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   2013| January-March  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 6, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Phytopharmacological review of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) Wall. ex Nees
Yadu Nandan Dey, Suman Kumari, Sarada Ota, N Srikanth
January-March 2013, 3(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106973  
Andrographis paniculata [Burm. F] Nees is a potent drug used in Ayurveda, Siddha and Homoeopathy in many formulations and is effective in the treatment of various diseases like malaria, diabetes, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, etc. For the long-term use in these conditions, establishment of safety of any given intervention is crucial. Hence in the present review the various journals, e-books, monographs, books, data base on medicinal plant, etc. from 1986 to 2010 and Ayurvedic classical text/ earliest literature on Indian Medicine like Charaka Samhita (400-500 A.D.), Sushruta Samhita (400-500 A.D.), Nighantus (500-1600 A.D.), etc. were searched manually and electronically for extracting the complete information about the plant. The particulars of pharmacological activities, drug interactions and contraindications were extracted from the published preclinical and clinical study reports focusing on the keywords, i.e. reported adverse effects and safety profile of the plant. Finally, the therapeutic safety of the plant extracts was concluded. The literature showed that in some preclinical animal studies, due to the bitter taste when the herb was given in very high dose it caused gastric discomfort, vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. However there are no adverse effects reported clinically when the plant is administered in human beings.
  9 11,750 1,495
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Chemopreventive potential of chrysin in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Sekar Karthikeyan, Ramachandran Srinivasan, Shamsul Afaq Wani, Shanmugam Manoharan
January-March 2013, 3(1):46-53
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106993  
Introduction: Chemoprevention, an emerging, appealing, and innovative approach in experimental oncology, deals with the inhibition, prevention or suppression of carcinogenesis, using natural products or synthetic derivatives. The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemopreventive potential of chrysin during 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene (DMBA) - induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting them with 0.5 percent DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week, for 14 weeks. The status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and phase I and II detoxification agents were utilized as biochemical end points, to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of chrysin in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Results: In the present study, 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities in the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and detoxification agents was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of chrysin at a dose of 250 mg/kg bw to DMBA-treated hamsters significantly reduced the tumor incidence and tumor size as well as reverted the status of the above-mentioned biochemical markers during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Conclusion: Chrysin has the potential to delay rather than inhibit tumor formation as evidenced by the tumor formation in two of the DMBA + chrysin-treated hamsters, during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
  8 4,447 252
Anticoagulant and antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan from the shell of donacid clam Donax scortum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Namasivayam Subhapradha, Shankar Suman, Pasiyappazham Ramasamy, Ramachandran Saravanan, Vairamani Shanmugam, Alagiri Srinivasan, Annaian Shanmugam
January-March 2013, 3(1):39-45
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106990  
Objectives: Sulfated chitosan was prepared from the shell of donacid clam Donax scortum by following demineralization, deproteinization, deacetylation and sulfating with chlorosulfonic acid. Results: FT-IR spectrum proved the structure of sulfated chitosan. The yield, sulfate content and molecular weight was found 80.30%, 14.2% and 18.65 × 10 4 Da. Their anticoagulant activity was determined for human plasma with respect to the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) and it was 6.45 and 1.73 IU, respectively. The antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was evaluated as radical scavengers against superoxide anion (71.46% at 0.5 mg/ ml) and hydroxyl radicals (64.73% at 3.2 mg/ml). The antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was evaluated as radical scavengers against superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals of 71.46% at 0.5 mg/ml and 64.73% at 3.2 mg/ml. The chelating ability and reducing power of sulfated chitosan was 43.24 at 10 mg/ml and 0.578 at 0.75 mg/ml. IC 50 values of scavenging abilities on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals were 0.398 and 0.527 mg/ml whereas those of chelating ability and reducing power were 5.01 and 0.728 mg/ml. Conclusion: These results indicated that sulfated chitosan from D. scortum had potent anticoagulant and antioxidant activities.
  6 6,147 379
CASE REPORTS
Phytochemicals and nutritional health benefits of soy plant
Mohammad Asif, Mrityunjoy Acharya
January-March 2013, 3(1):64-69
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106998  
Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume, are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein; it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fiber and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fiber. The efficacy and safety of soy isoflavones for preventing or treating cancer of the breast, endometrium, and prostate are not established. In contrast, many soy products should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fibers, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.
  5 9,983 435
EDITORIAL
A neuro-developmental approach to specific learning difficulties
Therese Desorbay
January-March 2013, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106970  
  2 4,250 193
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effects of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos on immobilization-induced stress in male albino Wistar rats
Chidambaram Anusha, Arumugam Sarumathi, Sakkaravarthy Shanmugapriya, Singaravelu Anbu, Rather Shabir Ahmad, Nadanam Saravanan
January-March 2013, 3(1):11-16
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106974  
Aim: Stress is the major problem in the modern world. Stress is one of the basic factors in the development of many diseases and has been exposed to be associated with altered homeostasis that may lead to antioxidant imbalance. Our aim was to evaluate the anti-stress activities of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) in immobilization-induced stress in rats. The anti-stress activities of AM were assessed by monitoring the change in the status of stress hormone, glucose, and non-enzymic antioxidants in immobilization-induced stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Immobilization stress was induced in rats by placing in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Aqueous leaf extract of AM was given by gavage to the experimental rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 21 days. Results: Immobilization stress induced in rats for 21 days caused increased corticosterone, glucose levels and decreased levels of non-enzymic antioxidant such as Vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione in plasma, liver, and kidney. AM significantly increased the non-enzymic antioxidants and decreased the levels of corticosterone at the end of experimental period as compared to control. Conclusion: Natural antioxidants strengthen the endogenous antioxidant defenses from reactive oxygen species and restore an optimal balance by neutralizing the reactive species. They are gaining immense importance by virtue of their critical role in disease prevention. In this context, AM can rightly be mentioned as a plant of considerable interest. In the present study, treatment with AM was found to reverse the oxidative stress in the hypothalamus caused by immobilization stress. So, it is concluded that AM is having high antioxidant properties and anti-stress activity.
  1 4,313 265
Red wine, white wine, rosé wine, and grape juice inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme in human endothelial cells
Ingrid Persson
January-March 2013, 3(1):17-23
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106975  
Background: Beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular disease have been shown previously, but the mechanism is still unknown. The renin-angiotensin system is an important mechanism in the body concerning regulation of blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte balance, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme in this system. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of red wine, white wine, rosι wine, and alcohol-free grape juice on somatic ACE-1 activity. The effects of the stilbene resveratrol and its glycoside, resveratrol-3-glycoside were also tested on ACE activity and concentration of nitric oxide (NO). Materials and Methods: Cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins (HUVEC) were incubated with wine, grape juice, resveratrol, or resveratrol-3-glycoside. Ethanol was used as control in the corresponding concentration (13%). Results: After incubation, a significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen with all the wines tested and the red grape juice. This inhibition was of a similar magnitude except for a lesser inhibition with the rosι wine. No significant inhibition was seen with the white grape juice, resveratrol, resveratrol-3-glycoside, or ethanol alone, and neither did resveratrol nor resveratrol-3-glycoside affect the concentration of NO. Conclusions: The effect of wine and grape juice on ACE activity in HUVEC is dependent on the amount of flavonoids and not on the content of alcohol or resveratrol.
  1 7,227 219
Informal group intervention technique to promote a healthy dietary habit in adults
Annamalai Manickavasagan, Govardhana Rao Dubasi, Mohammad Shafiur Rahman, M Mohamed Essa
January-March 2013, 3(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106976  
Introduction: Healthy dietary habit is one of the important factors in the maintenance of good health. A study was conducted to determine the effect of informal discussion to motivate adults toward healthy eating. Materials and Methods: Healthy dietary habits were discussed informally with the help of "Dietary Guidelines for Indians" published by National Institute of Nutrition, to an individual group in Tamil Nadu at least for 3 hours (n = 42 in 3 groups). After 1 year of these informal discussions, without in-between follow-ups, a telephone interview (informal) was conducted to the participants individually (n = 31) to determine the changes in their eating behavior. Results and Discussion: About 68% of the participants interviewed reduced the quantity of rice intake as a result of informal discussion, and 42% of the participants shared their learning with other people. The changes in eating behavior were significantly higher in females than in males. Participants living in urban areas made more changes in eating behaviors than in rural areas. Similarly more changes in dietary habits were observed among participants with postgraduate qualifications than with higher secondary qualification. Conclusion: This informal intervention approach has great potential to change the eating behavior toward healthy diet in India and other developing countries. However different strategies may be required for the people with different educational and economical background.
  1 2,598 122
CASE REPORTS
Acute reversible Parkinsonism following accidental exposure to organophosphate insecticide
A. S. Praveen Kumar, D. K. S. Subrahmanyam
January-March 2013, 3(1):70-72
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106999  
Organophosphate insecticide (OPI) poisoning is one of the most common poisonings seen in rural south India. OPIs act by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity and thereby increasing acetylcholine at synapses. The usual neurological complications of OPI compounds are acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome, and delayed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Extrapyramidal symptoms, though very rare, can also occur following OPI exposure. Parkinsonism is a movement disorder that develops as a consequence of reduced function of the dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia. The etiology of parkinsonism is multifactorial, with both genetic and environmental determinants. The development of typical parkinsonism following brief inhalational OPI exposure is very rare and there are only a few reports in the literature. We report a 50-year-old male who presented with cholinergic crisis following acute accidental inhalational exposure to chlorpyriphos, an OPI compound; he developed features of parkinsonism on day 6 of hospital admission, but recovered completely without treatment in 7 days.
  - 4,008 141
Hypothesis: Are beta-blockers safe for patients with multiple sclerosis?
Auda Fares
January-March 2013, 3(1):73-76
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.107000  
Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are an important class of drugs in the management of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Patients with multiple sclerosis have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than the general population. Melatonin has been implicated in the pathogenesis and clinical course of MS. When melatonin levels decline, an exacerbation of MS symptoms is seen. Beta-blockers have been shown to reduce the production of melatonin. Various central nervous system side effects associated with using of beta-blockers are linked with reduction of melatonin levels. Exogenous melatonin administration as a supplement in MS patients taking beta-blockers could reduce the central nervous system side effects as well as decrease diseases progression.
  - 8,549 106
A case of alcohol-dependent syndrome and pellagra
Ambika Hariharasubramony, Sujatha Chankramath, Devi Prathyusha
January-March 2013, 3(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106997  
Pellagra was first described by Casal in 1735 as a disease due to the deficiency of niacin. Pellagra is more common in alcoholics. Chronic alcoholism and smoking are not uncommon in females of rural India. We report a case of a middle-aged female presenting with alcohol-dependent syndrome and pellagra.
  - 4,319 176
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Proceedings of the 1 st Abu Dhabi International Conference on Vitamin D Deficiency

January-March 2013, 3(1):54-60
  - 1,953 120
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparing the efficacy of carbamazepine, gabapentin and lamotrigine in chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats
Bharti Chogtu, Kurady Laxminarayana Bairy, Penuganchiprolu Himabindu, Supurna Dhar
January-March 2013, 3(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106987  
Context: Anti-epileptics are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Newer anti- epileptics with improved safety profile are being used in neuropathic pain. The animal models of neuropathic pain have helped to find newer drugs for this condition. As the efficacy of these drugs is modest, there is always a need to compare the efficacy of newer anti-epileptics with conventional drugs in this condition. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of anti-epileptics in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury. Settings and Design: It was a randomised, prospective study. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups. The first three groups were administered each of carbamazepine, gabapentin and lamotrigine respectively and the fourth group acted as control. Assessment was started on day five of surgery by hot plate method and Randall Selitto test. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done by one way analysis of variance followed by posthoc test. Results: In mechanical allodynia rats treated with lamotrigine and gabapentin (P = 0.001) showed a significant increase in mechanical threshold whereas in thermal hyperalgesia, it was the carbamazepine (P = 0.027) which was superior to other two drugs. Conclusions: Lamotrigine and gabapentin are efficacious in mechanical allodynia whereas carbamazepine is superior in thermal hyperalgesia. This shows that effect of drugs vary in different behavioral tests. So, the choice of treatment in different types of neuropathic pain can vary.
  - 4,597 188
Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacterial species from different crop fields of Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
Alok Ranjan, Mangai Rajan Mahalakshmi, Muruhan Sridevi
January-March 2013, 3(1):29-33
Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (PSB) were isolated from maize, onion, jasmine, and tomato rhizosphere soils from four different localities of Salem (Tamil Nadu) - (i) Ammapalayam, (ii) Attayampatty, (iii) Seeragapadi, and (iv) Ariyanoor. Twelve efficient PSB isolates were selected from the colonies based on their ability to form clear zone on Pikovskaya's agar medium. The isolated PSB released high amount of phosphorus from calcium phosphate. The efficient bacterial strains isolated from rhizosphere soils released high amount of phosphorus. Oligonucleotide primers in RAPD characterization showed genetic variation among the bacterial strains. Amplified fragments showed 40% shared and 20% unique polymorphic bands. The rest 40% was monomorphic bands.
  - 27,555 1,953
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