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   2016| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 7, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A mechanism-based short review
Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande, Abraruddin Khawaja
October-December 2016, 6(4):146-151
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.191660  
Prevalence of neurobehavioral disorder is increasing worldwide. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorder observed in the children. It is associated with behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity, attention deficit, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity. The wide range of conditions and factors produces abnormality in neuronal functioning. Alteration in the prefrontal cortex and its links to the striatum and cerebellum; and change in the level of catecholamine are predominantly responsible for ADHD. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) released in these areas regulate network activity. Physiological actions of catecholamine are regulated through activation of receptors such as α1, α2 , β1, β2 , β3 , and D1. The less release of DA or NE leads to insufficient activation of postsynaptic D 1 and α2 A receptors, whereas overstimulation of these catecholamines in conditions such as stress creates abnormal behavioral response and attention. NE reuptake inhibitors selectively enhance the level of catecholamine by interfering with transport proteins, metabolizing enzyme, blocking different sites on receptor and neuronal activity index. The present review gives insights of the role of NE reuptake inhibitors in ADHD.
  5,512 142 1
An empirical review on oxidative stress markers and their relevance in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Sujita Kumar Kar, Ipsita Choudhury
October-December 2016, 6(4):139-145
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.191641  
Oxidative stress results from imbalance in the generation of oxidative free radicals in the body and neutralizing antioxidant mechanisms. It hampers various cellular biochemical processes causing dysfunction of the neurons. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are the two important systems regulating the body's oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has a role in several psychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. Various studies have found elevated levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in patients with OCD, which are considered the markers of oxidative stress. This review discusses the relevance of oxidative stress in OCD.
  2,896 163 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Medication prescribing pattern in pediatric diarrhea with focus on zinc supplements
Smita Dipak Sontakke, Vipin Khadse, CM Bokade, VM Motghare
October-December 2016, 6(4):152-156
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.191673  
Objective: To analyse medication prescribing pattern in paediatric diarrhoea with emphasis on zinc supplements. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital after approval of the institutional ethics committee. Prescriptions of 200 patients attending the paediatric OPD and those admitted in paediatric wards were analyzed to get the following details: demographic characteristics: age, gender, weight, diagnosis; medication details: medicines prescribed, dose/strength, frequency, duration; prescription of zinc supplements: Salt, dose, frequency, duration; any precautions/instructions about medicine use. Results: It was observed that 184 (92%) out of 200 patients were prescribed ORS. Sixty-four percent of the prescriptions contained antimicrobials. Cotrimoxazole was the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial (57.81%). No fixed dose combination(FDC) of antimicrobials was prescribed. More than 90% of the prescriptions mentioned the dosage form, frequency of administration and duration of treatment and 97.95% of the drugs were prescribed by generic names. Zinc supplements (Zinc gluconate) were prescribed in only 27 patients (13.5%) out of 200. Conclusion: Inadequate prescribing of zinc supplements is a matter of concern, the causes of which need to be investigated. It appears that use of zinc in pediatric diarrhea can be increased through existing infrastructure by training and information, education and communication activities. After the prescribers are trained and convinced the next measure would be ensuring easy availability, affordability and accessibility of zinc
  2,318 215 -
Serum pyridoxine levels in HIV-positive patients and its association with tuberculosis and neuropsychiatric manifestations
MR Prabha Adhikari, Sahana Devadasa Acharya, John T Ramapuram, Satish B Rao, Kiran Vadapalli, Mukta N Chowta, Sheetal D Ullal
October-December 2016, 6(4):157-161
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.191678  
Background: Studies have shown the prevalence of micronutrient insufficiency in HIV patients. Decreased plasma levels of pyridoxine, Vitamins B12, A, and E, and zinc have been correlated with significant alterations in immune response and cognitive functions. Serum pyridoxine levels in different subgroup of HIV patients are not well studied. Objective: To study the proportion of pyridoxine deficiency in different subgroups of HIV-positive patients (HIV with tuberculosis - Group I, HIV with neuropsychiatric manifestations - Group II, and HIV-positive patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms or tuberculosis - Group III) and the comparison of mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D), and Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) in them. Methodology: One hundred and fifty HIV patients were divided into three groups. MMSE, HAM-D, HAM-A, hemoglobin levels, pyridoxine levels, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were noted. Results: The proportion of patients with pyridoxine deficiency was 18.8% in Group I and 28.3% in Group II. The percentage of pyridoxine deficiency between Group II and Group III significantly differ (P = 0.048). Patients in Group II showed an association with abnormal neuropsychiatric assessment using MMSE/HAM-D/HAM-A (χ2 = 7.843; P = 0.005). There was a significant correlation between CD4 count and pyridoxine in Group I (r = 0.391, P = 0.006) only. Interpretation and Conclusions: Increased proportion of pyridoxine deficiency is seen in individuals with HIV. Proportion of pyridoxine deficiency is also higher in HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms and tuberculosis have a low CD4 count and pyridoxine levels as compared to HIV-positive patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms or tuberculosis.
  2,097 86 -
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