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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 117-164

Online since Thursday, November 28, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Vitamin D: Public Health Status Regional Gulf Region Highly accessed article p. 117
Neela Sampat, Buthainah Al-Balushi, Lyutha Al-Subhi, Samir Al-Adawi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, M. Walid Qoronfleh
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_68_19  
Background: Vitamin D and its metabolites have a vital role to play in human health and disease like cancer, Type 1 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia, immune system, and the nervous system. In the nervous system vitamin D could influence the proliferation, differentiation of neurons also it plays an important role in neuro-trophism, neurotransmission and neuroplasticity. Further, in some cases it was reported that vitamin D could provide neuroprotection by reduction of oxidative stress, induction of synaptic structural proteins, and regulation of calcium-mediated neuronal excitotoxicity, neurotrophic factors and deficient neurotransmitters. Generally, there is hype and variations associated with the integrity of evidence on vitamins and their effect on health. Vitamin D deficiency continues to attract a renewed attention and an adequate maintenance of vitamin D levels can prevent and reduce the risk of many diseases as the active form acts at the cell nucleus (gene upregulation) and cell membrane (rapid response) in over 30 tissues and organs targeting over 200 genes. Vitamin D tends to exert endocrine actions on Kidneys, bone and intestine. Paracrine role in tissues which are under cytokine control which are able to locally metabolize vitamin D to its active form to modulate immune functions, cell proliferations and differentiations and hence maintenance of adequate levels of vitamin D has a significant impact for optimal health. Establishing what constitute vitamin D deficiency is currently replete with contradictory information. Objective: The present discourse aim is first to scrutinize and assess the literature on vitamin D function on the central nervous system (CNS). Another related aim of the present review is to highlight current data from countries with high exposure to the sun yet the people living in the region have been documented to have deficit in vitamin D. Results and conclusions: In this review, we provide a Gulf centric view on vitamin D status among all age groups including public health impact and policy recommendations for the region. The role or status of vitamin D in the various disease states, the benefits of vitamin D and how to obtain an adequate daily amount.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Neuroprotective Effects of Mitochondria-Targeted Quercetin Against Rotenone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Cerebellum of Mice p. 136
Whidul Hasan, Richa Rajak, Rajesh Kumar Kori, Rajesh Singh Yadav, Deepali Jat
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_27_19  
Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to various types of metabolic impairments, including decreased ATP formation, diminished calcium buffering, gathering of metabolic intermediates and amplified production reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Rotenone is a strong inhibitor of complex I and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, leads to motor impairment, metabolic disorder and cellular damage. Quercetin is a strong antioxidant and neuroprotective against neurodegenerative diseases, but its efficacy is limited because it does not gather into the mitochondria. Therefore, mitochondrially targeted antioxidants have to be developed by conjugating with lipophilic cation which can freely cross through the mitochondrial membrane and protects mitochondrial injury. This study investigated the protective effect of quercetin and mitochondrial-targeted quercetin (MTQ) in rotenone-induced cerebellar toxicity in mice. Treatment of rotenone (3 mg/kg b.w., p.o for 60 days) in mice significantly increases in the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and decrease in the activity of AChE, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed in mice compared to controls. Co-treatment of quercetin and MTQ (30mg/kg b.w., p.o) along with rotenone significantly increased AChE activity and protected against rotenone-induced enhanced oxidative stress. Histological study of cerebellum exhibited necrosis of Purkinje cells as revealed by irregular, damaged cells and perineuronal vacuolation in rotenone-treated mice. Co-treatment of quercetin and MTQ along with rotenone showed protection against rotenone-induced cellular damage in these cells. The results exhibit that both quercetin and MTQ showed a protective effect against rotenone-induced cerebellar toxicity in mice and MTQ is more effectively showed protection than quercetin.
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Holistic Humanized Nursing Care Strategies on Physiological and Psychological Parameters Among Adolescents with HIV − An Interventional Study p. 146
Jasmine Carlouise, Judie Arulappan, Susila Chandrasekaran, Ganesamurthy , Anna Samuel, Starmine Carlouise, Sowmya Saira Chandy
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_66_19  
Introduction/Background: Globally, an estimated 30% of new HIV infection occurs among adolescents aged 15–24 years. HIV related mortality increased by 50% between 2005 and 2012. HIV-related deaths have increased more than three times since 2000, ranking it the second in the list of causes of death among adolescents worldwide. Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of Holistic Humanized Nursing Care Strategies (HHNCS) on the Body mass index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and self-esteem among adolescents living with HIV. Research Methods: The adolescents who had low and moderate level of self-esteem and all levels of BMI and WC were selected experimental (124) and control group (122). The HHNCS was administered to the experimental group and the intervention was continued at home and the reinforcement was given. The control group received NGO’s routine care. The post test was done for both the groups at the end of 3rd and 6th month and the BMI, WC and self-esteem were measured. Results: The mean difference in BMI was 0.32 in experimental and 0.11 in control group. The calculated ‘F’ value in experimental group was 2.94, which was significant at P<0.05. With regard to WC, the mean difference was 0.35 in experimental and 0.10 in control group. The calculated ‘F’ value in experimental group was 0.22, and in control group it was 0.04, which was not statistically significant. In the self-esteem scores, the mean difference was 7.25 in experimental and 0.63 in control group. The calculated ‘F’ value in experimental group was 121.66, which was significant at the level of P<0.00. Conclusion: This study proved that that the HHNCS administered to the adolescents living with HIV were effective in reducing BMI and improved the level of self-esteem.
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Preventive Effect of Opuntiol, Isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill), Extract Against Ultraviolet A Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damages in NIH/3T3 Cells p. 156
Veeramani kandan Ponniresan, Illiyas Maqbool, Radhiga Thangaiyan, Kanimozhi Govindasamy, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
DOI:10.4103/ijnpnd.ijnpnd_69_19  
Aim: We investigated the role of opuntiol, isolated from Opuntia ficus indica, against ultraviolet A waveband-mediated oxidative damages in the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines (NIH‐3T3). Materials and Methods: The antioxidant potential of opuntiol was carried out by hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The preventive effect of opuntiol against UV-mediated cytotoxicity was revealed by MTT assay. Further, the oxidative end points during UV-exposure, in the presence and absence of opuntiol, was analyzed by DCFH-DA staining, rhodamine-123 staining and alkaline comet assay. Results: Opuntiol significantly neutralizes hydroxyl (OH), superoxide anion (O2•–), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, the NIH-3T3 cells were treated with UVA-waveband in the presence and absence of opuntiol and oxidative damage markers were analyzed. We observed that opuntiol pretreatment (5 μM-20 μM) prevented 10 mJ/cm2UVA radiation-induced cytotoxicity in NIH-3T3 cells. Further, single UVA-radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) through intracellular photosensitizers. Conversely, opuntiol pretreatment prevented UVA-mediated ROS generation and subsequent lipid peroxidation and loss of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) in the NIH-3T3 cells. It has also been observed that the UVA-mediated ROS subsequently induces DNA damage and alters mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP). We noticed that opuntiol prevents UVA-radiation-mediated DNA single-strand breaks. Further, it prevents loss of MMPs and apoptotic morphological changes in the NIH-3T3 cells. Conclusion: Thus, these findings illustrate that opuntiol prevents UVA-radiation-mediated oxidative stress-related biochemical changes in the cellular system.
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