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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-74

Serum and intracellular levels of ionized sodium, potassium, and magnesium in type 2 diabetic subjects


1 Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Group, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Correspondence Address:
Md Abdur Rashid
Labarotory of Molecular Signaling, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5625 Fisher Lane, Room # 3S-O2, Maryland - 20852, USA

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.153796

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Background and Aims: Alterations of ionized sodium, potassium, and magnesium in the serum or within erythrocytes have been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects, both as causes and consequences. There is also increasing evidence that electrolyte imbalances are early biochemical events responsible for long-term diabetic complications. Considerable variations in the electrolyte metabolism may exist in populations depending on the genetic constitution, nutritional status, and environmental situation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the serum and erythrocyte levels of Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ , and also to explore their relationship to glycemic status in a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients without any complications. Materials and Methods: There were 30 newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects [age in years 45.17 ± 1.66; body mass index (BMI) 27.26 ± 1.59, M ± SD] who were studied with 30 age- and BMI-matched control subjects (age 46.30 ± 2.41; BMI 26.50 ± 1.78). Serum and intracellular concentration of Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ were estimated by the ion sensitive electrode (ISE) method using an Auto Analyzer (Nova Biomedical Corporation, 200 Prospect Street, Waltham, MA 02254-9141, USA). Serum glucose and lipid profile were measured by enzymatic colorimetric method. Results: The serum levels of ions (mmol/L, M ± SD) in the control subjects were as follows: Na + - 145 ± 1, K + - 3.78 ± 0.25, and Mg 2+ - 0.47 ± 0.02. In diabetic subjects, significantly lower value of Na + (143 ± 2, P < 0.0001) and Mg 2+ (0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.0001) and higher value of K + (4.19 ± 0.41, P < 0.0001) were observed. Serum Na + and Mg 2+ showed negative correlation (P < 0.0001 for both ions) and serum K + showed positive correlation (P < 0.0001) with serum glucose only in the diabetic group. In these diabetic subjects, erythrocyte Na + was higher [(values in mmol/L, M ± SD): 11.20 ± 5.40 in diabetic subjects vs. 10.40 ± 4.77 in control subjects, P < 0.0001] and erythrocyte K + [(values in mmol/L, M ± SD): 139 ± 4.8 in control subjects vs. 133.06 ± 3.71 in diabetic subjects, P < 0.0001] and Mg 2+ [(values in mmol/L, M ± SD): 1.82 ± 0.22 in control subjects vs. 1.75 ± 0.20 in diabetic subjects, P < 0.0001] were found to be significantly lower as compared to control subjects. A significantly positive correlation between erythrocyte Na + (P < 0.0001) and a negative correlation between erythrocyte K + and Mg 2+ (P < 0.0001) were observed with serum glucose. Conclusions: These data confirm the existence of hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypomagnesemia, paralleled by a reverse change of Na + and K + in erythrocytes of type 2 diabetic subjects. The study also demonstrates that hyperglycemia-induced effects on cellular transport process play a major role in mediating the electrolyte imbalances in diabetes.


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