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   2014| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 8, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The incredible benefits of Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus)
Hashmat Imam, Zarnigar , Ghulamuddin Sofi, Aziz Seikh, Azad Lone
January-March 2014, 4(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124611  
Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus), a cosmopolitan weed, is found in all tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In India, it is commonly known as Nagarmotha and it belongs to the family Cyperacea. The major chemical components of this herb are essential oils, flavonoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, cyprotene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, cadalene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone, etc., Research studies have shown that it possesses various pharmacological activities such as diuretic, carminative, emmenagogue, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dysenteric, antirheumatic activities. An extensive review of the ancient traditional literature and modern research revealed that the drug has numerous therapeutic actions, several of which have been established scientifically, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of nagarmotha.
  75,766 1,393 8
Herbal and synthetic approaches for the treatment of epilepsy
Pandey Shashi Kr, Manoj Kumar Jangra, Ashutosh Kumar Yadav
January-March 2014, 4(1):43-52
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124613  
The term epilepsy is collectively designated for a group of chronic central nervous system disorders characterized by spontaneous occurrence of seizures generally associated with the loss of consciousness and body movements (convulsions). Anticonvulsant drugs are used to control the convulsions by inhibiting the discharge and then producing hypnosis. Various synthetic drugs, viz. phenytoin (PHT), diazepam, valproate (VPA), leviteracetam, etc., are used for the treatment. These agents have a new spectrum of efficacy and novel adverse effects. They also represent an enormous escalation of costs. At present, herbal therapies are tried by patients in developing as well as developed countries for control of seizures or adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs, or for general health maintenance. There are number of synthetic drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy, but the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects.
  17,728 442 1
Neuropathology staging and treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease: An update
Prabhat Upadhyay, Dharamvee Panjwani, Ashutosh Kumar Yadav
January-March 2014, 4(1):28-42
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124612  
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder manifested by deterioration in memory and cognition, impairment in performing activities of daily living. The pathological hallmark of AD is widespread neuritic plaques which are accumulation of amyloid beta protein and neurofibrillary tangles. This review has been done on various causes due to neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaque, gene, and different factors involved in aging and injury. Treatment of AD targeting toward cholinergic deficiency, oxidative stress, protein oxidation, protein nitration, tau and tangles formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. Pharmaceutical therapies include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antihypertensive drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, secretase inhibitors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and immunization. Nutrition and natural therapies, various vitamins and minerals also play a role in treatment. Approaches that target several dysfunctions simultaneously and that emphasize nutritional, natural, and stimulatory therapies may offer the most benefit at this time.
  6,600 266 1
CASE REPORT
Acute dyskinesia: A rare adverse effect of oxcarbazepine in epilepsy with neurobehavioral symptoms
Amita Bhargava, Bharat Bhushan, Subhakaran Khichar, Gaurav Kasundra
January-March 2014, 4(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124618  
We are reporting an 11-year-old female child of febrile partial seizure since age of 3 months and transient neurobehavioral changes of psychic, gelastic semiology since childhood. She had no history of continued febrile seizure, but had 3 admissions for 3 episodes of status epilepticus in last 3 years. She experienced acute generalized dyskinesia (torticollis, oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, right lower limb eversion plantarflexed type feet dystonia) soon after oxcarbazepine (OXC) therapy from last episode of status epilepsy on 15 April 2013 with similar semiology. We failed to explain the considered infectious, non-convulsive state and hyponatremic extra pyramidal syndrome. We used the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale and stopped OXC. After state intravenous diazepam 2 nd day, she was starting to improve and over a period of 4 days she was asymptomatic. We shifted on clonazepam, sodium valproate for further. She was asymptomatic until 1 month follow-up.
  5,879 122 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Clinical significance of probiotics in human
Diksha Jain, Hotam Singh Chaudhary
January-March 2014, 4(1):11-22
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124610  
This review gives a glimpse of probiotic role in human life and how it affects the individual. Probiotics have been studied as an alternative to antibiotic therapy. The term "probiotics" comes from the Greek word "pro bios" meaning "for life" opposed to "antibiotics," which means "against life." As the research is progressing, new approaches to treat diseases are being developed such as prebiotics and synbiotics. Probiotics work in our body through various modes of action, namely, production of inhibitory substances, stimulation of immunity, affecting host gene expression, blocking of adhesion sites, competition for nutrients, and degradation of toxin receptors. The various criteria employed to select strains for probiotics are acid-bile stability, adhesion stability, antimicrobial activity, viability and stability during processing and storage. Research has proved the therapeutic effects of probiotics in diseases such as diarrhea, rotavirus diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatic encephalopathy, celiac disease, and hyperoxaluria. Probiotics have prophylactic effects in diseases such as pouchitis and ulcerative colitis that come under inflammatory bowel disease, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, dental decay, periodontal infection, halitosis, constipation, gastrointestinal infections, and colon cancer. Probiotics also help in xenobiotic metabolism, lactose intolerance, cholesterol reduction, sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, stress, and hypertension. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of probiotics in case of radiation-induced diarrhea, HIV/AIDS diarrhea, Crohn's disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and allergy.
  5,453 382 -
Carcinogens and cancer preventors in diet
Neha Khambete, Rahul Kumar
January-March 2014, 4(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124609  
Cancer is a major burden on the health-care system world-wide not only in the developed countries, but also in the developing countries. Several lines of evidence indicate that diet and nutrition can contribute to human cancer risk. Diet is an important factor in determining cancer incidence in many countries and regions. Diet components relevant to cancer development can be divided into macro-and micro-components. Diet can have both positive and negative effects on carcinogenesis. Several substances in diet such as heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds and alcohols have been associated with increased risk of cancer, whereas certain compounds such as phytochemicals and probiotics have cancer preventing properties. This paper aims to review the carcinogenic and cancer preventive properties of dietary substances and their possible mechanisms of action.
  5,266 373 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Association between serum cholesterol, brain serotonin, and anxiety: A study in simvastatin administered experimental animals
Jaya Mary Thomas, Joyamma Varkey, Bibin Baby Augustine
January-March 2014, 4(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124617  
Introduction: The present research was designed to investigate the association between serum cholesterol, brain serotonin, and anxiety in simvastatin administered experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Both mice and rats were used for the study. Simvastatin (50 and 100 mg/kg in rats and 70 and 140 mg/kg in mice) was administered orally for one month. Serum cholesterol and brain serotonin levels were monitored. Two behavioral models, elevated plus maze test and mirrored chamber test were used to evaluate anxiety in the animals. Results: Simvastatin caused a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in serum cholesterol and brain serotonin level compared with the control group of animals. Animals treated with simvastatin showed significant level of anxiety in the behavioral models when compared with the control group. Conclusion: Hence these experimental results have established the pharmacological evidence to the hypothesis for the relation between serum cholesterol, brain serotonin, and symptoms of anxiety and also confirm that long-term administration of lipophilic statins can lead to anxiety.
  4,848 195 2
A new weapon for memory power: Elephantopus scaber (Linn.)
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Pravat Kusum Mandal, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Amrita Bhaiji, Rakesh Sagar
January-March 2014, 4(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124616  
Aims: To investigate the memory enhancing potential of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber (Linn.) leaves (EESL) in Swiss albino aged mice along with its possible mode of action. Materials and Methods: The memory enhancing activity was estimated by measurement of transfer latency (TL) in elevated plus maze test; step-down latency (SDL) in passive avoidance test, cholinesterase and caspase level from brain homogenate of mice. The EESL at the dose of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of body weight was administered orally for 15 days to different groups (n = 6) of aged mice and was found dose dependent improvement in memory score after termination period. Results: In aged mice, EESL reversed significantly amnesiatic potential in TL and SDL, reduced significantly cholinesterase level, and increased significantly caspase level as compared to control group. Conclusions: These above finding suggest that the EESL may exhibit memory enhancing activity in aged mice and this enhancement of memory may be due to increase anticholinesterase and caspase activity in mice brain.
  2,928 210 -
Role of chrysin on hepatic and renal activities of Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methylester induced hypertensive rats
Veerappan Ramanathan, Malarvili Thekkumalai
January-March 2014, 4(1):58-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124615  
Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the antihypertensive, anti-hepatic and anti-renal activity of chrysin on Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 180-220 g, by oral administration of the l-NAME (40 mg/kg B.W/day) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with chrysin (25 mg/kg B.W/day) for 4 weeks. Results and Discussion: Hypertension was manifested by considerably increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the toxic effect of 1-NAME was determined using the hepatic markers of lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, renal markers of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urea, uric acid levels, urinary arachidonic acid metabolites of 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α, thromboxane B2, 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F and inflammatory parameters interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Supplementation of chrysin at the dosage of 25 mg/kg considerably decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hepatic markers, renal markers, urinary arachidonic acid metabolites and inflammatory parameters. Conclusion: These results suggest that chrysin decreases the blood pressure, significantly restores hepatic marker, renal markers, urinary arachidonic acid metabolites and inflammatory parameters and thus exhibits antihypertensive and anti-renal effects in l-NAME induced hypertensive rats.
  2,542 149 6
Quality of life in epileptic patients in doctor's perspective
Srinath Durugkar, Hima Bindu Gujjarlamudi, Nitin Sewliker
January-March 2014, 4(1):53-57
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124614  
Objectives: To identify the quality of life (QOL) in epileptics, the risk factors and many unseen reasons for their wretched QOL, and to suggest the steps and methods to overcome the barriers in leading a quality life. Materials and Methods: In this study questionnaire was designed for doctors instead of patients for evaluating the QOL in epileptics. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on various factors simultaneously like demographic profile, seizure characteristics, knowledge regarding cause of epilepsy, attitude towards medical treatment, etc. , Results: Overall the total score of physical well-being (71), mental/emotional state (75), handle stress (76), medication effect (70), life enjoyment (70), and overall QOL (70) are worse in epileptics. Conclusion: Almost all different factors like seizure severity, frequency, depression, anxiety, underlying causes, socioeconomic status, type of therapy, etc., had strong interlinked influence on QOL especially stigma and attitude of society towards epileptics. Hence, to improve the QOL in epileptics it is essential to give equal importance to all factors simultaneously instead of giving separately.
  1,873 157 -
EDITORIAL
Life-style modification and cancer prevention: Another weapon in war against cancer
Ikram A Burney, Mansour S Al-Moundhri
January-March 2014, 4(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124608  
  1,643 127 -
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