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   2020| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 10, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Glycemic Index of Commonly Consumed Snack Foods in Oman
Amanat Ali, Mariam S Al-Hakmani, Mostafa I Waly, Musthafa Mohamed Essa
April-June 2020, 10(2):50-56
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_5_20  
Objective: Study the effect of Omani coffee on the glycemic responses and glycemic index (GI) of commonly consumed snack foods in Oman. Methods: We evaluated 9 Omani snack foods including doughnut, croissant, cheese, chicken and fried egg sandwiches, sambosa (vegetables), fried and boiled vermicelli, white bread with red beans for their proximate composition and GI. The proximate composition was determined according to AOAC,[1] whereas GI was measured in 12 healthy human volunteers as described by Wolever et al.[2] Results: The proximate composition of snack foods differed significantly (P < 0.05). The moisture, crude protein and fat contents in foods ranged from 21.9 to 67.5%, 4.3 to 17% and 2.7 to 23.4 %, respectively. Almost similar blood glucose responses were observed when snack foods were given with either water or Omani coffee. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed in the GI of these foods, which ranged between medium and high GI category. The GI of these foods (with water) ranged between 60 and 75, whereas with Omani coffee the GI values ranged between 64 and 78. Higher GI values were observed for doughnut and cheese sandwich, whereas sambosa (vegetables) showed the lowest value. Overall, no significant (P < 005) differences were observed in the GI of snack foods when served either with water or with Omani coffee. Conclusion: The GI of Omani snack foods differed significantly. However, Omani coffee did not affect the GI of these snack foods.
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Study of Prevalence and Lifestyle Related Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among Rural Adolescents of Western Maharashtra
Viyusha T Viswanathan, Supriya S Patil, P.M. Durgawale, S.V. Kakade
April-June 2020, 10(2):29-34
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_75_19  
Context: India is in a nutritional transitional phase; hence overweight and obesity is also on the rise. Nutritional assessment should begin right from adolescence as it is the transition between childhood and adulthood, hence focusing on this age group would not only prevent disease emergence but also promote a healthy life style in them. Aim: To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the risk factors associated with it. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted between May to July 2018 in randomly selected schools of Karad Taluka. 300 adolescents, 12–15 years of age were interviewed using a pretested and semi-structured proforma. Height, weight and Body mass index (BMI) were measured using standard methodology. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using Indian Association of Pediatrics (IAP) age and gender-specific BMI standards and the risk factors were assessed. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square, mean, standard deviation and odds ratio were applied. A P-value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 27(9%) and obesity was 15(5%). Overweight was more in females 13(48.14%) while obesity in males 12(80%). Frequent consumption of fast food, carbonated drinks, snacks and spending 1hr or more daily on television were found to be a significant risk factors for overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity is on a rise even in rural areas. Education and awareness on healthy eating along with physical activity and lifestyle modifications if made in this age will be easily accepted and followed thus bringing significant differences.
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Neuroprotective Effects of Co-administration of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin-E in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Neurodegeneration in Rats
Mahmoodullah Azimi, Abdelkader E Ashour, Azliana Abd Fuaat, Wael M.Y Mohamed
April-June 2020, 10(2):35-42
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_79_19  
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, there is no prevention or cure for AD. The potential use of natural antioxidants for prevention and treatment of AD has attracted considerable attention. Here, we used combination of the antioxidants coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and vitamin-E (Vit E) for the protection against AD. The current study assessed the neuroprotective effects of combination of CoQ10 with Vit E in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-induced neurodegeneration (CCH-ND) rat model. After acclimatization, 27 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220–250 g were divided into six groups; sham control, 2-vessel occlusion (2VO), 2VO+E (treated daily with Vit E, 100 mg/kg, orally following 2VO), CoQ10 (treated daily with CoQ10, 200 mg/kg, orally following 2VO), CoQ10+E (treated with combination of CoQ10 and Vit E, orally following 2VO) and last group was treated with coconut-oil as a vehicle control. On the 8th week, all rats were tested by Morris water maze cognitive test and then euthanized and the hippocampi were isolated. Viable neuronal cell count in the hippocampal region was estimated. The Isoprostane F2 (F2-IsoPs) levels were assessed in the brain homogenates to quantify the oxidative stress status. There was significant difference in neuronal cell death, memory and learning, and F2-Iso level in untreated 2VO group compared to the treated and sham groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference in neuroprotective effects of combination of Vit E with CoQ10 and each one alone. To conclude, combination of the antioxidants (Vit E and CoQ10) improves memory, neuronal cell viability and decreases antioxidant level, same as each antioxidant alone.
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Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tamil Nadu, South India
Nancy Grace Robert Renford, Judie Arulappan, King David Edward Thomas, Kanchana Mala Karuppiah, Kanniammal Chinnathambi, Golden Catherine Thangaswamy
April-June 2020, 10(2):57-64
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_16_20  
Objectives: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including deficits in social reciprocity and nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction. Caregiving children with ASD have both positive and negative outcomes on the caregiver’s quality of life (QOL). Our study assessed the QOL of caregivers of children with ASD. Methods: Quantitative research approach and non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional research design were used. 120 caregivers of children with Autism spectrum disorder were selected. WHOQoL-BREF was used to assess the QOL of caregivers. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Results: The study reported that 59.1% of the caregivers had poor QOL in the psychological domain and 56.6% of the caregivers had poor QOL in the physical domain. However, concerning both the social domain and the environmental domain, caregivers had an average QOL that is 42.5% and 45%, respectively. The caregiver’s QOL as based on the duration of child care showed a significant difference in the QOL under the psychological and environmental domains. There was no significant difference in the QOL of caregivers based on their age under the environmental domain. Conclusion: Therefore, the study has provided collective evidence of the QOL under each domain and provides a need for sustainable need-based interventions that could improve the QOL of caregivers of children with Autism spectrum disorder.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The Role of Phloridzin and its Possible Potential Therapeutic Effect on Parkinson’s Disease
Preeja Prabhakar, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, Saravana Babu Chidambaram
April-June 2020, 10(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_80_19  
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second commonest neuro-degenerative disorder in the world and is complex in terms of its etio-pathological mechanisms, symptomatology, diagnosis and progression. Research on animal models, epidemiology, human postmortem analysis and genetic studies suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuro-inflammation, and derangements in neurochemical pathways regulating protein folding and aggregation, have a role in the etio-pathogenesis and progression PD. However, till date, the treatment options for PD including medication and surgical-interventions are only of symptomatic relief. There is no definite preventive or neuro-protective or disease-modifying cure currently available. The relevance of antioxidant molecules is considered as part of a novel research avenue tackling potential therapeutic adjuncts in the treatment of PD. The beneficial effects of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols provide promising perspectives and are of value in the quest of developing a novel generation of therapeutic agents capable of reducing neuro-inflammation and neuro-degeneration, thereby possibly delaying or preventing or halting the progression of PD. Phloridzin is a dihydrochalcone primarily present in unripe-apples (Malus sp., Rosaceae). There are many proposed mechanisms by which phloridzin mitigates the onset and decrease of the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. These protective actions of phloridzin include its antioxidant anti-neuro-inflammatory (by reducing pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic mediators) and modulation of gene expression including mitochondrial directed flavono-therapy. It is anticipated that further evidence in the efficacy of diet derived phenolic products like phloridzin could lend a novel perspective of the role of nutritional therapeutics in preventing the occurrence of neurodegenerative conditions including PD during the early stages and mitigate its progression in susceptible individuals.
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Sleep and Body Fluids
Sai Priya, A.M. Mahalakshmi, Sunanda Tuladhar, Bipul Ray, B.S. Sushmitha, S. Shivashree, B. Saravanan, Muhammed Bishir, Abid Bhat, Saravana Babu C.
April-June 2020, 10(2):65-68
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_11_20  
Sleep plays a crucial role in metabolic homeostasis thereby influencing health and well-being. It is closely related to the balance of energy and metabolism. Physiological, metabolic and environmental factors affect the length and quality of sleep. As the problem of sleep disturbance is pervasive and the disturbances in sleep are linked to metabolic changes in body fluids. Disturbance in sleep affects composition and physiology of body fluids. This review summarized to provide evidences on sleep disturbances and alterations in major body fluids.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Erectile Dysfunction and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A New Twist
May Hassan Abdul‑Hadi, Marwa Thaier Naji, Hala Aqeel Shams, Oula Mohamed Sami, Hayder Mutter Al‑Kuraishy, Ali Ismail Al‑Gareeb
April-June 2020, 10(2):43-49
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_83_19  
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is recognized as inability to maintain penile erection for appropriate pleasure during sexual intercourse. ED is often linked with different cardio-metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate ED in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total number of 70 patients with T2DM were recruited and they divided into two groups, group (І): 30 patients on metformin therapy, group (ІІ): 40 patients on sulfonylurea compared with matching 30 healthy controls. Total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), free androgen index (FAI), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), lipid profile and anthropometric parameters were estimated. TT levels were low in patients with T2DM compared with healthy control P<0.001. TT serum levels were relatively high in sulfonylurea treated patients compared with metformin-treated patient’s P<0.0001. As well, SHIM score was low in patients with T2DM aged equal or more than 45years (9.96±2.03) as compared with patients with T2DM aged less than 45 years (11.02±2.01), P=0.03 This study concluded that ED is common in patients with T2DM above 45 years, and linked to low testosterone serum levels. Sulfonylurea improves ED in patients with T2DM through increase of TT and FAI, while metformin reduced TT and increased risk of ED.
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