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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 170-178

Preparation and screening of Swarnaprashana for nootropic activity


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Soniya Education Trust's College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Doctor of Ayurveda, Sankalpa Clinic, Dharwad, Shree Devi College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, Soniya Education Trust's College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Pharmacology, Shree Devi College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission20-Jan-2014
Date of Acceptance12-Mar-2014
Date of Web Publication16-May-2014

Correspondence Address:
Vijayanand Basabaraj Warad
Post Graduate, Department of Pharmacognosy, Soniya Education Trust's College of Pharmacy, S. R. Nagar, Dharwad 580 002, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.132677

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   Abstract 

Context: Cognitive disorders are responsible for memory impairments, deterioration of language, motor, sensory abnormalities, gait disturbance, and seizures. Nootropic agents are being primarily used to improve memory, mood and behavior. Aims: In the present study, it was aimed to prepare and evaluate the traditional formulation, Swarnaprashana for its nootropic efficacy on the learning and memory by employing exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models in young and aged mice. Settings and Design: In the present study, Swarnaprashana (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to young and aged Swiss albino mice for 15 days. The elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze were used as exteroceptive behavior models. Materials and Methods: Swarnaprashana was prepared by mixing Swarnabhasma (gold) with honey and ghee was used as vehicle. Scopolamine and naturally ageing-induced amnesic models were used as interoceptive behavior models. Biochemical parameter such as whole brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is used to quantify the nootropic activity. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. Statistical Analysis Used: All data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of 6 mice/experimental group. Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Statistical analyses were performed using Graph pad prism 5.0. The minimal level of significance was identified at P < 0.05. Results: The pretreatment of Swarnaprashana (30 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant improvement in learning and memory (P < 0.01) and also showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in whole brain AChE activity. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that formulation Swaranaprashana has nootropic and anti-AChE activity. Hence, it can be employed in enhancing the memory of the child and for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer′s disease, nootropic, piracetam, Swaranaprashana


How to cite this article:
Warad VB, Shastri R, Habbu P, Katti P, Jagannath AB, Kulkarni VH, Chakraborty M. Preparation and screening of Swarnaprashana for nootropic activity. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2014;4:170-8

How to cite this URL:
Warad VB, Shastri R, Habbu P, Katti P, Jagannath AB, Kulkarni VH, Chakraborty M. Preparation and screening of Swarnaprashana for nootropic activity. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 May 26];4:170-8. Available from: http://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2014/4/3/170/132677


   Introduction Top


Memory is the ability of an individual to record sensory stimuli, events, information and to retain them over short or long periods of time and recall the same at later when needed. Poor memory, lower retention and slow recall are common problems in today's stressful and competitive world. [1] Memory loss only becomes a problem when it is severe and interferes with daily living. Amnesia refers to acquired global impairment of intellect, memory, and personality (cognitive functions) in the absence of gross clouding of consciousness or motor involvement. Causes of memory loss are normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, head injury, seizures, chronic alcohol abuse, barbiturates, hallucinogens and medications such as those used for anesthesia. The other causes are lack of oxygen to the brain, stroke, Parkinson's disease, increased cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, brain tumor, etc. Signs and symptoms of amnesia are inability to recognize family members, speech, language, orientation, and unable to perform day today activities. As we know nootropics are the class of drugs used for cognitive enhancement or we call them as nutraceuticals that are purposed to improve mental functions, such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, and concentration. Nootropics are also used for mental retarded and learning deficit in children. Donepezil, tacrine and rivastigmine are desired to improve memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the body. Piracetam is the most commonly used nootropic agent. [2] The modern medicines which are used to treat memory loss can damage the liver and other side-effects which may include nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, vomiting, and fatigue. Compared to the synthetic drugs, medicinal plants, their secondary metabolites and many traditional formulations are frequently considered to be less toxic with least side-effects. [3]

Ayurveda
, is the ancient Indian system of medicine based on herbs and herbomineral preparations which is gaining greater attention and popularity in many parts of the world. [4] Bhasma is an ancient preparation of Ayurveda which is metalomedicine in powder form of nano to submicron size particles, prepared from metals after many systematic process to convert raw metal into therapeutic form through the classical process by repeated incineration and grinding with some herbal juices and other specified matters. [5]

The current study was aimed to prepare and investigate the effect of the traditional formulation Swarnaprashana on memory enhancing and its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice. Swarnaprashana is one of the Sanskars out of the 16 Sanskars described in Ayurveda. The formulation Swarnaprashana contains Swarnabhasma (gold ash) and the vehicles used for the preparation is honey and ghee. The meaning of Swarnaprashana is oral feeding (prasanam) of gold (swarna). [6]

In Ayurveda seven metals such as gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin, and zinc are used therapeutically. Gold was used in the Vedic era in India to enhance strength and potency, to promote longevity and to combat the aging process in humans. Since 8 th century AD, gold was used in the form of bhasma (ash) after proper purification and incineration as described in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia which is referred as Swarnabhasma (gold ash). [7] Swarnabhasma has been described as therapeutic drug for several diseases. In modern medicine, gold has been included as a therapeutic drug for several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory diseases, asthma, and immunological disorders. [8],[9],[10]

The honey which is used as a vehicle in this formulation has a long history as a comestible and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavoring agent. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat various diseases. Honey has been reported to be as an anti-microbial agent, [11] effective in gastrointestinal disorders, in healing of wounds and burns, and to provide gastric protection against acute and chronic gastric lesions. [12]

Another vehicle used in this formulation is ghee. Ghee is an important panchgavya component. Ghee bears several medicinal claims and many of its combinations with herbs are reported in ancient texts. However, systematic chemical and clinical evaluation in this area is conspicuously lacking. [13]

Here, we prepared the traditional formulation Swarnaprashana in which honey and ghee acts as vehicle as well as preservative. To the best of our knowledge, no scientific data regarding the activity of traditional formulation Swarnaprashana on nootropic activity is available. Hence, we have undertaken this work to evaluate nootropic or anti-amnesic activity of Swarnaprashana.


   Materials and methods Top


Drugs and chemicals

The drugs and chemicals used in this study were obtained from following drug houses. Swarnbhasma (UAP, Pharma Pvt., Ltd., Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India), honey (Bee keepers and Village Industries Cooperative Society Ltd., Honnavar, Karnataka, India), ghee (Nandini dairy, Dharwad, India), scopolamine hydrobromide IP (Cadila health care Ltd., Goa, India), Piracetam (Normabrain ® Torent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Vill, India), 5, 5-dithiobis-2-nitro benzoic acid (DTNB), acetylcholine iodide, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, dipotasium hydrogen phosphate (Hi-Media, India).

Formulation of Swarnaprashana as per traditional method

The formulation Swarnaprashana contains, Swaranabhasma, ghee and honey. The preparation of the Swarnaprashana formulation involves trituration of the honey (400 ml) and ghee (800 ml) for about half an hour until it forms complete homogeneous mixture. To this mixture add Swarnabhasma (288 mg). All the mixture was again triturated for 2 h until the formulation becomes homogeneous mixture. Then prepared formulation was transferred to the well closed ambered colored bottle. All the process should be done in sterile condition.

Standardization of Swarnabhasma

Swarnabhasma was standardized by using modern analytical parameters and also parameters described in Ayurveda texts.

Modern analytical parameters

X-ray diffraction

X-ray diffraction was performed to understand the crystalline nature of the drug. It was performed at IIT Povai, Mumbai, India. The powdered sample of Swarnabhasma was spread onto a double side tape with a spatula, which was then placed on an aluminum sample holder and the peaks were recorded on the chart and corresponding 2 θ (theta) values were obtained. [14]

Scanning electron microscope

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to get the particle size of the Swarnabhasma. It was done at IIT Povai Mumbai, India.

Analytical parameters described in Ayurveda texts

The tests like, Varitaratavam (water/flooded), Rekhapurnatvam (lines/full), Nisvadutram (taste), Awami (biological), Amlapariksha (sour) and Nirdhum (smokeless) were carried out as prescribed in the Ayurveda tests. [14]

Standardization of Swarnaprashana

Swarnaprashana was standardized by performing tests like color, odor, taste, pH of formulation, and gravimetric analysis. [15]

Animals

All the experiments were carried out using male, Swiss albino mice. Young mice (3-4 months old) weighing around 20 g and aged mice (12-15 months old) weighing around 30-40 g. Animals were kept in the animal house of S.E.T's College of Pharmacy, Dharwad after approval from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee India (Approval Number: SETCP/IAEC/2009-2010/412 and Date-10-12-2009) under controlled conditions of temperature (23 ± 2°C), humidity (50 ± 5%) and 12 h light-dark cycle. Animals were fed pellet diet (Venkateshwara Enterprises, Bangalore) and water ad libitum. All the animals were acclimatized for 7 days before the study.

Exteroceptive behavioral models

Elevated plus-maze

Elevated plus-maze (EPM) served as the exteroceptive behavioral model to evaluate memory in mice. The procedure, technique and end point for testing memory was followed as per the parameters described by the investigators working in the area of psychopharmacology. The EPM for mice consisted of two open arms (16 cm × 5 cm) and two covered arms (16 cm × 5 cm × 12 cm) extended from a central platform (5 cm × 5 cm), and the maze was elevated to a height of 25 cm from the floor. On the 1 st day (i.e., 15 th day of drug treatment), each mouse was placed at the end of an open arm, facing away from the central platform. Transfer latency (TL) was defined as the time (in seconds) taken by the animal to move from the open arm into one of the covered arms with all its four legs. TL was recorded on the 1 st day (training session) for each animal. The mouse was allowed to explore the maze for another 2 min and then returned to its home cage. Retention of this learned task (memory) was examined 24 h after the 1 st day's trial (i.e., 16 th day, 24 h after last dose). Significant reduction in TL value of retention indicated improvement in memory. [1]

The study comprises the nine different groups of young and aged mice (n = 6) for investigations each as follows.

Young group

Group 1: Normal control, saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day, again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 2: Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected and TL was noted after 45 min of administration on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 3: Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days. After 45 min of last dose on the 15 th day scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of scopolamine on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 4: Formulation (30 mg/kg) was administered for 15 days. After 45 min of last dose on the 15 th day scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of scopolamine on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 5: Only formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 6: Only piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Aged groups

Group 7: Normal control, saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day).

Group 8: Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Group 9: Formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days. TL was noted after 45 min of administration of last dose on the 15 th day and again after 24 h, i.e., on the 16 th day.

Morris water maze

To assess place learning and memory performance of mice Morris water maze (MWM) is used. The experimental apparatus consisted of a circular water tank (diameter 150 cm; height 45 cm) containing water was maintained at 25°C and rendered opaque by the addition of white colored nontoxic dye. The tank is divided in to four quadrants with the help of two threads, fixed at right angle to each other on the rim of the pool. A platform (10 cm 2 ) of 26 cm height was located with its top submerged 1 cm below the water surface in center of one of these four quadrants. The position of platform was kept unaltered throughout the training sessions. In the present study, the target quadrant was Q4. Each animal was subjected to four consecutive trails on each day with a gap of 5 min for four consecutive days, during which they are allowed to escape on to the hidden platform and to remain there for 20 s. in case the animal was unable to locate the hidden platform within 120 s, it was gently guided to the platform and allowed remain on the platform for 20 s. The escape latency time (ELT) to locate the hidden platform in the water maze was noted as index of acquisition or learning. The animal was subjected to training trials for four consecutive days, the starting position was changed with each exposure as mentioned below and target quadrant (Q4) remained constant throughout the training period.

Day 1: Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Day 2: Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1

Day 3: Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2

Day 4: Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3.

On the 5 th day, the platform was removed and each mouse was allowed to explore the pool for 120 s. The mean time spent in all the four quadrants was noted. The mean time spent by the animal in the target quadrant searching for the hidden platform, i.e., time spend in target quadrant (TSTQ) was noted as index of retrieval. The experimenter always stood at the same position. Care was taken that the relative location of the water maze with respect to other objects in the laboratory serving, as prominent visual clues, were not disturbed during the total duration of the study. All the trials were completed between 09.00 and 17.00 h. [16],[17]

The study comprises the nine different groups of young and aged mice (n = 6) for investigations each as follows.

Young groups

Group 1: Normal control, saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4 and before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 2: Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted on day 1-4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5. [16],[17]

Group 3: Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) + Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.): Piracetam was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. Scopolamine was injected 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted on day 1-4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 4: Formulation (30 mg/kg) + scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.): Formulation was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. Scopolamine was injected 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted on day 1-4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 5: Only formulation (30 mg/kg) was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 6: Only piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Aged group

Group 7: Normal control, saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered orally for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4 and before the retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 8: Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Group 9: Formulation (30 mg/kg) was administered for 15 days and then subjected to MWM test. It was also administered 45 min before the acquisition trial conducted from day 1 to day 4. And saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.) was administered 45 min before retrieval trial conducted on day 5.

Biochemical parameter

Estimation of brain acetylcholinesterase activity

The whole brain AChE activity was measured using the Ellman method. Animals were euthanized on the 16 th day by cervical dislocation and brain tissue was removed carefully to avoid any injuries. Tissue was homogenized in normal saline and centrifuged. The supernatant was used to estimate the AChE activity. [12],[13] The end point was the formation of yellow color due to the reaction of thiocholine from acetylcholine iodide in the presence of dithiobisnitrobenzoate ions. The rate of formation of thiocholine from acetylcholine iodide in the presence of tissue cholinesterase was measured using spectrophotometer. The sample was first treated with 5, DTNB and the optical density of the yellow color compound formed during the reaction at 412 nm every minute was measured. Protein estimation was done using Folin's method. AChE activity was calculated using the following formula.



Statistical analysis

Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was assessed using One-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey-Karmer multiple comparison tests. P < 0.05 was considered significant.


   Results Top


Analysis of Swarnabhasma

X-ray diffraction studies of Swarnabhasma

The X-ray diffraction pattern has shown crystallinity of Swarnabhasma, which has characteristic peak at 2θ of 25° and also it shows major phase as Au, and minor phase as Fe 2 O3 + [Figure 1].
Figure 1: X-ray diffraction of Swarnabhasma

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Scanning electron microscopy of Swarnabhasma

The average particle size of Swarnabhasma was found to be 2.75 μm [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Scanning electron microscopy of Swarnabhasma

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Analysis using parameters described in Ayurveda texts

The Swarnabhasma passes the tests for Varitaratavam (water/flooded), Rekhapurnatvam (lines/full), Nisvadutram (taste), Awami (biological), Amlapariksha (sour) and Nirdhum (smokeless).

Standardization of Swarnaprashana (formulation)

Swarnaprashana has light brown color, honey and ghee odor, sweet taste and pH 6.5.

Gravimetric estimation of Swarnaprashana

The gravimetric estimation of Swarnaprashana shows that 100 ml of Swarnaprashana contains 25 mg of Swarnabhasma (i.e., each ml contains 0.25 mg).

Effect of Swarnaprashana on transfer latency using elevated plus-maze

Effect of Swarnaprashana on transfer latency in young mice using elevated plus-maze

Scopolamine group (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) shows significant (P < 0.001) increase in TL compare to normal control group which indicates impairment of both learning and memory task. The young animals treated with formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and piracetam group (200 mg/kg, p.o.) shows significant reduction (P < 0.001) in TL as compared to the normal control group indicating improvement in both learning and memory task. The formulation + scopolamine and piracetam + scopolamine groups were also showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in TL of both learning and memory task as compared to scopolamine induced group which shows the reversal of scopolamine induced memory loss or amnesia [Table 1].
Table 1: Effect of Swarnaprashana on TL in young mice by EPM


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Effect of Swarnaprashana on transfer latency in aged mice by elevated plus-maze

The aged animals treated with Formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in TL of both learning and memory task when compared to normal control group of aged mice. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) group also shows significant (P < 0.001) reduction in TL in learning and memory task when compared with normal control group of aged mice [Table 2].
Table 2: Effect of Swarnaprashana on TL in aged mice by EPM


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Effect of Swarnaprashana on escape latency time and time spend in target quadrant using Morris water maze

Effect of Swarnaprashana on escape latency time and time spend in target quadrant using Morris water maze in young mice

The scopolamine treated group significantly (P < 0.001) exhibited longer ELT throughout the trial schedules (day 1 and 4) than the normal control group reflecting impairment of learning. The formulation (30 mg/kg, P < 0.01) and piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o., P < 0.001) has significantly decreased the ELT compared to normal control group, which shows better acquisition or learning. The formulation + scopolamine and piracetam + scopolamine groups also showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in ELT of acquisition or learning task as compared to scopolamine induced group [Table 3].
Table 3: Effect of Swarnaprashana on ELT in young mice by MWM


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The scopolamine treated group significantly (P < 0.001) markedly reduced TSTQ in search of missing platform during the retrieval trial compare to normal control group, reflecting impairment of memory. The formulation (30 mg/kg, P < 0.01) and piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o., P < 0.001) significantly increases in TSTQ as compared to normal control group which supports the improvement of memory. Furthermore, formulation + scopolamine and piracetam + scopolamine groups showed significant (P < 0.001) increases in TSTQ when compared to scopolamine induced group which indicates reversal of scopolamine induced loss of memory or amnesia [Table 4].
Table 4: Effect of Swarnaprashana on TSTQ in young mice by MWM


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Effect of Swarnaprashana on escape latency time and time spend in target quadrant using Morris water maze in aged mice

The formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o., P < 0.01) and piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o., P < 0.001) has significantly shortened the ELT as compared to normal control group of aged mice which shows better acquisition or learning [Table 5].
Table 5: Effect of Swarnaprashana on ELT in aged mice by MWM


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The aged animals treated with formulation (30 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement in TSTQ values (retrieval index) as compared to normal control group of aged mice which reflects the improvement in the memory. The standard piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.) also shows significant (P < 0.001) increase in TSTQ values as compared with normal control group of aged mice [Table 6].
Table 6: Effect of Swarnaprashana on TSTQ in aged mice by MWM


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Effect of Swarnaprashana on whole brain acetylcholinesterase activity

Effect of Swarnaprashana on whole brain acetylcholinesterase activity on young mice

Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., P < 0.001) significantly increases whole brain AChE activity as compared to normal control group. The young group treated with formulation (30 mg/kg p.o.) and piracetam (200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (P < 0.001) decreases brain AChE activity as compared to normal control group of young mice indicating better nootropic activity. Formulation + scopolamine and piracetam + scopolamine groups showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in brain AChE activity as compared to scopolamine group of young mice shows reversal of scopolamine induced amnesia [Table 7].
Table 7: Effect of Swarnaprashana on whole brain AChE activity on young mice


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Effect of Swarnaprashana on whole brain acetylcholinesterase activity on aged mice

Swarnaprashana (30 mg/kg, p.o.) treated group was more significantly (P < 0.001) decreased whole brain AChE activity as compared to normal control group of aged mice. Piracetam (200 mg/kg. p.o.) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased brain AChE activity, when compared with normal control group of aged mice [Table 8].
Table 8: Effect of Swarnaprashana on whole brain AChE activity on aged mice


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   Discussion Top


Cognitive disorders such as delirium, dementia and amnesic disorders are common in elderly individuals characterized by memory impairment and cognitive decline. AD is progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that is slow in onset, but leads to dementia, unusual behavior, personality changes, and ultimately death. [18] By the year 2050, an estimated 30% of the population in Western Europe will be over age 65 years, and up to 10% will have AD. [19] The acetylcholine is considered as the most important neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. There is an extensive evidence linking the central cholinergic system to memory. [7],[20] AD, amnesia and other cognitive dysfunction has been associated with reduced cholinergic transmission and the facilitation of central cholinergic transmission with improved memory. [16] The free radicals are implicated in the etiology of the neuromuscular degenerative conditions such as AD and amnesia. Reactive oxygen free radicals and other byproducts of oxidative metabolism have been shown to be neurotoxic. [21] Hence, antioxidant therapy may be beneficial in treatment of the AD, amnesia and other neuromuscular degenerative conditions.

In the present study, the traditional formulation Swarnaprashana was prepared which contains Swarnabhasma (gold ash), the principal constituent which has very low particle size of average 2.75 μm shows better memory enhancement results, as the particle size of gold decreases absorption will increases. The Swarnabhasma has been scientifically proved for free-radical scavenging activity, [22] rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory diseases, asthma, and immunological disorders. [8],[9],[10] The ghee and honey which were used as vehicles.

When Swarnaprashana administered continuously for 15 days improved learning and memory of young mice and aged mice when subject to studies using EPM and MWM. Swarnaprashana decreases the TL in EPM. It also decreases ELT which shows better acquisition or learning and increase in TSTQ in MWM which supports the improvement of memory. The formulation significantly reduces whole brain AChE activity of both young and aged mice as compared to respective control group.

All these observations support the findings that the formulation Swarnaprashana was able to offer significant protection all both the models EPM, MWM, and whole brain AChE activity studied.

 
   References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]


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