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   2017| July-September  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 4, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Memory Impairment With Reference to Alzheimer’s Disease: An Update
Jyoti Gupta, Mayank Kulshreshtha
July-September 2017, 7(3):45-53
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_7_17  
Dementia or memory loss is the hallmark symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The exploration of AD helps to identify the problems involved in neural structures such as the default network and role of genetic factors. Episodic memory (EM) directly deals with the memory system that allows an individual to consciously retrieve an old experience or an episode of life. EM plays an important role in AD. The World Health Organization predicts that, by 2025, about 75% of the estimated 1.2 billion people aged 60 years and older will reside in developing countries. It is estimated that the number of people living with dementia will almost double every 20 years to 42.3 million in 2020 and 81.1 million in 2040. In India, there are lesser number of good quality scientific studies/researches that deal with the real trend of the disease and determine the mechanism involved, risk factors, investigations on dementia, decline in awareness, and inadequate availability of social benefit. India is a country with varied cultures, and, therefore, conducting a genetic epidemiological study here has greater advantage. The goal of this review is to provide knowledge and increase the awareness of dementia associated with AD, as well as to understand the mechanism involved and its treatment, which can be useful for researchers or scientists in the near future.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Food Label Reading Knowledge and Understanding Among Consumers
Neeta Deshmukh, Raksha Goyal
July-September 2017, 7(3):71-72
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_11_17  
  - 1,717 141
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Pattern and Determinants of Physical Activity in Rural and Urban Adolescents of North India: A Population Based Study
Rambha Pathak, Mitasha Singh, Anmol Goyal, Rashmi Agarwalla, RKD Goel
July-September 2017, 7(3):64-70
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_25_17  
Background: Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of physical inactivity. However, only a few studies have focused on domains and pattern of physical activity (PA) among adolescents. Objective: This study attempts to find out the region specific environmental and social determinants of PA in 10 to 19-year age group. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in the government and private schools of district Ambala, Haryana, situated in North India over a period of 1 year (2013–2014). A stratified random sampling technique was used for a sample size of 1714 participants. PA was assessed using an interviewer-administered youth PA questionnaire which prompts volunteers to self-report on the mode, frequency, and duration of PA and sedentary activities in different domains, including school time and leisure time over the past 7 days. Results: The average duration of screen time per day was reported significantly higher among female as compared to male adolescents; however, it was more than 2 h among both the genders. The average total moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration consistently remained less than 60 min/day and metabolic equivalent of task minutes decreased significantly (P = 0.00) with an increasing age after 12 years. Being overweight and obese had 30% less chance of carrying out MVPA as compared to those with body mass index (BMI) <85th percentile [odds ratio; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70; 0.59–0.82]. Conclusion: The current study reported an overall higher duration of sedentary activity as compared to MVPA among adolescents of North India. PA was mostly associated with environmental factors and inactivity was most associated with sociodemographic factors.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Oral Health Issues and Challenges in Parkinson’s Disease
Ujwala R Newadkar, Swapnil J Khairnar, Arun S Dodamani, Rohan Dilip Newadkar
July-September 2017, 7(3):54-59
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_22_17  
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a slow onset, and compared with the familial forms of the disease, it is associated with advanced age (>55 years of age). It is characterized bycardinal features of bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. It is superseded only by Alzheimer’s disease as the most common neurodegenerative disorder. PD patients may experience increased difficulties in oral health practices due to several factors: motor impairment, apathy, depression, and dementia. Patients with PD present several challenges to the dental healthcare team and to the patient related to both the illness and its treatment. Medications for neurodegenerative diseases can produce xerostomia, which will lead to dental caries. It can also produce the other problems like bruxism, dry throat, gingivitis, tongue edema, abnormal taste, glossitis, and orthostatic hypotension. Special care must be taken during treatment of such patients in the clinics. Our paper presents a brief comprehensive review on PD and its oral health consideration.
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Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plants for Detoxification of Aflatoxins
Rethinasamy Velazhahan
July-September 2017, 7(3):60-63
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_28_17  
Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a major concern worldwide as aflatoxin B1 is implicated in the etiology of hepatic cancer in humans. The aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus when they grow on a wide range of agricultural commodities. Once the food commodities are contaminated with aflatoxin, removal of the toxin is extremely difficult as the toxin is highly stable. Several approaches for detoxification of aflatoxins have been proposed; however, each method has its own shortcomings. Natural plant products are of interest as a source of safe and alternative way for detoxification of aflatoxins. This paper summarizes some of the recent developments in the detoxification of aflatoxins by using plant products.
  - 1,979 194
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