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   2012| January-April  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 23, 2012

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Morphological and biochemical characteristics and antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from grapes
Sushma Konuku, Mahalakshmi Mangai Rajan, Sridevi Muruhan
January-April 2012, 2(1):70-73
Aim: To determine the morphological and biochemical characteristics and antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from grapes collected from different areas of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Morphological studies of S. aureus by gram staining and further identification by various biochemical tests were performed. Resistance against various antibiotics, including methicillin, and its change under ultraviolet (UV) light was evaluated. Results and Conclusion: S. aureus was isolated and confirmed by the pour plate method and biochemical tests. Pure cultures of the organisms were prepared. The organisms were tested for resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, and methicillin. The study offers evidence of the presence of S aureus in grapes and provides information on the antibiotic resistance of the organisms.
  36,927 893 1
Capsaicin: A promising therapy - A critical reappraisal
Naveen Chhabra, ML Aseri, Vandana Goyal, Sanjay Sankhla
January-April 2012, 2(1):8-15
Capsaicin, major capsainoid, derived from dried fruit of chilli pepper, is synthesized in the interlocular septa of chilli peppers by addition of a branched-chain fatty acid to vanillylamine. An extensive, although largely forgotten, literature addresses the utility of the capsaicin therapy as either adjunctive or main treatment strategy for a number of diseases. Topical capsaicin has been shown to improve the outcome in neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain, post herpetic neuralgia, arthritic pain, burning mouth syndrome, pain due to fibromyalgia, psoriatic disorder, burning mouth syndrome, various allergic disorders, and as intranasally for cluster headache. Capsaicin is under development therapy for various diseases, it may develop as a new treatment therapy for a number of diseases in near future. However, studies with systemic ingestion are limited and have been shown gastrointestinal adverse effects, which may be major limitations to systemic capsaicin therapy.
  14,902 596 6
Sesamol modulates ultraviolet-B-induced apoptotic and inflammatory signaling in human skin dermal fibroblasts
Samivel Ramachandran, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
January-April 2012, 2(1):31-39
Aim: Sesamol (SM), a dietary phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to reduce ultraviolet-B (UVB) mediated oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanism of SM against UVB-induced photoaging, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in human skin dermal fibroblasts, adult (HDFa) in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effect of SM on UVB radiation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), DNA fragmentation, cell cycle modulation, inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nuclear factor (NF)-κB] expression, pro-apoptotic (p53, Bax and caspase-3), and anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expression in HDFa. We also investigated the effect of SM and/or UVB radiation on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activation by gelatin zymograpy in HDFa. Results and Conclusion: SM pretreatment prevented UVB-induced ΔΨm alteration, DNA fragmentation and down-regulated the expressions of apoptotic (p53, Bax and caspase-3) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and NF-κB) in HDFa. SM also prevented the activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicated the ability of SM to block UVB-induced inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in HDFa. However, further detailed mechanistic approach warrants before claiming this compound for photoprotection.
  9,495 570 10
Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with colorectal cancer in Jordan
Mostafa I Waly, Mostafa A Arafa, Sahar B Jriesat, Sunny A Sallam, Ahmed Al-Kafajei
January-April 2012, 2(1):57-60
Aim: This case-control study was aimed to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status among patients recently diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), in Jordan. Materials and Methods: The study involved 220 recently diagnosed Jordanian CRC patients and 220 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The dietary intake and biochemical assessment of folate and vitamin B12 were determined for all the study participants. Results: The CRC patients had lower daily intake and serum levels of both folate (189.28 ± 11.78 μg/day and 6.6 ± 1.3 μg/l, respectively) and vitamin B12 (1.09 ± 0.4 μg/day and 233.7 ± 17.9 pg/ml, respectively) as compared to their matched control groups (212.58 ± 13.18 μg/day and 16.2 ± 2.8 μg/l, respectively, for folate) and (2.49 ± 1.3 μg/day and 458.9 ± 30.9 pg/ml, respectively, for vitamin B12). Conclusion: The CRC Jordanian patients who participated in this study had a low status of folate and vitamin B12, and a well-established etiological factor for CRC.
  8,439 148 2
Evaluation of pharmaceutical equivalents of different brands of ranitidine tablets from multinational brands in Oman
AR Mullaicharam, Jameela Al-Haj Jehangir Ahmed, Nirmala Halligudi
January-April 2012, 2(1):40-44
Aim : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalent of different brands of Ranitide Hydrochloride tablets. Materials and Methods : Three different brands of ranitidine hydrochloride 150 mg tablets have been evaluated using some quality control test of weight variation, friability, hardness and disintegration with aim to assess whether these 3 brands are pharmaceutically equivalent or not. The results obtained have been compared with USP standards. Result : The results indicated that all the tablets in the three brands have met the requirements of the quality control test (weight variation, friability, hardness and disintegration) according to the USP which indicated that they are pharmaceutically equivalent.
  8,286 291 2
Apigenin protects gamma-radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological changes and animal survival in whole body irradiated Swiss albino mice
Naziya Begum, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad, Kuppusamy Thayalan
January-April 2012, 2(1):45-52
Aim: The present study was undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective efficacy of apigenin against whole body gamma (γ)-irradiation, oxidative damage and hematological alterations in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The percentage of mice surviving 30 days, of exposure to radiation dose (7-11 Gy) was used to construct survival dose response curves. Apigenin (15 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitonially (i.p) for 7 consecutive days, once daily, and then the mice were exposed to single dose of 7 Gy of γ-radiation. Mice were sacrificed at 24 hours post irradiation, and liver and intestine were taken for various biochemical estimations viz. lipid peroxidation (LPO) markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH)], antioxidant status [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH)]. Further blood was collected for the hematological studies [Haemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count]. Results: Apigenin 15 mg/kg body weight elevated radiation LD 50 from 8.2 to 10 Gy, indicating the dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.21. It was found that there was an increased LPO level with decreased antioxidant status in 7 Gy irradiated Swiss albino mice. It has been also observed that Hb content, WBC and RBC count was decreased in irradiated Swiss albino mice. Conversely, significant decrease in LPO and restoration of antioxidant status and hematological changes was observed in apigenin pretreated group. Conclusion: Hence, apigenin pretreatment renders protection against 7 Gy radiation-induced biochemical and hematological alterations in Swiss albino mice.
  7,025 436 16
Vitamin B12-homocysteine interaction and the efficacy of B12 therapy in relation to anemia and neurological disease in a North Indian population
Madhumita Premkumar, N Gupta, T Singh, T Velpandian
January-April 2012, 2(1):61-69
Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to myriad hematological and neurological changes leading to megaloblastic anemia and disorders of the nervous system like subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, etc. In this case series, an attempt was made to investigate the neurological manifestations of patients with diagnosed vitamin B12-deficient megaloblastic anemia, determine the cause of vitamin deficiency in these cases, and monitor their response to vitamin B12 therapy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in New Delhi during a period of over 2 years from August 2007 to December 2009. Eighty-five consecutive patients with megaloblastic anemia (MA) due to vitamin B12 deficiency were screened and a total of 28 patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms were selected for the study. In addition to bone marrow examination, blood counts, red cell indices, and biochemical tests, assays of serum vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine were done. Neuroimaging by magnetic resonance studies and nerve conduction studies (NCS) was done where clinically applicable. Follow-up was done at least twice at 3 months and 6 months to assess clinical, neurological, and hematological response to vitamin B12 therapy. Results: The primary study group of MA with B12 deficiency had 85 patients. Of these, only 28 (32.9%) patients had neurological and/or psychiatric features. There were 18 male and 10 female subjects (M: F ratio being 1.8:1). The mean age was 32.80 years with a range of 18-68 years. Though the majority of MA patients (77.6%) were vegetarian, a good 22% consumed a nonvegetarian diet. Neurological manifestations included peripheral neuropathy in 14 (50%), myelopathy in 2 (7.14%), myeloneuropathy in 2 (7.14%), acute confusional state in 4 (14.28%), and cognitive impairment in 20 (71.42%) patients. Mood disturbances, anxiety, and irritability were also seen. NCS was done in 18 cases and showed demyelinating peripheral neuropathy in 12 cases and both axonal and demyelinating changes in two cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed four cases with the classical demyelination on spinal MRI with white matter hyper intense lesions in the posterior tracts on T2 weighted images. At 6-month follow-up with B12 therapy, 10/14 patients with neuropathy recovered completely, 2/14 had partial recovery, and 2 had poor recovery. While the cases of myelopathy had only partial recovery at 6 months, all four cases with acute confusional state recovered completely in response to B12 therapy. Conclusion: The electrodiagnostic and neuroimaging changes in vitamin B12 deficiency are consistent with focal demyelination of white matter tracts in the brain, the spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. In this case series of B12 deficiency MA, we found demyelinating peripheral neuropathy to be the predominant presenting neurological disease. However, cognitive impairment with behavioral changes was found to be common on neurological and psychiatric examination. Many of these features were found to be reversible with B12 therapy.
  7,152 234 -
Evaluation of acute anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of green tea decoction on experimental animal models
Chandan Chattopadhyay, Nandini Chakrabarti, Mitali Chatterjee, Suparna Chatterjee, Dipankar Bhattacharyay, Dibyadeb Ghosh
January-April 2012, 2(1):20-25
Background: Green tea has been used as a daily beverage for several years. Anti-inflammatory effect of tea has also been depicted in different papers. Therefore we had set forward this study to examine the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of green tea in different experimental animal models. Aims: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of green tea on rat. Evaluation of analgesic effects of green tea on mice. Materials and Methods: Green tea decoction (10% and 20%) was prepared by soaking 20 g of green tea in 100 ml boiled water separately, soaked for 2 mins and thereafter filtered. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of tea decoction was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas central and peripheral analgesic activities were evaluated by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test, respectively. Study Design: This is an experimental study. Results: Green tea decoction (10% and 20%) has shown significant anti-inflammatory effects (65% and 70%) and (50% and 71%), respectively, on carrageenan and dextran-induced acute inflammatory models which can be comparable with the standard drug indomethacin (93% and 98.3%, respectively). In central analgesic model Green tea decoction (10% and 20%) has shown no analgesic action at different hours as the reaction time was less than 10 seconds at all time interval. But at peripheral analgesic model green tea decoction (10% and 20%) has shown 20% and 35.74% inhibition, respectively, as compared to control group. Aspirin shows around 39.81% of inhibition compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, our data indicate that green tea (20%) has a potential anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic action and this corroborates with the current trend of tea being promoted as 'health drink'.
  4,878 327 -
An overview of angiogenesis and renal cell carcinoma
Shankhajit De, Yadu Nandan Dey, Piyali Sarkar, Sudesh Gaidhani
January-April 2012, 2(1):3-7
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney, and the incidence is increasing very rapidly across all population groups. Accumulation of hypoxia-induced factors and the over-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the most important predisposing factors for the progression of the disease. Angiogenesis facilitates tumor growth progression by supplying adequate oxygen and nutrition to the tumor cells through a series of interrelated steps. VEGF, Placental Growth Factor (PIGF), and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) work together to increase angiogenesis in RCC. This review focuses on the possible targets in the treatment of the disease. Our literature review covers the last 15 years of reaseach related to this topic. We conclude that targeted therapies for RCC should be directed against specific molecules and signaling pathways and the therapy should be more selective for better tolerance.
  4,306 249 3
Bilateral meralgia paraesthetica in a boy due to tense ascites
Ritu Karoli, Jalees Fatima
January-April 2012, 2(1):74-75
Meralgia paraesthetica, entrapment neuropathy of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve has been a very uncommon disease diagnosed and reported in children and adolesents. Here in, we present a case report of 15-year-old boy with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension who developed bilateral meralgia paraesthetica due to tense ascites.
  4,316 58 -
Does cigarette smoking provoke Parkinson's disease?
Manoj Kumar, Meenu Jangra
January-April 2012, 2(1):16-19
This is a review on cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD). The relationship between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease is very controversial. Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for various diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease. However, beneficial effects have been debated over the years. It was in the late 1950's that studies reported a negative association between smoking and Parkinson's disease. More recently, several epidemiological studies have found a significant negative association between cigarette smoking and PD. That is, patients who smoke are 50% less likely to have PD when compared to their non-smoker counterparts. This suggests that cigarette smoking may have a "neuroprotective" effect on PD.
  4,064 186 2
Reduced levels of antioxidant proteins in children with autism in Oman
Musthafa M Essa, Gilles J Guillemin, Mostafa I Waly, Marwan M Al-Sharbati, Yahya M Al-Farsi, Faruck L Hakkim, Amanat Ali, Mohammed A Al-Shafaee
January-April 2012, 2(1):53-56
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neuro-developmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Numerous studies evidenced that oxidative stress and altered antioxidant status could be involved in the pathophysiology of ASD. It is also reported that the altered levels of antioxidant proteins such as ceruloplasmin (copper-binding protein) and transferrin (iron-binding protein) could enhance the oxidative stress directly or indirectly and it can considerably retard acquired language skills in autistic children. But these types of studies in children with autism in Oman were not available. Materials and Methods: To reveal this paradigm, in this study, we evaluated the plasma levels of ceruloplasmin and transferrin in Omani autistic children and compared the results with age matched control children (n = 20). Results: In accordance with the previous reports, significantly lower plasma levels of ceruloplasmin and of transferrin were observed in Omani autistic children as compared to normal children. Conclusion: This suggests that such changes may lead to abnormalities of iron and copper metabolism, resulting in the enhancement of the oxidative stress and contributing to the pathogenesis of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear and further extensive studies are warranted.
  3,073 134 4
Effect of cold stimulation-induced pain on pharmacodynamic responses in healthy human volunteers
Sunil Kumar Reddy Khambam, Madireddy Umamaheshwar Rao Naidu, Pingali Usha Rani, Takallapalli Ramesh Kumar Rao
January-April 2012, 2(1):26-30
Aims: The aim of the present study was to quantify the changes in pharmacodynamic response during cold stimulation-induced pain. Materials and Methods: In the present study we evaluated the effect of cold stimulation (immersion of hand into cold water, 1 ± 0.5°C) in 24 healthy human subjects. Change in skin conductance (in the form of galvanic skin response), skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded using the Data Acquisition System (Biopac mp 150). Results: There was significant increase in skin conductance (P<0.001) from 0.22 ± 0.19 microSiemens to 0.32 ± 0.27 microSiemens, with 58.3% increase from the baseline. The heart rate also significantly increased by 8.3% (P<0.001) from 85.6 ± 15.1 bpm to 92.2 ± 14.2 bpm. There was no significant change in skin temperature. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that an increase in skin conductance seemed to be a good indicator of acute pain. The changes in skin conductance were influenced by acute pain; therefore, monitoring skin conductance could be used as a pharmacodynamic parameter in the evaluation of analgesic agents.
  3,099 82 -
The emergence of behavioral disorders in children and adolescents
Marwan Al-Sharbati
January-April 2012, 2(1):1-2
  2,291 76 3