelina arborea is commonly known as Gamhar, a fast growing tree, throughout India. In Ayurveda it has been observed that the root, bark, and fruits are useful in the treatment of leprosy, vaginal discharge, and also as anthelmenthics. Five principal bioactive compounds such as Alkaloids, Saponins, Steroids, Flavonoids, and Glycosides were investigated in Methanol and Chloroform extracts of Gmelina arborea.
Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera Leaf Extract Against Isoproterenol Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract (NNE) by analyzing the status of cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation by-products, antioxidants, minerals, and membrane-bound enzymes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were orally pretreated with NNE alone (500 mg/ kg body weight) daily for a period of 21 days. After the pretreatment period, myocardial infarction was induced in the rats by a subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (20 mg / 100 g body weight) for two days at intervals of 24 hours. Rats treated with Isoproterenol alone showed increased activities of serum cardiac marker enzymes, plasma lipid peroxidation by-products, cardiac membrane-bound enzyme activities, and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. Oral pretreatment with NNE was given to Isoproterenol-treated rats, to significantly restore the status of the above-mentioned biochemical variables.
The present study thus suggests that NNE has the potential to protect the heart from isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage, probably through its anti-lipid peroxidative, antioxidant, and modulating effect on cardiac marker enzymes.
A Study of the Serum Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Markers in Normal Pregnancy and Pre-Eclampsia
S. Lakshmiprabha, Biswajit Mohanty, P. K. Mohanty
Vinayaka Mission Medical College, Karaikal, Tamil Nadu
According to the current knowledge, dyslipidemia and increased oxidative stress are major contributors in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share common metabolic abnormalities, which may lead to pre-eclampsia and CVD at different times in a women's life. Alternatively, pre-eclampsia itself may induce metabolic and vascular changes that may increase the overall future risk for CVD in affected women. The present study was undertaken to compare the changes in lipid profile and oxidative stress markers (MDA) in normal pregnancy and in pre-eclampsia. A case control study was done, consisting of 19 healthy pregnant women and 26 women with pre-eclampsia (ongoing research), admitted to the antenatal ward or labor ward of the General Hospital, Karaikal, and the following estimations were done: serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), Triglycerides(TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C).
The pre-eclampsia cases had a significant rise in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P = < 0.0001). There was a significant rise in serum TG, TC, and LDL-C (P = < 0.0001) and a fall in HDL-C (P = 0.019) in the pre-eclampsia cases. MDA was nearly thrice that of the controls in the cases (P = < 0.0001). The level of rise in the serum lipid did not significantly correlate with the rise or fall in MDA.Thus, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia, reconfirmed by the presemt study, could contribute to cardiovascular risk in pre-eclamptic later in life.
A Study of Oxidative Stress as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Hypothyroidism
V. Shanmugapriya, P. K. Mohanty, K. Suganthy
Department of Biochemistry, Vinayaka Mission's Medical College Karaikal – 609 609, Puducherry
It is estimated that the prevalence of thyroid disorders is more than 42 million in India, the most common being hypothyroidism (12.9%). Oxidative stress is strongly associated with hypothyroidism resulting in atherosclerosis, CAD, aging, osteoarthritis, and so on, which are considered important risk factors for various degenerative conditions. The present study investigates the association of oxidative stress and hypothyroidism. Thirty hypothyroid cases and controls were subjected to thyroid function tests and lipid profile analysis by the standard methods. Malondialdehyde was analyzed as an index of oxidative stress in all study subjects.
The level of oxidative stress in hypothyroids is consequesly higher than the normal controls. The incidence of increased oxidative stress is higher among hypothyroids. A more sensitive ratio for prediction of cardiovascular risk, that is, TC / HDL-C is increased in 68.7% cases against 40% in controls. The other sensitive ratio for risk prediction, that is, LDL-C / HDL-C in hypothyroids, 41.6%, is also seen to be more increased than in the controls, 20%. In the light of the present study, when there is a concurrent increase in the oxidative stress level, the hypothyroid state clearly poses as an important risk predictor. Therefore, the patients are advised to undergo aggressive treatment to alleviate hypothyroidism.
Ursolic Acid Regulates Isoproterenol – Induced Cardiac Apoptosis
T. Radhiga, S. Senthil, and K. V. Pugalendi
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar-608 002
Ursolic acid, a triterpenoid compound, which exists widely in natural plants was evaluated for its protective effect against isoproterenol-induced injury in the cardiac tissue. Myocardial injury was induced by the subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol hydrochloride (85 mg/kg BW), for two consecutive days. Isoproterenol-administered rats showed elevated levels of cardiac markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and cardiac troponins T and I) when compared to the control and ursolic acid-treatment groups. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased in the serum of isoproterenol-administered rats. Administration of isoproterenol in rats resulted in the upregulation of myocardial caspase-3/9 activities and pro-apoptotic Bax and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Ursolic acid-treated rats showed decreased cardiac markers, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and increased HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment prevented apoptosis by the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and downregulation of Bax, caspase 3/9 activities, through a mitochondrial pathway. These results demonstrated that ursolic acid protects the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced cardiac tissue injury, by resuming mitochondrial function and regulating the expression of the Bax, Bcl-2 family members, caspase cascade.
Protective Effects of Borneol on Liver And Kidney Tissues in L-Name Induced Hypertensive Rats: An Ftir Study
M.Saravana kumar and B.Raja
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 Tamil Nadu, India
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, through its effects on target organs like the heart, liver, and kidney. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of borneol in modifying the hypertensive complications, as well as biochemical alterations in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats, using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Specific changes were noticed in the FTIR spectral features of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 180 – 220 g, by the oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg bw/day) in drinking water for four weeks. Subsequently, the rats were treated with borneol (50 mg/kg bw/day) for four weeks. Treatment of rats with L-NAME caused a sustained increase in mean arterial blood pressure and (MAP) heart rate (HR). The aortic and plasma NO levels of the L-NAME-treated group was significantly reduced when compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). Borneol restored MAP and HR to normal levels and also preserved the aortic and plasma NO levels in L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. Furthermore, borneol significantly restored the hepatic and renal function marker levels and reduced molecular alterations (shift) compared to the L-NAME-treated group (P < 0.05). Histopathological findings of borneol-treated liver and kidney of a hypertensive rat confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. Taken together, these results suggested that L-NAME-induced hypertension was associated with a decreased release of aortic and plasma NO levels, and an imbalance in the hepatic and renal marker levels. Our results indicated that the administration of borneol afforded remarkable protection against hypertension on L-NAME rat liver and kidney tissues, which were detected using FTIR spectroscopic techniques.
Protective Effects of Veratric Acid Against Diet- Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats
G. Sathiya and B. Raja
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
The present study investigated the cardioprotective effect of veratric acid against diet-induced atherosclerosis in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed with an atherogenic diet composed of 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% 2-thiouracil (CCT diet) for 30 days, to induce atherosclerosis, and were then treated with various doses of veratric acid ( 20,40, and 80 mg/kg), for 10 consecutive days. Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure were measured every week. Following the intake of a 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% 2-thiouracil (CCT diet) diet, there was a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidative markers (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH)), body weight, mean food consumption, lipid profiles (TC,TG,LDL ,HDL, and VLDL) and a significant decline in the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins E, and C) and the cardiac markers (CK, CK-MB, and LDH). After oral administration of veratric acid (40 mg/kg) to rats fed on an atherogenic diet, for 10 days, there was a significant decline in the levels of lipid peroxidative markers, body weight, mean food consumption, lipid profiles, and significantly higher mean activities of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymic antioxidants, and cardiac markers, when compared to other doses of veratric acid (20 and 80 mg/kg). Histopathological changes were performed to provide direct evidence of atherogenic diet-induced changes and the cardioprotective effect of veratric acid. These results suggest that veratric acid affords a significant anti-atherogenic effect against diet-induced atherosclerosis in rats.
The Attenuative Effect of Naringenin on Cadmium-Induced Oxidative, Macromolecular and Structural Alterations on Rat Heart Revealed by Ftir Spectroscopy
S. Milton Prabu, N. Krishnakumar,1 and PL. RM. Palaniappan1
Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, India 1Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar-608002, Tamilnadu, India
The present study is designed to investigate the protective effect of naringenin in modifying cardiac oxidative stress as well as biochemical alterations at the molecular level in cadmium-intoxicated rat heart by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was used as a source of cadmium and it was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Cadmium exposure caused significant elevation in the levels of cardiac lipid peroxidation end products, protein carbonyl content, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione– S– transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and also depleted the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), and total thiol contents. FTIR spectra results revealed that cadmium induced several alterations in the macromolecular content in rat heart tissues. In cadmium intoxication, an increase in the content of lipids, glycogen, and nucleic acids together with a decrease in proteins was observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the lipid order was also observed. There were alterations in the protein secondary structure in Cd intoxication, with an increase in the anti-parallel and aggregated β-sheet and random coil structure of proteins, whereas, the content of the native ί-sheets decreased, which is generally seen when proteins denature. Besides, the integrity of collagen molecules was found to have increased and demonstrated the alterations in its triple helical structure in Cd-induced heart tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of naringenin may exert its antioxidative effect by modulating the status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and macromolecular alterations in cadmium-intoxicated heart tissues.
Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Moringa oleifera in Chemically Induced Rats
S. Mary Britto
Department of Biochemistry, Idhaya College of Arts and Science for Women Pakkamudayanpet, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
Hypertension is a major health problem in developed and modern societies. It is the primary cause of stroke, heart disease, heart failure, kidney failure, and blindness. The composition of the human diet plays an important role in the management of all the parameters involved in hypertension. The research was investigated to compare the effects of Moringa oleifera with anti-hypertensive drugs on hypertension in chemically induced rats. For this investigation, hypertensive chemicals were administered in albino Wistar rats, to cause hypertension. Subsequently all the biochemical changes of hypertension were analyzed. The pharmacologically active components responsible for reducing hypertension were isolated from plants using the bioassay-guided purification approach and the structure of the components was proposed by spectrophotometric methods. The extract from Moringa oleifera leaves and commercial anti-hypertensive drugs were administered in chemically induced rats via the intraperitoneal route, early in the morning for one week. Again different biochemical parameters such as the serum cholesterol level, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and sodium levels were measured. The Moringa loeifera leaf extract made significant changes in each hypertensive parameter, when compared with the commercially available anti-hypertensive drugs. From this study it was concluded that the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera had profound anti-hypertensive activity. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculation the effect of Moringa oelifera on hypertension was very significant.
Studies on the Processing And Evaluation of Cereal Porridges Suitable For Hyperlipidemia
R.Kalai, R. Jagan Mohan1 and Cissie theeblyn David2
Rani Meyyammai College of Nursing, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, 1Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur, 2Department of Human Resource Development, Home Science College Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Porridge is the most traditional food for infants and adults. A majority of cereals are consumed in the form of porridge. Raw brown rice, parboiled brown rice, Samai (Panicum miliare) were processed and porridge was developed. The nutrient content of the porridge was analyzed. The organoleptic characteristics of the developed porridge were evaluated by untrained judges, using a hedonic scale score card. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the overall acceptability sensory scores of the developed porridges between and within the groups. A study was conducted to test the effect of cereals on lipid profile in rats. The cereals were fed to rats at 30 gm/day for 45 days to observe the effect on the concentration of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the TC, TG, and LDL-C levels, whereas, a significant (P < 0.05) increase was seen in the HDL-C level as compared to the control group.
PM10 Level and the Prevalence Of Cardiovascular Disease Among the Stone Crusher Workers in Madurai District
K. Shameem Rani1 and M. Chandran
1Department of Zoology, M.S.S Wakf Board College, Madurai-20 Department of Zoology and Microbiology, Thiagarajar College, Madurai-9
Airborne particulate matter (PM) consists of a heterogeneous mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in air. High concentration of these ambient particles triggers the onset of acute myocardial infraction. Madurai District has 27 stone crusher industries and five granite and marble industries. Nearly 5000 poor people are working in these industries. For the present study, a direct oral survey and medical examination was conducted, to discover the prevalence rate of the occupational disease among the 500 stone crusher workers. The obtained results show the occurrence of various occupational diseases such as skin diseases, eye disease, lung disease, and heart disease. Among these, the rate of skin disease and lung disease come in the first rank and the heart-related disease comes in third position. Based on the statistical analysis of the obtained data, 29% of the stone crusher workers are affected by the heart disease.
The Cardioprotective Effect of Fenugreek on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
M. Murugesan, R. Revathi, V. Manju
Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem-11, Tamil Nadu
Myocardial infarction is a major public health problem, and the leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Isoproterenol, a catecholamine was administered in the present study, as it served as a standard model to study the beneficial effects of many drugs on cardiac function. To study the effect of fenugreek on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats, four groups of experimental rats, each comprising of 10 animals were selected for this study. Group I served as the control, Group II animals were given isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p), Group III animals were orally administered Fenugreek (250 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days, and the Group 1V animals received both Fenugreek (250 mg/kg body weight) and isoproterenol (at the end of the treatment), for 15 days. The levels of phospholipid, free fatty acid (FFA), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), in both serum and heart tissues, were estimated. Isoproterenol-treated rats showed elevated levels of phospholipid, free fatty acid (FFA), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in both serum and heart tissues. Administration of fenugreek at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight by intragastric intubation, for 15 days, prevented the above-mentioned changes and improved the condition toward normal. The study confirmed the protective effect of fenugreek on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Antihypertensive Effect of Melothria maderaspatana Leaf Fractions on Doca-Salt Hypertensive Rats and Identification Of Compounds In Active Fraction by Gc-Ms Analysis
C. Veeramani and K.V. Pugalendi
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar-608 002. Tamilnadu, India
The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of Melothria maderaspatana leaf fractions on DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and for the identification of compounds in the active fraction, by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Administration of DOCA-salt significantly increased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to sham-operated control rats. When treated with chloroform (CFM), ethyl acetate, EAFM, or methanol fractions of Melothria maderaspatana (MFM), EAFM alone significantly lowered the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the level of sodium and chloride significantly increased, while the potassium level decreased and administration of EAFM brought these parameters to normality. Furthermore, the levels of magnesium and copper significantly increased in the plasma and decreased in the tissues, while zinc increased in the plasma and tissues and administration of EAFM brought these parameters to normality. By GC-MS analysis, phytochemicals such as coumarin, vallinic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were identified as major compounds from EAFM.
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