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   2012| May-August  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 9, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Medicinal plants with a potential to treat Alzheimer and associated symptoms
Anil Kumar Singhal, Vijay Naithani, Om Prakash Bangar
May-August 2012, 2(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95927  
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disease of the brain named after German physician Aloes Alzheimer, who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's is the most common form of dementia and affects an estimated 10 million people worldwide. The most common form of dementia is AD, which demolishes the vital brain cells, causing trouble with memory, thinking, and behavior, brutal enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies, and social life. Recognized factors in Alzheimer's disease include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue. Many of the current drugs taken to treat the disease, such as, donepezil, have unpleasant side effects and doctors are keen to find alternatives. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but drugs designed to slow disease progression are available. Some herbs may help to improve brain function, but scientific evidence to prove that they can treat Alzheimer's disease, is limited. Electronic database like MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database, and PsychINFO Journal Article bases were used to search for information related to studies done on plants in the past years. The objective here is to provide a systematic review of the ongoing evidence pertaining to the use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated symptoms.
  27 41,089 2,562
EDITORIAL
Medicinal properties of frankincense
Akhtar J Khan
May-August 2012, 2(2):79-79
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95925  
  3 15,638 300
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antidiabetic activity of Pandanus fascicularis Lamk - aerial roots in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats
Savita Kumari, Manish Wanjari, Parveen Kumar, S Palani
May-August 2012, 2(2):105-110
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95943  
Background: The aerial roots of Pandanus fascicularis are used traditionally in treatment of diabetes. Objective: This study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of aerial roots of P. fascicularis. Materials and Methods: Effect of methanolic extract of roots of P. fascicularis on normal blood glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were studied in normoglycemic rats while antidiabetic effect was evaluated in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. The extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) was administered orally for 7 days. Glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, orally for 7 days) was used as reference standard. Results: Administration of the methanolic extract of aerial roots of P. fascicularis caused significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats and also improved glucose tolerance test. The treatment also showed the enhanced beta cell function in histological studies. Conclusion: Therefore, this study suggests that methanolic extract of aerial roots of P. fascicularis exhibits antidiabetic activity possibly through increased secretion of insulin and the effect may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
  3 5,290 375
Anti-obesity effect of Stellaria media methanolic extract in the murine model of cafeteria diet induced obesity
Vijay R Chidrawar, Krishnakant N Patel, Sunil B Bothra, Shruti S Shiromwar, Akshay R Koli, Gajanan G Kalyankar
May-August 2012, 2(2):121-131
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95963  
Context: The whole plant of Stellaria media Linn (family Caryophyllaceae) is used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state, India, as a dietary supplement for the treatment of overweight and is also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. Moreover phytoconstituents like flavonoid, saponin, and sitosterol have already been reported for their anti-obesity activity, and the extract of S. media also contains the same constituents in its extracts. With this background, this study was carried out. Objective: The anti-obesity activity of the alcoholic and methanolic extracts of Stellaria media was evaluated against the cafeteria diet-induced obesity model in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Obesity was induced by feeding a cafeteria diet for 48 days to female Wistar rats, although one group was kept on a normal chow diet to evaluate the effect of Stellaria media on body weight changes, exploratory behavior, theromogenesis, lipid metabolism, effect on White Adipose Tissue (WAT), and histology of the fat pad. Results: Among these two extracts, the methanolic extract of Stellaria media (MESM) has shown a strong anti-obesity effect compared to the alcoholic extract of Stellaria media (AESM); may be because of its multiple mechanisms. The LD 50 value was found to be more than 5000 mg/kg. Discussion and Conclusion: These findings suggest that the anti-obesity activity produced by MESM may be because of the flavonoid and saponin contents, which have thermogenic and appetite-suppressant properties or it may be due to the β-sitosterol content. With this study we conclude that MESM is beneficial for the suppression of obesity and its associated complications.
  3 6,227 448
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pharmacological effects of curcumin
AR Mullaicharam, A Maheswaran
May-August 2012, 2(2):92-99
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95930  
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, Cm) is a natural product, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a low molecular weight polyphenol, derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma spp., has been shown to prevent cancer in the skin, forestomach, duodenum, and colon of mice and in the tongue, colon, mammary glands, and sebaceous glands of rats. Curcumin is a member of curcuminoids isolated from Curcuma longa (turmeric). Currently, it is one of the investigational new drug substances that have great clinical potential. It was used against several ailments in India. Ever since its isolation (mid Nineteenth century), several groups from all over the world worked on its pharmacology.
  3 11,361 827
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Neuroprotective effect of cow colostrum and tetramethylpyrazine against global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury
Vaishali R Undale, Shital S Desai, Swati K Sangamnerkar, Chandrashekhar D Upasani
May-August 2012, 2(2):111-120
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95947  
Aim: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death in the western world. According to the WHO 15 million of the world's population suffer cerebral ischemia each year. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and cow colostrum in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO)-induced global ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cow colostrum is claimed to have antioxidant effects and TMP is popularly used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300350 g were treated with cow colostrum (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and TMP (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 7 days after cerebral ischemia induced by BCCAO for 30 minute followed by reperfusion. Results: A significant decrease in body weights and marked weakness in the ischemic animals were observed. These effects were attenuated by cow colostrum (500 mg/kg) and TMP (25 and 50 mg/kg). There was significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and attenuation in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase in ischemic animals, indicating oxidative stress. Elevated levels of MDA and attenuated levels of GSH and catalase were compensated by treatment with cow colostrum and TMP dose dependently. Overall, the results of the study indicate that at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg TMP markedly improves cognition. The results also indicate that both TMP and cow colostrum have antioxidant activity. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of cow colostrum and TMP. They appear to be promising drugs for the prophylaxis and treatment of global cerebral ischemia.
  2 5,136 202
A study of protein energy malnutrition in the school girls of a rural population
Manikandan Krishnan, PV Rajalakshmi, K Kalaiselvi
May-August 2012, 2(2):142-146
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95985  
India has shown remarkable progress and has a number of nutrition intervention programs, but malnutrition remains highly prevalent in the poor states of the country. Malnutrition results due to imbalance between the needs of the body and the intake of nutrients. In India, gender inequality in nutrition is present from infants to adulthood. Women and girls never reach their full growth potential due to nutritional deprivation. It may be due to poverty, lack of awareness and illiteracy. In the present study, Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) in the school girls from rural areas was measured. Moderate and severe malnutrition was observed in the 11-13 and 13-15 age groups of girls. Anemia was found to be higher in the 17-19 age groups of girls. In additional the illiteracy of the mothers and the occupation of fathers of the girls analyzed were studied and it was found that these conditions may be the main reason for the PEM and anemic condition. A wide variety of development actions are needed to improve the food security and nutrition of women. Prevalence of malnutrition along with anemia, and common ailments in an urban slum of India's modern city highlights the significance of developing integrated child illness management programs for the urban poor and strengthening nutrition intervention programs.
  2 8,945 593
Molecular modifications of ibuprofen using Insilico modeling system
Nirmala Halligudi, AR Mullaicharam, HudaSaif Al-bahri
May-August 2012, 2(2):156-162
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95991  
Aim: The aim of our study was to develop new ibuprofen, that is better effect and less side effect using computer aided drug design. We found totally 10 molecular modifications of ibuprofen. Accordingly structure 9 is considered as the most appropriately modified ibuprofen drug that would have significant effect than the parent ibuprofen. Objective: To study Insilico molecular modifications of ibuprofen with physiochemical properties and drug likeness parameters to develop better drug with less side effect. Materials and Method: Molinspiration and Chemsketch are the two types of softwares used to perform the molecular modelings. Result: The Structure 9 is a best candidate among 10 structures, because it is similar to acelofenac, derivative of diclofenac which is already available in the market. Detailed molecular modeling using Dockin studies and toxicities studies can be carried out before synthesis of these derivatives.
  2 4,873 252
REVIEW ARTICLES
The beneficial effect of Coenzyme Q in diabetic neuropathy: An overview
Justin Prashanth, AC Jesudoss Prabhakaran
May-August 2012, 2(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95926  
One of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus, which has a multifaceted pathogenesis, is neuropathy. The implication of various researchers points toward the oxidative stress occurring in the mitochondria, which plays a central role in the development of this complication. Coenzyme Q is an important factor contributing to mitochondrial bioenergetics. The hypothesis of Coenzyme Q in the management of diabetic neuropathy is reviewed in this article.
  2 4,826 244
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anti-edematogenic and analgesic activities of Ficus benghalensis
Manoj S Mahajan, Vishal S Gulecha, Rakesh A Khandare, Aman B Upaganlawar, Hemant H Gangurde, Chandrashekhar D Upasani
May-August 2012, 2(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95936  
This work was done for the investigations of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of dried leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn. by oral administration at doses of 10, 20 and 100 mg/kg of body weight to healthy animals. The extract was studied for anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The mean increases in paw volume and % inhibition in the edema were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. The extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate method in albino mice. The methanolic extract of F. benghalensis showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced from decreased acetic acid-induced writhings and increased reaction time in Eddy's hot plate method. Results of present studies suggest that methanolic extract of F. benghalensis possesses significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
  1 4,312 282
Analysis of various brands of tea powder marketed in Oman
Nirmala Halligudi, AR Mullaicharam, Mohanned Abdueghafour El-Khider
May-August 2012, 2(2):147-150
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95988  
Aim: This research paper attempts an analysis of the content and the various properties of different brands of tea marketed in Oman. Materials and Method: The properties of caffeine content , color intensity, angle of repose , bulk density and pH were estimated from six different brands of tea in Oman. Results: Tea is composed of many compounds besides caffeine. These components have various effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea. Among the six brands of tea Kannan Devan Tea has the highest caffeine content. Twinning's Tea has the lowest caffeine content. Conclusion: Kannan Devan Tea has the highest caffeine content. Twinning's Tea has the lowest caffeine contentTwinning's Tea and Tata Tea have the highest pH and Red Label Tea hasthe lowest pH. Kannan Devan Tea and Twinning's Tea have the high Bulk density.
  - 20,076 493
Protective effect of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid on cell surface glycoconjugates abnormalities in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
Shanmugam Manoharan, Raju Kowsalya, Nagarethinam Baskaran, Simon Silvan, Ganapathy Sindhu, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
May-August 2012, 2(2):151-155
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95990  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid against cell surface glycoconjugates (protein-bound hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, and fucose) abnormalities in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Topical application of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks on the buccal pouches of hamsters resulted in well-developed squamous cell carcinoma. Glycoconjugates status in plasma and tumor tissues were estimated using specific and sensitive colorimetric methods. Results: Increases in plasma and tumor tissue glycoconjugates were noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA. Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight restored the status of glycoconjugates in hamsters treated with DMBA. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that glycyrrhetinic acid might provide protection against cell surface abnormalities during DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.
  - 2,357 116
Effects of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius on experimentally induced convulsion in mice
Shankhajit De, Yadu Nandan Dey, Sudesh Gaidhani, Sarada Ota
May-August 2012, 2(2):132-134
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95971  
Aim: To study the anticonvulsant activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius at the dose of 200, 300, 400 mg/kg were used for the effects on the onset of convulsion in Isoniazid (INH) induced mice model. Diazepam at the dose of 4 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result: Petroleum ether extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius showed dose-dependent activity regarding onset of convulsion. Conclusion: Hence from the above study it has been concluded that Amorphophallus paeoniifolius has anticonvulsant activity.
  - 3,458 185
Pharmacoepidemiological study of antipsychotics in the psychiatry unit of a tertiary care hospital: A retrospective descriptive analysis
Kingshuk Lahon, Harsha M Shetty, Amith Paramel, Gyaneswar Sharma
May-August 2012, 2(2):135-141
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95982  
Aims: Pharmacoepidemiology is an interface discipline that studies the interactions between drugs and populations. Pharmacoepidemiological studies reveal the differences that exist between the conditions of premarketing trials (done on a limited sample population) and those of actual practice. Antipsychotic prescribing patterns have changed globally over the last few years. Hence, we wanted to observe the prescribing pattern of antipsychotics in our hospital and assess the rationality of the prescriptions and the prevalence of antipsychotic usage in the community. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational analysis of case records of patients receiving antipsychotic prescriptions in the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital during the period 1 st January 2006 to 31 st December 2006. We studied the following parameters: Antipsychotic drugs prescribed, completeness and rationality of prescriptions, WHO prescribing indicators, defined daily dose (DDD)/1000/day (DID), prescribed daily dose (PDD), and the PDD to DDD ratio. Results: Antipsychotics were prescribed in 32.88% patients (olanzapine: 65.66%, risperidone: 19.19%, aripiprazole: 7.07%, others: 8.08%). The average number of drugs/prescription: 2.19, prescribing by generic names: 63.64%, prescribing from WHO essential medicines list (EML) and injections: 3.03%. There were no prescriptions for fixed-dose combinations (FDC). DID of antipsychotics: 0.0008 mg. PDD to DDD ratios <1 for quetiapine and haloperidol, while for others it was ≥1. Conclusion: The second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole were the most commonly prescribed antipsychotics. Prescriptions were complete and without polypharmacy. Favorable and unfavorable outcomes were seen for two and three WHO prescribing indicators, respectively. Antipsychotic consumption in the community was low. Adequate dosing was seen for all antipsychotics, except quetiapine and haloperidol (where there was underdosing). Choosing drugs from the EML-based hospital formulary will decrease cost of therapy and promote rational use of medicines.
  - 3,465 251
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