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   2014| July-September  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 16, 2014

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Scopolamine induced behavioral and biochemical modifications and protective effect of Celastrus paniculatous and Angelica glauca in rats
Atul Puri, Pranay Srivastava, Preeti Pandey, Rajesh Singh Yadav, Prakash Chandra Bhatt
July-September 2014, 4(3):158-169
Introduction: Nootropic agents, including cholinesterase inhibitors are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the side-effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study has therefore been undertaken to assess the synergistic effects of Celastrus paniculatous and Angelica glauca on scopolamine induced dementia in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) alone and with donepezil (2 mg/kg body weight p.o.), C. paniculatous (150 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and A. glauca (150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). The changes in behavioral and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. Results: Scopolamine treated rats showed impaired learning and memory, increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (18%), lipid peroxidation (60%), protein carbonyls (47%) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) (35%), activity of superoxide dismutase (34%) and catalase (42%) in hippocampus as compared with control. Simultaneous treatment of C. paniculatous and A. glauca with scopolamine also caused an improvement in the learning and memory activity associated with AChE activity in hippocampus of rats as compared to those treated with scopolamine alone. Combined treatment of C. paniculatous, A. glauca and scopolamine significantly improved the learning and memory function and AChE activity (30%) associated with decreased lipid peroxidation (33%), protein carbonyls (27%) and increased levels of antioxidant enzymes like reduced GSH (46%), activity of superoxide dismutase (50%) and catalase (62%) in hippocampus of rats as compared with those treated with scopolamine alone. Conclusion: The results of the present study exhibit protective efficacy of combined treatment of C. paniculatous and A. glauca in scopolamine induced dementiaand promising as a memory enhancing agents that is associated with its strong antioxidant potential.
  9 6,553 592
Alteration in antioxidants level and lipid peroxidation of patients with neurodegenerative diseases {Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease}
Ogunro Paul Sunday, Mustapha F Adekunle, Oshodi T Temitope, Adebayo A Richard, Atiba Adeniran Samuel, Akande Joel Olufunminyi, Oke Olufunke Elizabeth
July-September 2014, 4(3):146-152
Objective: To assess the level of oxidative stress (OS) and the antioxidants that play a prominent role in OS of neurodegenerative diseases; also to test the hypothesis that OS is associated with neuronal degeneration in patients with neurodegenerative diseases {Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD)}. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 AD, 42 PD patients and 42 healthy controls aged 60-80 yrs were recruited for the study. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were measured by using standard methods. Results: Plasma TAS was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in AD and PD subjects when compared with the controls. Erythrocyte antioxizdant enzymes activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and activity of G6PD were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in AD and PD when compared with that of controls. However, erythrocyte level of MDA in AD and PD subjects were significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared to the controls. Erythrocyte GSH level was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in AD subjects and (P < 0.05) in PD subjects when compared with the control. Strong significant (P < 0.01) correlation was obtained between the marker of OS (MDA) and SOD among PD and AD patients. Conclusion: The present study reveals elevated OS and strong correlation between SOD and MDA. This indicates that reduced SOD plays a prominent role in the increase of OS in neuronal degeneration.
  7 3,475 287
Toxicological assessment of Pleurotus ostreatus in Sprague Dawley rats
Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini
July-September 2014, 4(3):139-145
Objective: To evaluate toxicological and histopathological assessment of Pleurotus ostreatus, an oyster mushroom in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Toxicity assessment was carried out by acute (72 h) and sub acute toxicity (28 days) studies and also its effects on hepatic marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and renal markers enzymes (urea, uric acid, and creatinine) in blood serum and liver histology of experimental Sprague Dawley rats was performed. Results: The studies indicated that the LD 50 value was found to be >5,000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt). The body weight and general behaviors of animals were observed throughout the experimental period and at end of the study, organ weight, biochemical parameters of blood (serum) as well as liver histology indicated that no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological changes were observed in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. Conclusion: The above studies clearly indicated that the P. ostreatus extract had high margin of safety.
  4 3,551 298
Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) against chronic constriction injury induced behavioral and biochemical alterations: Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism
Anil Kumar, Seema Meena, Raghavender Pottabathini
July-September 2014, 4(3):131-138
Aim: Neuropathic pain (NP) arises due to lesion or disease in somatosensory nervous system. Recent reports indicate the role of Withania somnifera (WS) in various inflammatory pain conditions. The objective of the present study was to explore the possible protective effect of WS against chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced NP in rats. Materials and Methods: CCI of sciatic nerve was performed in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia) followed by biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite) were assessed in sciatic nerves. Drugs were administered consecutively for 21 days from the day of surgery. CCI to sciatic nerve significantly caused thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and oxidative damage in the sciatic nerves when compared with naive and sham control. Results: Chronic administration of WS (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and oxidative damage (as indicated by reduction in lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, restoration of reduced glutathione and catalase activity). Further, L-NAME (5 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly potentiated the protective effect of WS which was significant when compared with their effect per se However, L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment with WS (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the protective effects of WS in sciatic nerve. Conclusion: Result of present study suggests that nitric oxide mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of WS against CCI induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage in rats.
  3 4,683 237
Potential role of Nigella sativa (black cumin) in epilepsy
Prasan R. Bhandari
July-September 2014, 4(3):188-189
  2 5,857 254
Preparation and screening of Swarnaprashana for nootropic activity
Vijayanand Basabaraj Warad, Rajesh Shastri, Prasana Habbu, Pramod Katti, Aswathanarayana Badananahalli Jagannath, Venkatt Hanamanth Kulkarni, Manodeep Chakraborty
July-September 2014, 4(3):170-178
Context: Cognitive disorders are responsible for memory impairments, deterioration of language, motor, sensory abnormalities, gait disturbance, and seizures. Nootropic agents are being primarily used to improve memory, mood and behavior. Aims: In the present study, it was aimed to prepare and evaluate the traditional formulation, Swarnaprashana for its nootropic efficacy on the learning and memory by employing exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models in young and aged mice. Settings and Design: In the present study, Swarnaprashana (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to young and aged Swiss albino mice for 15 days. The elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze were used as exteroceptive behavior models. Materials and Methods: Swarnaprashana was prepared by mixing Swarnabhasma (gold) with honey and ghee was used as vehicle. Scopolamine and naturally ageing-induced amnesic models were used as interoceptive behavior models. Biochemical parameter such as whole brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is used to quantify the nootropic activity. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. Statistical Analysis Used: All data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of 6 mice/experimental group. Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Statistical analyses were performed using Graph pad prism 5.0. The minimal level of significance was identified at P < 0.05. Results: The pretreatment of Swarnaprashana (30 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant improvement in learning and memory (P < 0.01) and also showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in whole brain AChE activity. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that formulation Swaranaprashana has nootropic and anti-AChE activity. Hence, it can be employed in enhancing the memory of the child and for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease.
  2 4,627 280
Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: Worthy impact of total parenteral nutrition on the disease progression
Raksha Goyal, Rakesh Shivhare, Manish Khasgiwale, Sanjay Dhanuka, Rekha Jamdagni, Vishwesh Mehta
July-September 2014, 4(3):185-187
We report the case of a 23-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis. In this case report we discuss the desirable effects of parenteral nutrition and the importance of nutritional support at patients with severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Providing nutrition to these patients is of paramount importance. An adequate nutritional support is crucial in patients with severe and complicated pancreatitis.
  - 2,883 123
Assessment of nutritional status of critically ill neurosurgical patients and parameters predicting the outcome: An institutional observational study
Deepak Bandlish, Sanjeev Attry, Samarendranath Ghosh, Harendranath Das
July-September 2014, 4(3):179-184
Backdrop: Nutritional status has been proven to affect surgical outcome in various studies worldwide. Accurate nutritional assessment tools can help the clinician in taking appropriate steps at the right time in order to improve the surgical outcome. This is especially relevant in neurosurgical cases because of the long hospital stay and high incidence of complications. In the present study we aim to find out the prevalence of severe malnutrition in the patients admitted to NICU and the correlation of the same with mortality. We also intend to find out the best predictor of mortality amongst the malnutrition parameters. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted at Bangur Institute of neurosciences (BIN), Kolkata on 50 patients who were admitted in NICU for more than 5 days. Various nutritional paramaters like SGA, albumin and transferrin values were studied. Statistical Analysis was performed with help of Epi Info (TM) 3.5.3. Chi-square test was used to find the associations. Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to find the risk factors. Results: Glioma and meningioma were the most common clinical conditions in the study populations followed by space occupying lesions of the CP angle and aneurysm, PF SOL and pituitary adenoma. Nearly 42% (21/50) were severely malnourished, 36% (18/50) were moderately malnourished whereas 22% (11/50) had a normal nutritional status. CP angle SOLs were most commonly associated with severe malnutrition followed by PF SOL and pituitary adenoma. Association of various parameters namely SGA, serum albumin and serum transferrin with mortality was found to be statistically significant. This association was found to be the strongest with severe malnutrition by SGA (Odds ratio-12.5 [3.10- 50.27]) as compared to serum transferrin and serum albumin levels (odds ratio of 4.37 (1.29-14.77) and 6.95 (0.80-60.13) respectively. Conclusion: In countries like India where malnutrition is very high in general and in critically ill patients, SGA is a potential tool for categorising patients with high risk of mortality at the time of admission. An early nutritional intervention thereafter might help in improving the outcome of such patients and might reduce the economic burden on part of the healthcare setting and the individual.
  - 2,138 206
Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of rational use of medicines among clinicians in a tertiary care teaching hospital
Chaitali S. Bajait, Sonali A. Pimpalkhute, Smita D. Sontakke, Ganesh N. Dakhale, Kavita M. Jaiswal, Chetan S. Urade
July-September 2014, 4(3):153-157
Context: Prescribing is a challenging task requiring knowledge of essential medicine (EM), rational use of medicines (RUM) and personal drugs (P-drug). Though the majority of clinicians recognize the importance of RUM, most of them have not been able to apply this knowledge in their medical practice. Aims: The aim of the following study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of clinicians about RUM, EM, P-drugs, and sources of drug information. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, questionnaire based study . Subjects and Methods: Study was carried out in 100 respondents including faculty members and junior residents (JRs) in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was carried out using fisher's exact test. Results: Nearly 93% respondents were aware about EM, but only 79% prescribe them. Percentage is significantly higher in respondents of age more than 30, having clinical experience <5 years and in faculty members as compared to residents. Nearly 87% respondents were aware about RUM, but only 83% practice it. Though 30% respondents practiced P-drug concept only 1% were aware about STEP criteria. Practicing P-drug concept was significantly more in JRs compared to faculty members (P < 0.0001). None of the respondents were aware about the number of drugs in National List of EMs of India . Conclusions: It is an encouraging finding that higher percentages of clinicians were aware about EM and also prescribed it. However, level of understanding related to P-drug concept and existence of essential medicines list are much below par. Also prescribing by trade name and heavy dependency on medical representatives for drug information is the matter of concern.
  - 3,092 360