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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-22

Clinical significance of probiotics in human


Department of Biotechnology, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Hotam Singh Chaudhary
Department of Biotechnology, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior- 474 005, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.124610

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This review gives a glimpse of probiotic role in human life and how it affects the individual. Probiotics have been studied as an alternative to antibiotic therapy. The term "probiotics" comes from the Greek word "pro bios" meaning "for life" opposed to "antibiotics," which means "against life." As the research is progressing, new approaches to treat diseases are being developed such as prebiotics and synbiotics. Probiotics work in our body through various modes of action, namely, production of inhibitory substances, stimulation of immunity, affecting host gene expression, blocking of adhesion sites, competition for nutrients, and degradation of toxin receptors. The various criteria employed to select strains for probiotics are acid-bile stability, adhesion stability, antimicrobial activity, viability and stability during processing and storage. Research has proved the therapeutic effects of probiotics in diseases such as diarrhea, rotavirus diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatic encephalopathy, celiac disease, and hyperoxaluria. Probiotics have prophylactic effects in diseases such as pouchitis and ulcerative colitis that come under inflammatory bowel disease, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, dental decay, periodontal infection, halitosis, constipation, gastrointestinal infections, and colon cancer. Probiotics also help in xenobiotic metabolism, lactose intolerance, cholesterol reduction, sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, stress, and hypertension. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of probiotics in case of radiation-induced diarrhea, HIV/AIDS diarrhea, Crohn's disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and allergy.


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