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REVIEW ARTICLES
The incredible benefits of Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus)
Hashmat Imam, Zarnigar , Ghulamuddin Sofi, Aziz Seikh, Azad Lone
January-March 2014, 4(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124611  
Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus), a cosmopolitan weed, is found in all tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In India, it is commonly known as Nagarmotha and it belongs to the family Cyperacea. The major chemical components of this herb are essential oils, flavonoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, cyprotene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, cadalene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone, etc., Research studies have shown that it possesses various pharmacological activities such as diuretic, carminative, emmenagogue, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dysenteric, antirheumatic activities. An extensive review of the ancient traditional literature and modern research revealed that the drug has numerous therapeutic actions, several of which have been established scientifically, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of nagarmotha.
  70,526 1,310 8
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Morphological and biochemical characteristics and antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from grapes
Sushma Konuku, Mahalakshmi Mangai Rajan, Sridevi Muruhan
January-April 2012, 2(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.93135  
Aim: To determine the morphological and biochemical characteristics and antibiotic resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from grapes collected from different areas of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Morphological studies of S. aureus by gram staining and further identification by various biochemical tests were performed. Resistance against various antibiotics, including methicillin, and its change under ultraviolet (UV) light was evaluated. Results and Conclusion: S. aureus was isolated and confirmed by the pour plate method and biochemical tests. Pure cultures of the organisms were prepared. The organisms were tested for resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, and methicillin. The study offers evidence of the presence of S aureus in grapes and provides information on the antibiotic resistance of the organisms.
  33,694 838 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Medicinal plants with a potential to treat Alzheimer and associated symptoms
Anil Kumar Singhal, Vijay Naithani, Om Prakash Bangar
May-August 2012, 2(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95927  
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disease of the brain named after German physician Aloes Alzheimer, who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's is the most common form of dementia and affects an estimated 10 million people worldwide. The most common form of dementia is AD, which demolishes the vital brain cells, causing trouble with memory, thinking, and behavior, brutal enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies, and social life. Recognized factors in Alzheimer's disease include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue. Many of the current drugs taken to treat the disease, such as, donepezil, have unpleasant side effects and doctors are keen to find alternatives. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but drugs designed to slow disease progression are available. Some herbs may help to improve brain function, but scientific evidence to prove that they can treat Alzheimer's disease, is limited. Electronic database like MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database, and PsychINFO Journal Article bases were used to search for information related to studies done on plants in the past years. The objective here is to provide a systematic review of the ongoing evidence pertaining to the use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated symptoms.
  31,104 2,191 20
CASE REPORTS
HoffMann's syndrome: A rare neurological presentation of hypothyroidism
K.A.S. Praveen, Sarfaraz Aslam, TK Dutta
July-December 2011, 1(2):201-203
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84215  
The neurological manifestations of hypothyroidism are very unusual to see as initial symptoms and they usually occur late in the course of disease. Muscle hypertrophy is an extremely rare finding in hypothyroid patients. Hypothyroidism presenting as muscle stiffness and muscle pseudo hypertrophy in adults is known as Hoffmann's syndrome. Laboratory investigation in hypothyroid myopathy generally shows increased levels of muscle enzyme. The electrophysiological study may reveal features suggestive of myopathy, neuropathy or mixed pattern. The symptoms and also the serum levels of enzymes return to normal with hormone replacement therapy. We report a case of hypothyroidism with calf muscle hypertrophy and proximal myopathy as the initial symptoms.
  30,738 459 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Colocasia esculenta: A potent indigenous plant
Rakesh Prajapati, Manisha Kalariya, Rahul Umbarkar, Sachin Parmar, Navin Sheth
July-December 2011, 1(2):90-96
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84188  
Colocasia esculenta (CE) Linn. (Family: Araceae) is an annual herbaceous plant with a long history of usage in traditional medicine in several countries across the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. The herb has been known since ancient times for its curative properties and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments such as asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, neurological disorders, and skin disorders. The juice of CE corm is widely used for treatment of body ache and baldness. A wide range of chemical compounds including flavonoids, β-sitosterol, and steroids have been isolated from this species. Extracts from this plant have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hypolipidemic effects presented in this review in order to evaluate the potential use of this plant in pharmaceuticals.
  28,084 1,858 17
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L). Ancient seeds for modern cure? Review of potential therapeutic applications
Prasan R Bhandari
September-December 2012, 2(3):171-184
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.99469  
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L), in addition to its ancient historical uses, has been used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich juice with high antioxidant capacity. In studies of human and murine models, pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published, focusing on the treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental conditions, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and obesity. The aim of the present review is to discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that pomegranate consumption possesses a diverse array of biological actions and may be helpful in the prevention of some inflammatory-mediated diseases, including cancer. The search strategy included Pubmed, using terms 'pomegranate' or 'Punica granatum'. Citations relevant to the topic were screened.
  23,008 1,736 19
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacterial species from different crop fields of Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
Alok Ranjan, Mangai Rajan Mahalakshmi, Muruhan Sridevi
January-March 2013, 3(1):29-33
Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (PSB) were isolated from maize, onion, jasmine, and tomato rhizosphere soils from four different localities of Salem (Tamil Nadu) - (i) Ammapalayam, (ii) Attayampatty, (iii) Seeragapadi, and (iv) Ariyanoor. Twelve efficient PSB isolates were selected from the colonies based on their ability to form clear zone on Pikovskaya's agar medium. The isolated PSB released high amount of phosphorus from calcium phosphate. The efficient bacterial strains isolated from rhizosphere soils released high amount of phosphorus. Oligonucleotide primers in RAPD characterization showed genetic variation among the bacterial strains. Amplified fragments showed 40% shared and 20% unique polymorphic bands. The rest 40% was monomorphic bands.
  21,428 1,667 -
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria): Healer or killer?
Anupama Sukhlecha
September-December 2012, 2(3):276-277
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.99488  
  22,292 276 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Angelica archangelica Linn. is an angel on earth for the treatment of diseases
ZA Bhat, Dinesh Kumar, MY Shah
January-June 2011, 1(1):36-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.77531  
Angelica archangelica Linn. has traditionally been used in mountainous and tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however, its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated scientifically. In the Ayurvedic text, 'Chandaamshuka' is one of the agents found in mountains, which helps to control serious diseases. There is ample data to suggest the potent properties of this plant and its compounds, which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that Angelica archangelica Linn. can be useful a Ghost/Angel for the treatment of diseases. The traditional claims, phytochemical investigations, pharmacological evaluation, and some recipes provide the backbone to make this plant a Holy Ghost or Angel. We summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on Angelica archangelica Linn. and its observed biological activities. We hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this wonder agent provided by nature.
  21,571 650 3
Probiotics: Nature's medicine
Amit Kumar, Vandana
July-September 2013, 3(3):219-228
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.114838  
There has been renewed interest in the natural and alternative therapy, for holistic management of various complex diseases, in the recent past. Clinical application of probiotics in such cases is a very promising field. Probiotics are one of the finest natural tools for maintaining the delicate balance between disease and health. Many clinical trials have shown that probiotics are not only useful in various forms of diarrhea, but are also showing promising results in other diseases like immunological diseases, allergies and some cancers. However, more robust studies are warranted to evaluate their efficacy before mass application.
  21,198 414 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analysis of various brands of tea powder marketed in Oman
Nirmala Halligudi, AR Mullaicharam, Mohanned Abdueghafour El-Khider
May-August 2012, 2(2):147-150
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95988  
Aim: This research paper attempts an analysis of the content and the various properties of different brands of tea marketed in Oman. Materials and Method: The properties of caffeine content , color intensity, angle of repose , bulk density and pH were estimated from six different brands of tea in Oman. Results: Tea is composed of many compounds besides caffeine. These components have various effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea. Among the six brands of tea Kannan Devan Tea has the highest caffeine content. Twinning's Tea has the lowest caffeine content. Conclusion: Kannan Devan Tea has the highest caffeine content. Twinning's Tea has the lowest caffeine contentTwinning's Tea and Tata Tea have the highest pH and Red Label Tea hasthe lowest pH. Kannan Devan Tea and Twinning's Tea have the high Bulk density.
  18,462 481 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Herbal and synthetic approaches for the treatment of epilepsy
Pandey Shashi Kr, Manoj Kumar Jangra, Ashutosh Kumar Yadav
January-March 2014, 4(1):43-52
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.124613  
The term epilepsy is collectively designated for a group of chronic central nervous system disorders characterized by spontaneous occurrence of seizures generally associated with the loss of consciousness and body movements (convulsions). Anticonvulsant drugs are used to control the convulsions by inhibiting the discharge and then producing hypnosis. Various synthetic drugs, viz. phenytoin (PHT), diazepam, valproate (VPA), leviteracetam, etc., are used for the treatment. These agents have a new spectrum of efficacy and novel adverse effects. They also represent an enormous escalation of costs. At present, herbal therapies are tried by patients in developing as well as developed countries for control of seizures or adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs, or for general health maintenance. There are number of synthetic drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy, but the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects.
  15,727 430 -
Process advantages and product benefits of interesterification in oils and fats
Mohammad Asif
July-December 2011, 1(2):134-138
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84203  
The physical properties of oils and fats depend on their chemical properties, such as unsaturation, saturation, chain length, and distribution of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol in the fatty acids. These characteristics change by hydrogenation, fractionation, blending, and interesterification (IE), hence improving the spectrum for the application of the oils and fats. IE is a process where the fatty acids have been moved from one triglyceride molecule to another and it does not alter the fatty acids. IE (chemical and enzymatic) is used to deal with the problems of plastic fat products such as granular development, texture breakdown, lumpy appearance, post hardening, consistency, melting point, and rancidity and create oil more suitable for deep frying or making margarine with good taste and low content of saturated fatty acids, etc. Nutritionally, IE contributes in eliminating or reducing trans fatty acids, providing a higher essential fatty acid activity. Trans and hydrogenated fats increase the coronary heart disease risk factors.
  13,215 647 6
Capsaicin: A promising therapy - A critical reappraisal
Naveen Chhabra, ML Aseri, Vandana Goyal, Sanjay Sankhla
January-April 2012, 2(1):8-15
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.93124  
Capsaicin, major capsainoid, derived from dried fruit of chilli pepper, is synthesized in the interlocular septa of chilli peppers by addition of a branched-chain fatty acid to vanillylamine. An extensive, although largely forgotten, literature addresses the utility of the capsaicin therapy as either adjunctive or main treatment strategy for a number of diseases. Topical capsaicin has been shown to improve the outcome in neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain, post herpetic neuralgia, arthritic pain, burning mouth syndrome, pain due to fibromyalgia, psoriatic disorder, burning mouth syndrome, various allergic disorders, and as intranasally for cluster headache. Capsaicin is under development therapy for various diseases, it may develop as a new treatment therapy for a number of diseases in near future. However, studies with systemic ingestion are limited and have been shown gastrointestinal adverse effects, which may be major limitations to systemic capsaicin therapy.
  13,190 549 5
CASE REPORTS
The magnetic resonance imaging "wine glass" sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Umesh C Parashari, Sachin Khanduri, Samarjit Bhadury, Divyanka Srivastava, Sugandha Saxena
July-December 2011, 1(2):206-208
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84217  
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of neurons characterized by progressive muscular paralysis due to degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem, and spinal cord. We present the case of a 40-year-old patient having progressive muscle weakness, limb and truncal atrophy, and bulbar signs and with classical finding of "wine glass" appearance on magnetic resonance imaging.
  11,736 341 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The role of fruits, vegetables, and spices in diabetes
Mohammad Asif
January-June 2011, 1(1):27-35
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.77527  
Diabetes has exploded in a majority of areas in the world. Healthy eating, as a strategy for controlling diabetes, and promoting walking, exercise, and other physical activities is advised. The main aim of the treatment of both types of diabetes is to achieve near normal blood glucose and blood pressure levels. This, together with a healthy lifestyle, will help to improve the well-being of the patients, as also protect them against long-term damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and major arteries. An attempt has been made in this review to focus on traditional uses and their multivalent actions as being health promoting, as well as putative therapeutic agents, especially in diabetes mellitus. Fruits, vegetables, and dietary spices represent a hope that is potentially very high, to limit harmful effects of them. They also influence various systems in the body, with diverse metabolic and physiological actions. They are helpful in various chronic diseases and have played a crucial role in the management of diabetes mellitus and form an important part of one's staple diet. They provide nutritional substances like dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which are essential for a balanced diet. The dietary pattern has beneficial effects on both human health development and treatment of various diseases, and hence, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable importance to public health.
  10,819 928 4
Chemistry and pharmacology of caffeine in different types of tea leaves
Nirmala Amaresh, AR Mullaicharam, Mohanned Abdueghafour El-Khider
July-December 2011, 1(2):110-115
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84198  
"Shai" is the Arabic noun for the English word tea. This substance is widely consumed by the Asian continent initially and later spread out to the rest of the world. The Arabs have another drink which is as popular known "Kahwa" which is coffee in English. The two ways of serving tea in coffee shops and restaurants is either by tea bags which is then dipped in the boiling water for its content to diffuse throughout the water content, or by brewing the loose leafs and serving it. This review article focused on chemistry and pharmacology and various methods of preparation of caffeine in different types of tea leaves.
  11,280 294 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Parkinson's disease in India: An analysis of publications output during 2002-2011
BM Gupta, Adarsh Bala
July-September 2013, 3(3):254-262
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.114849  
Objectives: This study analyzes the research output of India in Parkinson's disease (PD) during 2002-2011 on several parameters including the growth, rank, and global publications share, citation impact, share of international collaborative papers, contribution of major collaborative partner countries, contribution of various subject-fields, contribution and impact of most productive institutions and authors, media of communication, and characteristics of high-cited papers. Materials and Methods: The Scopus Citation Database has been used to retrieve the data for 10 years (2002-2011) by searching the keywords PD in the combined Title, Abstract, and Keywords fields. Results: Among the top 20 most productive countries in PD, India ranks 16 th (with 458 papers) with a global publication share of 1.47% and an annual average publication growth rate of 26.05% during 2002-2011. Its global publication share has increased over the years, rising from 1.08% during 2002-2006 to 1.74% during 2007-2011. Its citation impact per paper was 5.77 during 2002-2011, which decreased from 8.40 during 2002-2006 to 4.64 during 2007-2011. Its international collaborative publications share was 26.18% during 2002-2011, which marginally increased from 26.17% during 2002-2006 to 26.18% during 2007-2011. Conclusion: It can be concluded that India's research performance in PD is quite good in the global context, despite the low prevalence of PD in the country. However, India needs to intensify its innovative strategies and international collaboration to strengthen its research output, human resources, funds, public-health awareness through local campaigns, and initiatives for the prevention and treatment of PD.
  10,848 714 8
Prevalence of anemia in the school children of Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India
B Sudhagandhi, Sivapatham Sundaresan, W Ebenezer William, A Prema
July-December 2011, 1(2):184-188
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.84212  
Anemia is the most widespread nutrition problem in the world and has predominance in developing countries like India, particularly in children and women. The magnitude of the anemia has been well-documented in pregnant women and infants, however, there is no data on the prevailing occurrence of anemia in school children. The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia and its correlation to variables such as age, gender and body mass index in school children of Kattangulathur, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 900 children in the age group of 8-16 years were included in this study. Parental consent was obtained in the written format. Blood was collected by finger prick and the hemoglobin was determined by cyanmethemoglobin method. A preplanned questionnaire was used to collect the health details of the children. The children were grouped according to the age. Prevalence of anemia as per the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended cutoff value of hemoglobin, among these children was 52.88%. The frequency of the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher amongst girls as compared to the boys. Results of the study population reveal that 52.88% were anemic, girls (67.77%) were 32.2% higher than the boys (35.55%) and anemic children were underweight. Therefore our study results suggest that all the school children should be screened periodically and appropriate measures should be taken..
  10,311 1,139 6
REVIEW ARTICLE
Phytopharmacological review of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) Wall. ex Nees
Yadu Nandan Dey, Suman Kumari, Sarada Ota, N Srikanth
January-March 2013, 3(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.106973  
Andrographis paniculata [Burm. F] Nees is a potent drug used in Ayurveda, Siddha and Homoeopathy in many formulations and is effective in the treatment of various diseases like malaria, diabetes, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, etc. For the long-term use in these conditions, establishment of safety of any given intervention is crucial. Hence in the present review the various journals, e-books, monographs, books, data base on medicinal plant, etc. from 1986 to 2010 and Ayurvedic classical text/ earliest literature on Indian Medicine like Charaka Samhita (400-500 A.D.), Sushruta Samhita (400-500 A.D.), Nighantus (500-1600 A.D.), etc. were searched manually and electronically for extracting the complete information about the plant. The particulars of pharmacological activities, drug interactions and contraindications were extracted from the published preclinical and clinical study reports focusing on the keywords, i.e. reported adverse effects and safety profile of the plant. Finally, the therapeutic safety of the plant extracts was concluded. The literature showed that in some preclinical animal studies, due to the bitter taste when the herb was given in very high dose it caused gastric discomfort, vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. However there are no adverse effects reported clinically when the plant is administered in human beings.
  9,832 1,381 4
EDITORIAL
Impact of Plant Diseases on Human Health
Abdullah M Al-Sadi
April-June 2017, 7(2):21-22
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_24_17  
  10,549 339 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pharmacological effects of curcumin
AR Mullaicharam, A Maheswaran
May-August 2012, 2(2):92-99
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95930  
Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, Cm) is a natural product, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a low molecular weight polyphenol, derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma spp., has been shown to prevent cancer in the skin, forestomach, duodenum, and colon of mice and in the tongue, colon, mammary glands, and sebaceous glands of rats. Curcumin is a member of curcuminoids isolated from Curcuma longa (turmeric). Currently, it is one of the investigational new drug substances that have great clinical potential. It was used against several ailments in India. Ever since its isolation (mid Nineteenth century), several groups from all over the world worked on its pharmacology.
  9,628 772 2
EDITORIAL
Medicinal properties of frankincense
Akhtar J Khan
May-August 2012, 2(2):79-79
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.95925  
  10,155 235 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Effects of dietary derived antioxidants on the central nervous system
Jade A Guest, Ross S Grant
September-December 2012, 2(3):185-197
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.99470  
Oxidative stress refers to the pathological state in which the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is increased above the body's antioxidant defense and repair capacity. Functional damage, with subsequent cell death, may occur as a consequence of the oxidization of cellular components, such as, proteins, lipids, and nuclear material. Several features of the brain suggest that it is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. The brain possesses the highest oxygen metabolic rate of any organ and is continually exposed to excitatory amino acids and neurotransmitters. The brain also contains a high concentration of oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids, but has comparatively limited endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that dietary-derived antioxidants may mitigate the development of neurodegenerative diseases, with a number of recent studies focusing on the potential therapeutic benefits of supplementation. This review focuses on our current knowledge of how some of these diet-derived antioxidants may exert their neuroprotective effects.
  9,054 455 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sesamol modulates ultraviolet-B-induced apoptotic and inflammatory signaling in human skin dermal fibroblasts
Samivel Ramachandran, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
January-April 2012, 2(1):31-39
DOI:10.4103/2231-0738.93131  
Aim: Sesamol (SM), a dietary phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to reduce ultraviolet-B (UVB) mediated oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanism of SM against UVB-induced photoaging, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in human skin dermal fibroblasts, adult (HDFa) in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effect of SM on UVB radiation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), DNA fragmentation, cell cycle modulation, inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nuclear factor (NF)-κB] expression, pro-apoptotic (p53, Bax and caspase-3), and anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expression in HDFa. We also investigated the effect of SM and/or UVB radiation on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activation by gelatin zymograpy in HDFa. Results and Conclusion: SM pretreatment prevented UVB-induced ΔΨm alteration, DNA fragmentation and down-regulated the expressions of apoptotic (p53, Bax and caspase-3) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and NF-κB) in HDFa. SM also prevented the activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicated the ability of SM to block UVB-induced inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in HDFa. However, further detailed mechanistic approach warrants before claiming this compound for photoprotection.
  8,448 553 9
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