|PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS AND THERAPEUTICS (ICBPT-2013)
|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 417-437
Oral presentation abstracts
|Date of Web Publication||15-Oct-2013|
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
. Oral presentation abstracts. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2013;3:417-37
O-1: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor properties of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) extract: Chitosan loaded nanoparticles
G. Dhamodaran, K. Pandian 1 , S. Mirunalini 1
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, 1 Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nanomedicine, a new attractive term frequently applied nowadays that implies the medical application of nanotechnology as an alternative to the classical drug formulations. Agaricus bisporus (AB) is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom used in India. Until date, there are numerous studies on this mushroom emphasizing its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antibacterial effects. The objectives of this study were preparation, characterization, and anti-tumor properties of AB (white button mushroom) extract - Agaricus bisporus chitosan loaded nanoparticles (ABCNPs). This study has developed an AB extract loaded with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) with sodium tripolyphosphate by ionic gelation method and to evaluate the physicochemical properties and anti-tumor activity in in vitro cytotoxicity studies using mammary cancer cell line MCF-7. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed ABCNPs nanoparticles had a uniform rod shape. The results demonstrated by using ultraviolet - Visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential, zetasizer analyzer, and its encapsulation efficiency and release profile could be modulated by fabricating conditions. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with AB, ABCNPs, and CNPs for 24 h at 37°C and 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Cells viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. AB, ABCNPs, and CNPs enhances lipid peroxidation status thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreases antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E) levels in MCF-7 cells thereby decreasing cell malignancy or transformation and inhibits tumor promotion. Our data demonstrates that a potent inhibitor of MCF-7 carcinoma cells enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activity in MCF-7 cells, which shows that AB, ABCNPs, and CNPs possess pro-oxidant properties. The results of the present study showed that AB extracts and its loaded CNPs might be a potential alternative agent for human breast cancer therapy.
O-2: Molecular interaction study of coumarin with Apple PPO and POD: Extraction and quantification from cinnamon and its effect on enzymatic browning in fresh apple juice
T. Rajarajeshwari, C. Shivashri, P. Rajasekar
Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Enzymatic browning reaction is mainly mediated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in fruits and vegetables, affecting food quality and taste. Therefore, our study evaluated the inhibitory efficacy of coumarin on PPO and POD by molecular modeling. The amino acid sequences of apple PPO and POD were used for the construction of model using the homology modeling method based on the X-ray structure of grape PPO (PDB ID: 2P3X) and cytosolic ascorbate POD from pea (PDB ID: 1APX) respectively. Our docking data showed that coumarin exhibited strong interaction with amino acid residues in the binding pockets of PPO and POD. The high docking interaction energy of coumarin proved the possible potent inhibition of apple PPO and POD. The crude ethanolic extract of cinnamon was obtained and quantified by HPLC, using pure synthetic coumarin (SC) as standard. Fresh apple juice was prepared. The effect of the extract and SC on enzymatic browning in fresh apple juice, its time dependent effects and the specific activity of PPO and POD were studied. The quantitated amount of coumarin in the cinnamon extract was 0.415%. The CC (73%) and SC (82%) showed better reduction in browning, maintained its anti-browning effect at all-time points and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the specific activity of PPO and POD when compared with controls. Our computational and in vitro analysis showed an affinity of coumarin to key enzymes of browning suggesting its potential use as inhibitor to enzyme mediated browning in fresh apple juice.
O-3: Immunomodulatory activity of isolated saponin mixture and a flavonoid from Tridax procumbens Linn (family astereaceae)
Abrar Hussain Mir
Department of Botany, S.S.L. Jain P.G. College, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
An attempt has been made to assess the immunomodulatory activity of purified Saponin mixture and flavonoids "Quercetin" isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of successive Methanolic extract of Tridax procumbens Linn. An immunomodulatory activity was evaluated using hemagglutination antibody titer, delayed type hypersentivity response, and carbon clearance parameters in experimental animals. Both compounds significantly increased hemagglutination antibody titer and significantly inhibited delayed type hypersentivity response in rats compared with the control group animals. Both increased the rate of carbon clearance from the blood of mice indicating increased phagocytosis. The results suggested that Saponin as well as flavonoids from T. procumbens L. possess promising immunomodulatory activity.
O-4: Characterization of diosgenin from Helicteres isora Linn: A medicinally important plant
Harshal A. Deshpande, Sanjivani R. Bhalsing
Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India.
Since, the advent of modern drug treatments, traditional medicine has greatly receded in occidental societies. Moreover, only a limited number of medicinal plants have received detailed scientific scrutiny thereby prompting the World Health Organization to recommend that this area be comprehensively investigated. Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of valuable medicinal and many other pharmaceutical intermediates of traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical, and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. Plant-derived substances have recently become of great interest owing to their versatile applications. Medicinal plants have provided the modern medicine with numerous plant-derived pharmaceutical agents. Natural products have been used as a source of drugs and food material for mankind and provide most of these therapeutic agents. The phytochemical studies of the medicinal plants have provided some biochemical basis for their ethnopharmacological uses in the treatment and prevention of various diseases and disorders. Important and well-known plant derived natural products include alkaloids, flavonoids, quinine, quinidine, pyrethrins, rotenone, and steroids such as digoxin and digitoxin. Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae) is a medicinally important sub deciduous shrub or a small tree. Almost all parts of the plant are used to treat various conditions such as colic, cough and asthma, snake bite, diarrhea, effective against diabetes, hypolipidemia, and human immunodeficiency virus, besides, an excellent source of diosgenin. Diosgenin is a steroidal sapogenin that is very useful in pharmaceutical industries as a starting material for partial synthesis of steroid hormones. In addition, it's a steroidal drug used as an antifertility agent and is also an economically significant fiber. In the present research work, isolation of diosgenin was carried out by using differentiated as well as leaf derived non-differentiated cells. Diosgenin was further characterized by using various bioanalytical procedures and the techniques all together prove that diosgenin extracted from H. isora matched exactly the characteristics exhibited by standard diosgenin.
O-5: Extraction of flavonoids from Solanum melongena fruit by supercritical CO 2
Namrata Satam, Lavu Parab 1 , Suvarna Bhoir 1
School of Science, SVKM's Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, 1 C.B. Patel Research Centre, Vile Parle - 400 056, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study is focused on extraction and identification of flavonoids from Solanum melongena fruit using Supercritical fluid-Carbon dioxide (SCF-CO 2 ) technology. The fruit extract containing flavonoids has been reported to have hypolipidemic activity. The present study evaluated SCF extraction of flavonoid from S. melongena Linn fruit at different operational conditions and effect of various parameters such as the temperature, pressure and flow rate of CO 2 dependence on extract profile. Since CO 2 is a non-polar solvent, ethanol was used as co-solvent to increase the polarity of the fluid. HPLC-PDA determination of flavonoids is done for each condition and the extraction conditions are optimized. Chromatographic conditions employed for determination of flavonoids component in fruit extract for PDA analysis are mobile phase (Methanol: Acetonitrile: Orthophosphoric acid: Acetic acid: Water, 200:100:10:10:200 v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The optimized SC-CO 2 extraction conditions under which maximum yields of flavonoids are obtained are temperature 45°C, Pressure 200 kg/cm 2 , Co-solvent concentration 7.97% with a CO 2 flow rate 3.0 mL/min. Further optimized SFE fruit extract is examined for their phytochemical constituents (flavonoids) by performing thin layer chromatography (TLC). The final optimized solvent system for TLC was Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Acetic acid: Water (100:11:11:26). Qualitative identification of flavonoids was done by derivatizing TLC plates with spraying reagent. The crude extract obtained at optimized conditions is further separated Isolation of compounds was carried out by Prep-TLC and further separation of peaks was done on HPLC. In vitro antioxidant activity of extract and fractions were evaluated by performing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing capacity.
O-6: Effect of cooking on the sugar and mineral composition of conophor nut
A. B. Adepeju, O. A. Abiodun
Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, P.M.B. 301, Osun State, Nigeria. E-mail: email@example.com
This present work evaluates the effect of cooking on the sugar and mineral composition of conophor nut. Matured conophor nuts were cracked to remove the cotyledon. The cotyledon were sliced, dried, milled, and sealed in a polyethylene bag. The cooked samples were boiled with the shell at 100°C ± 2 for 90 min. The cotyledons were removed from the shell, sliced, dried, milled, and packaged. The sugar and mineral contents of the raw and cooked samples were evaluated. The total sugar (4.10%) in the cooked conophor nut was slightly higher than that of the raw flour. The mineral contents such as Ca (2.30%), Mg (0.93%), Mn (410.73 ppm), Fe (241.64 ppm), Zn (100.16 ppm), and Cu (298.15 ppm) were higher in the raw flour while there were increase in K and Na contents of the cooked flour. Cooking increased the non-reducing sugar, K and Na contents of conophor nut.
O-7: Effect of phytochemicals on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Alzheimer's disease models
Subash Selvaraju, M. Mohamed Essa 1 , Gilles J. Guillemin 2 , Nady Braidy 3
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, 1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, 2 Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, 3 St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, 4 ???, Neuropharmacology Group, MND and Neurodegenerative diseases Research Centre, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Sydney Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease increasingly recognized as one of the most important medical problems affecting the elderly, characterized by progressive impairment in memory and cognition. Although a number of drugs, including several cholinesterase inhibitors and an NMDA receptor antagonist, have been approved for use, they have been shown to produce diverse side-effects and yield relatively modest benefits. To overcome these limitations of current therapeutics for AD, extensive research and development are underway to identify drugs that are effective and free of undesirable side-effects. Targets of therapy in AD include neurotransmitter deficits, beta amyloid neurotoxicity, oxidative damage, and inflammation, to name a few. Certain naturally occurring dietary polyphenolic bioactive phytochemicals have received considerable recent attention as alternative candidates for AD therapy. In particular, curcumin, resveratrol, galantamine, rivastigmine, Coumarin, epigallocatechin gallate, anthocyanins, xanthone mangiferin, dihydrochalcones Aspalathin, nothofagin, cannabinoids, green tea catechins, theaflavins, etc., have been suggested to have the potential to prevent AD because of their anti-amyloidogenic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. These phytochemicals also activate adaptive cellular stress responses, called "neurohormesis," and suppress disease processes. In this commentary, we describe the amyloid-beta-induced pathogenesis of AD and focus on specific molecular targets of these selected phytochemical compounds highlighting the correlations between their neuroprotective functions and their potential therapeutic value in AD. This research work was partially supported by a research grant from Research Council, Oman (RC/AGR/FOOD/11/01).
O-8: 0 Lactuca sativa attenuates 3-Nitropropionic acid induced Huntington's disease in mice
S. N. Harsha, K. R. Anilakumar
Applied Nutrition Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore - 570 011, Karnataka, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease caused by abnormal length of repeated section of huntingtin protein. Early symptoms of HD include poor memory; mood changes with choreiform involuntary movements, bradykinesia, and cerebellar dysfunction, and followed by akinesia and rigidity at later stages. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a mitochondrial toxin that causes striatal neuropathy similar to seen in clinical HD. 3-NP has been documented to increase generation of reactive oxygen species.
Lactuca sativa (LS), a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties has been studied for its neuroprotective property in mice using 70% ethanol extract of the leaves. The lyophilized extract was reconstituted in water and administered orally to mice for 15 days. Behavioral parameters viz., elevated plus maze, novel object test, and open field tests were carried out. Extract was fed to mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight with or without 3 NP.
Time spent and number of entries made into the open arm was measured during elevated plus maze followed by total locomotor activity. There was a significant increase in brain malondialdehyde, nitrites, and corticosterone. A decreased brain dopamine and the antioxidant enzymes activity viz. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, GR caused by the administration of 3NP was reversed by the feeding of LS extract.
There is no cure for HD, but various synthetic drugs are available that provide only sympatomatic treatment. Hence, this research has been designed to explore such herbal drugs in the management of HD that possess fewer side-effects, but more therapeutic efficacy. This study implies that LS is a potent neuroprotective agent and reduces 3NP-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.
O-9: Effect of potassium salt of hydroxycitrate on food intake, appetite regulating hormones and monoamines in rats
M. V. Mithila, Farhath Khanum
Biochemistry and Nanoscience Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore - 570 011, Karnataka, India.
The study emphasizes on dose and time dependent effect of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the principal constituent (10-30%) of dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The effect of potassium-hydroxycitrate acid (K-HCA) on appetite regulating hormones (ghrelin, leptin, and cholecystokinin), monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine), plasma glucose and triglycerides was studied in rats. K-HCA was extracted from the dried fruit rinds of G. indica and characterized by HPLC for its purity. Doses used were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% of feed intake. K-HCA at the level of 2% feed intake was able to significantly inhibit food intake and slightly reduce the average body weight gain. It increased the plasma leptin and serotonin levels, but had little effects on dopamine. It also significantly decreased levels of plasma ghrelin, glucose and triglycerides, whereas exhibited slight increase in the levels of CCK when compared to the control.
O-10: 0 In vitro anticancer assay of hedyotis umbellata on agc-gastric cell line and identification of major constituents
S. Mahibalan 1,2 , G. Kumaresan 1,2 , A. Sajeli Begum 1,2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Natural Drugs Research Laboratory, BITS-Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Shameerpet (M) A - 500 078, Hyderabad, 2 Department of Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai - 625 021, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cancer, a serious threat to the human life is reported as second leading cause for mortality. Phytoconstituents have been playing a crucial role in the development of NCEs, especially in the area of cancer disease. In view of the cancer reports on Rubiaceous plants, Hedyotis umbellata belonging to this family had been selected for the study. Various terpenoids and anthraquinones have been reported as the phytoconstituents of H. umbellata, which may become possible leads for anticancer drugs.
The crude methanolic extract of H. umbellata and its ether and butanol fractions were tested for cytotoxicity on AGC-gastric cell line by MTT-assay for 48 h. The reports were compared with 5-flurouracil ranging from 0.01 ppm to 10 ppm. The standard drug showed 72% growth inhibition at 10 ppm, whereas ether fraction, butanol fraction, and crude methanolic extract elaborated 97%, 78%, and 24% growth inhibition respectively.
Results revealed that the ether fraction of H. umbellata has potent anticancer activity against AGC Gastric cell line than the standard drug. The bioactive ether fraction was investigated for the phytoconstituents, which led to the isolation of ursolic acid (620 mg), oleanolic acid (320 mg), β-sitosterol glucoside (150 mg), and anthragallol 1,3-dimethyl ether (31 mg) by column chromatography using silica gel under gradient elution. The compounds identity was performed by comparing the 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance data with the literature reports followed by direct comparison studies with authentic samples. As the anticancer effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid is known, the present study concludes that the potent anticancer activity of ether fraction might be due to the presence of these constituents or in combination with other constituents as well. The cytotoxic effect of H. umbellata is being reported for the first time.
O-11: Characterisation of potential phyto-regioisomers using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
A. Sajeli Begum
Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shameerpet Mandal, Hyderabad - 500 078, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
In natural product drug discovery, the major bottleneck has always been structure elucidation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, a sophisticated technique is useful for exploring the exact structure of phytochemicals. Majority of the bioactive secondary metabolites of plants exist as regioisomers whose structure determination is a most challenging task for a natural product chemist.
The scope of this presentation is primarily to demonstrate the usefulness of different NMR techniques to distinguish phyto-regioisomers taking non-conventional lignans as examples. Silymarin and cleomiscosins belonging to the group of flavonolignans and coumarinolignans, respectively have been taken for the discussion. Cleomiscosin A (1) and B (2) is a regioisomeric pair isolated from the seeds of Cleome viscosa, whose structure was unambiguously settled by heteronuclear decoupling NMR experiment. Irradiation at the H-7′ signal of cleomiscosin diacetate sharpened the carbon signal of C-7′ and that of H-8′ the resonance of C-8, indicating a 7-O-7′/8-O-8′ linkage in cleomiscosin A. Another technique that may be employed for characterization of regioisomers is selective (SINEPT) NMR, which is independent of the assignments of C-7 and C-8 in cleomiscosins. Irradiation at certain hydrogen frequency has been observed to simplify the carbon signal at its β position due to coupling. Observation of enhancements induced in the spectra through the irradiation of H-5 and H-7′ or H-6 and H-8′ provides the clear structure determination of the two isomers. Structural ambiguity between the positional isomers may be settled by HMBC technique as well. These techniques can be applied to characterize the isomers silybin A (3) and isosilybin A (4), the principal constituent of hepatoprotective drug, silymarin.
O-12: Antimicrobial defence of earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae)
J. Anitha, Indira A. Jayraaj
Department of Biochemistry, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Discrimination of self and non-self is one of the features of all animal species but the ways of elimination of non-self are different. Defense strategies of invertebrates, which lack antibodies and lymphocytes, are based on innate defense mechanisms. The study of such, undoubtedly less complex, defense mechanisms in invertebrates may shed new light on the more sophisticated immunity of vertebrates. The first protective barrier of earthworms is represented by skin. The skin of earthworms consists of the epidermis with a thin cuticle and it covers the entire body. The cuticle contains mucopolysaccharides that serve not only as the matrix for collagen fibers, but also as an antimicrobial barrier. The epidermis is formed by a single layer epithelium of supporting cells, basal cells, and secretory cells. Basal cells play a significant role in wound healing and graft rejection, often exerting phagocytotic activity. Mucus serves as a lubricant during locomotion and contains several antibacterial factors.
Antibiotics kill microorganisms without damaging the body tissues. Most antibiotics work in one of two ways. They can block a metabolic pathway that yields nutrients necessary for bacterial life or they can inhibit a specific enzyme required for the construction of bacterial cell walls thereby leading to death. Over the past 20 years, bacteria have acquired resistances to many common antibiotics. In fact, many bacterial pathogens found in hospitals have multiple antibiotic resistances. Bacteria have become resistant by circumventing the specific pathways that antibiotics are designed to inhibit. Scientists then began to find new antibiotics that inhibited over pathways; however, it was only a matter of time before bacteria became resistant to the newer antibiotics.
The main aim of this research work is to show the defense mechanism of earthworm to protect itself by the pathways against microbial infections. Moreover, earthworm species have evolved a variety of active defense pathways efficiently recognizing and responding to non-self substances despite the absence of an adaptive immune system based on antibodies or lymphocytes. In this respect, knowledge of the less complex earthworm defense strategies may contribute to identification of antimicrobial factors with possible therapeutically use. Hence, in the present study the antimicrobial activity of the earthworm powder (EWP) obtained from Eudrilus eugeniae was investigated against fifteen bacteria species as well as five fungal species using disc diffusion method to show its defense pathway and to verify its claimed pharmaceutical use in the treatment of many infections and also. EWP exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus species such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus sp. This inhibitory effect of EWP was compared with the commercial antibiotics such as tetracycline and fucanazole. The results of the present investigation indicate that the EWP of E. eugeniae has a significant capacity of antibacterial and antifungal activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.
O-13: Antioxidant activity of the edible mushroom, Volvariella volvacea against streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia in rats
P. Rajeswari, S. Krishnakumari
Department of Biochemistry, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
The mushrooms have become functional foods as they possess nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Oxidation is essential to many living organisms for the production of energy to fuel biological processes but when in excess generates a series of free radicals. Oxidative damage caused by free radicals is related to several diseases including diabetes. In the diabetic condition, free radicals are produced in excess and damage the other biomolecules. This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (In vivo) of Volvariella volvacea in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic rats. Female albino rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of six animals each. The first group served as normal control. The followed groups were respectively of STZ induced rats served as diabetic control and two groups of STZ induced rats administered with cold water decoction, and hot water decoction of the mushroom at 20 ml/kg body weight once in a day for 45 days. On the 46 th day, the rats were sacrificed and the serum biochemical markers such as total protein, AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH, oxidation products and antioxidant status in pancreas and liver were analyzed.
All evaluated biochemical markers in serum and the oxidation products in pancreas and liver were found to be significantly elevated and the antioxidant status was found to have a significant decrease in the STZ induced untreated group of animals when compared with the normal group of animals. It was observed that the significant changes in all these parameters were significantly prevented by the administration of the mushroom decoctions. The mushroom is found to have the potentiality to significantly prevent the system against STZ induced hyperglycemia in rats and in turn could be said that the mushroom protective action against the disease. Hence, the mushroom, V. volvacea could be utilized for the further clinical trials as a pharmaceutical.
O-14: Efficacy of Carica papaya and Acalypha indica against MDR acinetobacter species isolated from health-care settings
D. Jayarajan 1,2 , F. Sylviamary 1,2 , R. Subashkumar 1,2
1 Department of Microbiology, Divine Mother College, Korkadu, Puducherry - 605 010, 2 Department of Biotechnology, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous aerobic, gram negative, coccobacilli, encapsulated, and non-motile nosocomial pathogen resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents distributed in the environment causing a variety of diseases ranging from Pneumonia to serious meningitis and endocarditis. In recent years, increasing numbers of hospital acquired infections caused by this genus have been reported. This attempt analyze the pathogenic activity of multi drug resistant Acinetobacter in various clinical and non-clinical samples. The Pathogenic activity is estimated based on phenotypic classification, antibiogram, hemolytic activity, Gelatin liquefaction, and MAR index, etc., Out of 170 samples, Acinetobacter was isolated in 96. Among the total isolates, Acinetobacter baumanni (42), Acinetobacter lwoffi (21), and Acinetobacter hemolyticus (33) were noticed, and the total percentage of incidence of Acinetobacter were recorded as 56.47%. In Antibiogram, 32 drugs were treated against all the isolates, the percentage of resistant were recorded as A. baumanni (81.5%), A. lwoffi (21.8), and A. hemolyticus (56.2). Carica papaya and Acalypha indica were well-known for its medicinal properties, which are commonly available in our human environment on all seasons. The present study also investigated the antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of C. papaya and A. indica against all the Acinetobacter spp. The Ethanol extract demonstrated a higher antibacterial activity than aqueous extract. This multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacterial infection can be minimized to some extent by using infective control measures made from herbal plants.
O-15: Recent advancement in herbosome nanomedicine for delivering herbal extract with improved bioavailability and targeting efficiency
Garrick Bikku George, G. Prabhu Shankar, G. Krishnamoorthy
T. P. Sastry and A. B. Mandal, Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai - 600 020, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Nanomedicine has already perceived humongous development in multidisciplinary fields such as biomedical, drug delivery, therapies, and so on. Herbal extracts have their own benefits and drawbacks from its birth. Traditionally, these extracts were administered orally, which resulted in loss of activity while passing through the gastrointestinal tract and circulatory systems. In this context, phytosome nanoparticles (PNs) were developed to subdue the barriers and reach the site of action. Phytosome - A neoteric technology, which is a fusion of active phytochemical ingredients and phospholipids (PLs), has made the field of nanopharmaceutics and nanomedicine to take a step ahead. PNs have been prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules of PLs with plant extracts such as flavonoids, polyphenolics and phenolic glycosides, etc., to develop a sterically stable, biocompatible therapeutic drug carrier. The nanocomposites have a particle size of 100-200 nm with improved thermal and structural stabilities. Comparatively, these are more stable, biocompatible and more bioavailable than liposome nanoparticles, which are widely used. The value added herbal drug carriers system can pave the way for large molecules to pass through the lipophilic biological membrane and get penetrated into the cellular and sub-cellular organelles. These PNs are expected to be useful in controlled and targeted therapeutic herbal drug carriers to diagnose, treat arthritis as well as other joint diseases.
O-16: 0 Punica granatum peel extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity and inhibitory potential against LDL oxidation
C. V. Anusha, P. Nisha, A. Sundaresan, P. Jayamurthy
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Industrial Estate, Pappanamcode, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 019, Kerala, India. E-mail: email@example.com
The pomegranate, Punica granatum, has a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. All parts of the pomegranate plant are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The present study focuses on the efficacy of pomegranate peel against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate emailArticle.asp?issn=2231-0738;year=2013;volume=3;issue=4;spage=417;epage=437;aulast=, methanol [ME], 70% ME and Water) of two varieties of pomegranate peel (Kabul and Anur). The extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl ([DPPH] and Nitric oxide scavenging assays), antidiabetic property (α-glucosidase inhibition and antiglycation activity) and potential against CVD (low-density lipoproteins oxidation assay).
The results showed that 70% ME of Anur exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radical (3.23 μg and 9.9 μg, respectively), whereas EA extract (3.88 μg and 11.8 μg for DPPH and nitric oxide radical, respectively) showed maximum activity for Kabul compared to standard, gallic acid (3.2 μg and 104.5 μg, respectively). The EA extract (5.18 μg for Anur and 8.62 μg for Kabul) and ME extract (8.12 μg for Anur and 6.32 μg for Kabul) demonstrated highest antidiabetic activity in terms of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity compared to standard, acarbose (45.3 μg). The ME extracts of both samples showed significant antiglycation activity (52.09 μg for Kabul and 74.61 μg for Anur) compared to standard, ascorbic acid (80.5 μg). Low-density lipoproteins oxidation was inhibited significantly EA extracts of both samples (2.01 μg for Kabul and 4.58 μg for Anur) as compared to standard, ascorbic acid (24.5 μg).
Results of the study revealed the therapeutic potential of P. granatum against diabetes and CVD. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds and to evaluate their mechanism of action.
O-17: Naringin stimulates glucose uptake in l6 myotubes under oxidative stress induced by teritary butyl hydrogen peroxide
R. Dhanya, K. B. Arun, P. Nisha, A. Sundaresan, P. Jayamurthy
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Industrial Estate, Pappanamcode, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 019, Kerala, India.
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress occurs in diabetes and prolonged exposure of oxidative stress may cause insulin resistance by triggering an alteration in cellular redox balance. Hence, it is sensible to assess the potential role of an antioxidant on stress and glucose transport in skeletal muscles. Naringin, the predominant flavonoid, found in grapefruit and other related citrus species has metal-chelating properties. The present study evaluates the antidiabetic potential of naringin using L6 myotubes under oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress was induced by treating with tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (tbhp) for 3 h. To establish precise role of naringin in antioxidant activity, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in L6 myoblast was detected with DCFDA after preincubation (24 and 3 h) with naringin (1 um, 10 um and 100 um) followed by tbhp (100 μm) treatment. Our results demonstrated that ROS generated by tbhp decreased markedly in the cells on pre-incubation with naringin in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of naringin remarkably retrieved the glutathione (GSH) level, which was drastically decreased on oxidative challenge. In addition, naringin was found to prevent lipid peroxidation in L6 myoblast.
Antidiabetic potential was evaluated by monitoring 2 NBDG uptake in L6 myotubes. Naringin increased glucose uptake in a dose dependent manner following chronic and acute treatment in the presence of oxidative stress. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanism by which pretreatment of naringin stimulates glucose uptake, we performed immunofluorescence assay to determine the GLUT 4 expression. GLUT4 expression was found to be upregulated significantly after naringin treatment. We propose that in a cellular model of skeletal muscle chronic treatment of naringin imparts hypoglycemic effects by inducing GLUT4 translocation even in the presence of oxidative stress. And our results suggest that naringin possess the potential to reduce oxidative stress associated with diabetes either directly or indirectly by enhancing glutathione concentration.
O-18: Chromatographic methods for the simultaneous quantification and screening of antioxidant potential of sesquiterpenoids from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus0
M. Priya Rani, K. G. Raghu, K. P. Padmakumari
Agroprocessing and Natural Products Division, CSIR, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum - 695 019, Kerala, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cyperus rotundus L. (Family: Cyperaceae; C. rotundus) rhizomes were grown throughout the world. It is well-known for its traditional medicinal uses described for exerting anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antidiarrheal, and antimalarial effects. Three sesquiterpenoids solavetivone, aristolone, and nootkatone were isolated from the acetone extract of C. rotundus by silica gel column chromatography and identified by spectral studies. Solavetivone has been isolated for the first time from the species. A simple, sensitive, and selective high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and HPLC methods with ultraviolet detection (265 nm) was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification. HPTLC method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-ultraviolet method. Among the three sesquiterpenoids isolated, nootkatone possessed the highest radical scavenging potential (IC 50 4.81 μg/ml) followed by aristolone (IC 50 5.28 μg/ml) and solavetivone (IC 50 6.82 μg/ml) by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Total antioxidant activity against phosphomolybdenum reagent was also studied. The antioxidant activities of isolated compounds and extract ranked in the order nootkatone > aristolone > acetone extract > solavetivone. The methods described in this paper were able to identify and quantify sesquiterpenoids from the complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker based standardization of polyherbal formulations containing C. rotundus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the HPTLC and HPLC quantification and validation of three same molecular weight biologically potent sesquiterpenoids from the rhizomes of C. rotundus and this study clearly demonstrates that the rhizomes of C. rotundus possess highly active antioxidant molecules, which strengthen the traditional knowledge regarding the biological importance of the plant. Hence, this study is of great interest to both pharmaceutical and food industries because of their valuable use as natural additives to replace toxic synthetic food additives and can be used to control oxidative stress and related diseases.
O-19: Free radical scavenging and cardio protective potential of Hibiscus rosasinensis flower
S. R. Dhanya, P. Nisha
National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Industrial Estate, Pappanamcode, Trivandrum - 695 019, Kerala, India. E-mail: email@example.com
In recent years, plant derived medicines have received a great deal of attention compared to synthetic ones, due to their potent antioxidant activities, very less side-effects and economic viability. Hibiscus rosasinensis plant as a whole and especially flower is used in various ailments from centuries.
The present study evaluates the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and cardio protective effect of H. rosasinensis flower extract. The aqueous extract was prepared by boiling dried flower of H. rosasinensis in water. Antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed in terms of total phenolic content, total flavanoids content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl scavenging assay, CUPRAC assay no radical scavenging assay, and Hydroxy radical assay. Antidiabetic potential was evaluated in terms of in vitro antidiabetic assay such as α-glucosidase inhibition assay and antiglycation assay. For the evaluation of cardio protective action of the extract low-density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation assay and ACE inhibition assays were carried out. The extract exhibited very good hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC 50 values of extract - 100.33 μg; mannitol (standard) - 398.64 μg) and CUPRAC (TEAC value - 14.8 ± 0.3) as compared to the standards. The extract showed good antidiabetic activity in terms of α-glucosidase inhibition when compared with standard acarbose (IC 50 extract - 94.48 μg; acarbose - 92.6 μg). The IC 50 values for the LDL oxidation for the extract and standard ascorbic acid were 3.13 μg and 26.21 μg respectively indicating Hibiscus extract to be very effective in inhibiting LDL oxidation as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. ACE inhibition also confirms the result. From the results, it can be concluded that the H. rosasinensis flower may be a used for the prevention and management of life style associated diseases.
O-20: 0 In vitro evaluation of polyphenolic content and enzyme inhibitory activities of Anethum graveolans
V. Janani, Sindhu. S. Nair
Department of Biotechnology, Mount Carmel College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this work was to carry out the extraction of Anethum graveolans leaves using different solvents such as water, petroleum ether and methanol and evaluate the total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and flavonols. Total polyphenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The highest amount of phenolic content was obtained in the methanolic extract of A. graveolans and was found to be 57.07 ± 16.79 mg of GaA/g. The methanolic extract showed the highest flavonoid concentration of 41.04 ± 0.003 mg of QE/g and highest flavonol concentration of 4.39 ± 0.001 mg of QE/g. The results indicated that the methanolic extracts of the plant showed the highest concentration of polyphenols. Literature shows that polyphenols comprise the largest groups in enzyme inhibitors until now. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of the methanolic extracts of A. graveolans were tested on crude wheat alpha amylase and potato tyrosinase. Acarbose was used as the reference alpha amylase inhibitor and L-ascorbic acid was used as the reference tyrosinase inhibitor. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical condition characterized by hyperglycaemia and can be controlled by reducing the absorption of glucose which is achieved by retarding starch digestion by inhibition of alpha amylase. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme responsible for melanin production and if uncontrolled results in melanin overproduction that causes undesirable hyper pigmentation of the skin. The alpha amylase inhibition assay showed an IC 50 value of 51.18 ± 4.35 and tyrosinase inhibition assay showed an IC 50 value of 54.55 ± 8.37. The results therefore indicate a positive correlation between the total polyphenol content and enzyme inhibitory activity of the selected plant extract. The results of the work therefore clearly indicate the potential of these extracts to manage hyperglycemia and hyperpigmentation.
O-21: Encapsulation of selenium in guar gum nanoparticles improves selenium availability and protects the cell from ischemia reperfusion injury
R. S. Soumya, K. G. Raghu
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala. E-mail: email@example.com
Heart disease is one of the major killers among the various non-communicable diseases. Ischemic heart disease, a major heart disorder is a characterized by depletion of oxygen in the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery block. Selenium an essential mineral plays important roles in optimizing human health. There are some drugs available now for treatment, but the high cost, inconsistency in the result and adverse effect are major issues. We would like to utilize the therapeutic potential of selenium and guar gum which is reported to have medicinal properties against oxidative stress induced disorders with application of nanotechnology concept. There are reports regarding the application of nanotechnology in drug discovery research to amplify the effect of molecules by increasing bioavailability. The aim of the present work is to develop selenium incorporated guar gum nanoparticles to screen against cell line based ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury model. In this regard, the hydrogel nanoparticles were prepared from neutral biopolymer such as guar gum by nanoprecipitation and cross linking. The particle size was analyzed by DLS and TEM. This method produced spherical nanoparticles of around 100-200 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.1-0.4. Embryonic heart cell line H9c2 was used under present investigation to develop cell line based IR injury model. Alteration in antioxidant status and mitochondrial functions were studied to assess the protection by guar gum nanoparticle.
O-22: Development of functional meat products using phytochemicals
M. Anna Anandh, C. Veerapandian
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orthanadu - 614 625, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Designer or functional meat products are those which are nutritious, prevent diseases, and maintain health. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive secondary plant metabolites present in relatively very small quantities. Nowadays phytochemical are receiving increasing attention in the food industry, because of some potential health benefits. Phytochemicals possess the anti-carcinogenic, anti-hypertensive and anti-hypercholesterolemia properties. Spices/spice extracts and condiments are sources of phytochemicals and help to maintain aroma, flavor, and taste of finished meat products. Use of spices, condiments and herbs in meat products provides culinary satisfaction, variety, and preservation through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In all processed meat products, the spices play a vital role in determining the consumer acceptance. The purpose has been to exploit the intrinsic properties of available phytochemicals, for improving the product quality and has reported more than 12 different classes of biologically active phytochemicals in various spices/condiments. Spices have been known for flavor, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Spices can help to make low sodium, low calorie, and low fat products palatable. However, the level for health claim with optimum organoleptic properties of majority of these ingredients in functional meat products has yet to be determined. The disadvantages associated with using phytochemical in meat product development are strong flavor and disagreeable taste.
O-23 0 High pressure thin layer chromatography fingerprint profile and antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Crotalaria globosa
V. Deepha, R. Jayaprakasam, Raman Sivakumar
Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode - 638 401, Tamil Nadu, India.
The finger print profile of Crotalaria globosa was assessed through high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and was found to possess polyphenolics especially flavonoids. Ethanol extract of the leaves were developed in mobile phase Toluene: Acetone: Formic acid (4.5:4.5:1) using standard procedures and scanned under ultraviolet 254 nm and 366 nm. The HPTLC finger print exhibited seven peaks in the above said fraction with Rf values 0.03, 0.08, 0.16, 0.21, 0.29, 0.47 and 0.68 respectively. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of solvents of varying polarity such as petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, and ethanol have been tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. The radical scavenging activity of ethanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions.
3 D Display of chromatogram of standards and samples of Crotalaria globosa leaves
O-24: Investigations on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Rhynchosia capitata - experimental and density functional theory analysis
R. Praveena 1,2 , K. Sadasivam 1,2 , Raman Sivakumar 1,2
Departments of 1 Chemistry, and 2 Physics, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode - 638 401, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, is an annual perennial weed and was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which act as potential antioxidants. Presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids vitexin and isovitexin in methanol and ethyl acetate fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of vitexin and isovitexin were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) approach using B3 LYP/6-311G (d, p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy reveals that the O-H site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring for both the compounds. To explore the radical scavenging activity, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity, and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. Validity of Koopman's theorem was verified. A plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compounds have been analyzed and it was found that the isomer pair exhibited nearly same potential towards radical scavenging activity. Hence, the position of the glucose unit (C-6 or C-8) has negligible effect on the antioxidant property of C-glycosides.
O-25: 0 In vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of Ocimum basilicum L. var. purpurascens benth
N. S. Kameshwaran, G. R. Prabu
Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The genus Ocimum includes about a dozen species and subspecies, native to the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Ocimum basilicum is an important medicinal plant and culinary herb. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, headache, nerve pain as anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory agent.
Acetylcholinesterase is a key enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nervous system of animals and insects. ACh deficiency in the cerebral cortex of humans is one of the main futures seen in sufferers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have pointed out that AD is associated with inﬂammatory processes. Amyloid peptides contained in the senile plaques found in AD brain can induce these inﬂammatory processes in which radical oxygen species (ROS) are liberated. ROS are able to damage cellular constituents and act as secondary messenger in inﬂammation. Antioxidants can scavenge ROS and can also attenuate inﬂammation pathways. The use of antioxidants may be useful in the treatment of AD. The present study was carried out in order to isolate new molecules or a group of molecules that can be used both as antioxidant as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor without the toxicity of the synthesized chemical compounds.
O-26: Umbelliferone modulates gamma-radiation induced reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent oxidative damage in human blood lymphocytes
G. Kanimozhi, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad, Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi
Department of Biochemistry of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of umbelliferone, 7-hydroxy coumarin, against radiation-induced oxidative damage and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human blood lymphocytes. To explore the radioprotective effect of umbelliferone, freshly isolated human blood lymphocytes were treated with 124 μM umbelliferone (optimumdose-fixed by MTT assay) 30 min before 3 Gy irradiation. It was found that umbelliferone pre-treatment inhibited radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in 3 Gy exposed lymphocytes. Microscopic observations showed that there was significant apoptotic cells (ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123 staining) in irradiated lymphocytes. On the other hand, 124 μM umbelliferone treatment significantly decreased % of apoptotic cells and prevented radiation induced mitochondrial depolarization in lymphocytes. Further, there was an increased deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (comet assay), cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei frequency, chromosomal aberration attributes, lipid peroxidation with decreased antioxidant enzymatic i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in 3 Gy irradiated lymphocytes. Conversely, umbelliferone (124 μM) treatment before irradiation decreased %DNA damage, micronuclei frequencies, chromosomal aberration attributes and lipid peroxidative markers with improved antioxidant enzyme activities in irradiated lymphocytes. Further, umbelliferone pretreatment modulates radiation-induced apoptotic signaling in human blood lymphocytes. Taken together, the results of this study clearly imply the radioprotective effect of umbelliferone in human lymphocytes by inhibiting ROS generation and its subsequent toxicity.
O-27: Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins and metformin on high fructose, high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities
B. Yogalakshmi, C. V. Anuradha
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes and is a considerable risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the influence of GSP and MET on HFFD-induced lipid metabolism and lipid storage. Male Albino Wistar rats were used for the study. Either GSP (100 mg/Kg b.w) or MET (50 mg/Kg b.w) or combination of both were administered to NAFLD rats as therapeutic options. HFFD rats showed insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. In addition, the gene expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase, sterol regulatory elemental binding 1c (SREBP1c), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase were found increased. Further, investigation of proteins found exclusively on the surface of lipid droplets namely Perilipin-Adipophilin-TIP47, termed collectively as PAT family proteins, were also found increased. This denotes increased lipid storage during the HFFD feeding. HFFD fed rats treated either with GSP or MET or both showed decreased lipid profile in both plasma and liver. GSP reduces the expression of HMGCoA reductase, SREBP1c and PAT proteins significantly in HFFD fed hyperlipidemic rats better than MET. Combination of both reduced lipid storage and improved its metabolism effectively equivalent to control rats. Lowered deposition of lipids was also visualized by decreased intensity of color in Oil Red O staining. The study emphasizes that GSP has a significant effect on NAFLD better compared to MET. Combination of GSP and MET may be considered as a possible therapy for NAFLD.
O-28: Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the flowers of caesalpinia pulcherrima, swartz
S. T. Yamuna, P. R. Padma
Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women University, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Molecules derived from natural sources especially from plants known as phytochemicals. Play a vital role in developing lead compounds that can be developed as conventional drugs for the treatment of most human diseases. Phytochemicals can be divided into several categories depending upon their biosynthetic origin such as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, terpenes, saponins, etc., Many researches have been carried out in search of potential phytochemicals from plants for therapeutic uses. The candidate plant of the present study is Caesalpinia pulcherrima. It blooms in three different colors (orange, pink and yellow) with unique long stamens. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that these flowers are rich in both enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and also possess both antimutagenic and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to identify the bio-active compound that renders these beneficial effects. Preliminary screening and qualitative phytochemical analysis followed by spectral analysis using high pressure thin layer chromatography, ischemic reperfusion spectrum and GC-MS analyses were carried out. The free radical scavenging activity of the phytochemical fractions was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening of the flowers showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins all of which exhibited significant radical scavenging activity. Spectral analysis showed that the major active constituents present in the flowers belong to phenolic and flavonoid type of compounds whose structure is yet to be elucidated.
O-29: An in silico approach to study the interaction of artemisinin and its derivative dihydroartemisinin with proteins involved in cancer
K. Sharmila, P. R. Padma
Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India.
Apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis, mechanisms of programmed cell death when mediated by an intracellular program leads to cell death in any pathological format. Apoptosis has always been recognized to be a pathway of highly orchestrated signaling events and has been shown to play a vital role throughout life, from embryonic development to adult tissue homeostasis. Disturbance of apoptotic proteins lead to several cancers by its prevention. Wet lab studies in our laboratory have shown Artemisia vulgaris, of the Artemisia genus to induce apoptosis in some forms of cancer. The active compounds, artemisinin, and dihydroartemisinin, from this genus have been shown to be potential candidates for anti-cancer drug development. In the present study, these active compounds were docked against selected crucial proteins involved in the process of apoptosis (TRAILR, TRAIL, Bcl-2, MDM2, BAX and BAK) and carcinogenesis (p53, RAS, LOX, tubulin, PARP and protein kinase), which showed a significant interaction. The study provides substantiate report for interaction and influence of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin with the mediator proteins involved in apoptosis and cancer development, thereby adding proof for the use of these compounds as a novel class of potent inhibitors that could be used for cancer chemotherapy.
O-30: Phytochemical effect of Majorana hortensis leaf extract on etoposide-induced apoptosis in primary chick embryo fibroblasts and hep2 cells
Radha Palaniswamy, P. R. Padma
Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India.
The essential properties of phytochemicals are gaining momentum in the prevention and treatment of various ailments world-wide. One such disease is cancer, which is a major devastating disease in all the developing countries. During cancer development, various imbalances occur in the apoptotic machinery. Chemotherapeutic treatment inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells and also causes side-effects to the normal cells, which is deleterious and needs attention. Current scenario has proved that the natural products are the most successful sources of cancer drugs and a variety of them have been recognized. In the present study, the effect of the Majorana hortensis leaf extract on various cellular events of apoptosis was studied in chick embryo fibroblasts and Hep2 cells as model systems. In both these systems, etoposide was used to induce oxidative stress. The results revealed that in both the above cell types, oxidative stress imposed by etoposide caused a steep increase in the number of cells that commit to apoptosis. M. hortensis leaf extract administration showed no cytotoxicity in the normal cells (chick embryo cells), but significant cytotoxicity toward Hep2 cells. In addition, it was also noticeable that M. hortensis leaf extract protected normal cells from the death induced by etoposide while no such response was exerted against the cancer cells treated with etoposide.
O-31: Effect of Persea americana (Avocado) fruit extract on the level of adiponectin and blood lipids in rats fed with high fat diet
Monika Padmanabhan, Geetha Arumugam
Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women's College, Chennai - 600 108, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hyperlipidemia is a heterogenous disorder closely associated with type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is a negative modulator of factors involved in hyperlipidemia and the level of oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of tissue and blood lipids and adiponectin in the adipocytes of rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis.
The hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) was prepared from avocado fruit pulp and subjected to phytochemical screening by HPLC analysis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups of an equal number of which Group 1 and Group 2 served as a control to receive normal diet (5% Fat). Group 3 and Group 4 rats received high fat diet (HFD) (25% Fat) for a period of 12 weeks. In addition, Group 2 and Group 4 rats were administered with 50 mg/kg body wt of HAE from 2 nd week until the experimental period. The levels of blood lipids, adiponectin, lipid peroxidation markers, and antioxidants were assessed.
The HAE of avocado fruit was found to contain rich amounts of β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, rutin, quercitin, luteolin, phyllanthin, niranthum, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. Rats administered with HFD have shown elevated levels of low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) with a concomitant decrease in the level of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol. Avocado fruit extract co-administration was found to enhance the level of adiponectin and to decrease the level of low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood triglyceride and cholesterol. The body mass index was found to be maintained in rats co-administered with avocado fruit extract. Avocado fruit extract was also found to decrease oxidative stress in liver, heart and adipose tissue.
The HAE of P. americana was found to reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia probably by elevating the level of adiponectin and also by reducing the level of LDL-C.
O-32: Protective effect of Withania somnifera against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Evan Prince Sabina, Mahaboobkhan Rasool, Mahima Vedi, N. Dhanalakshmi, R. Meenakshi, P. Poornima, Sarah Rachel Thella
The School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.
The aim of this research paper was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera against Paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats.
Paracetamol induced liver injury is the leading cause of acute liver failure in many countries. In the present study, the protective effect of W. somnifera was investigated against Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and compared with Silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective reference drug. The rats received a single dose of paracetamol (900 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally); W. somnifera (500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) were administered 30 min after the injection of paracetamol. Liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), total protein content, bilirubin, antioxidant status (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase) were evaluated and histopathological analysis was performed for the control and experimental rats.
Paracetamol treatment leads to elevated levels of liver marker enzymes and bilirubin and there was deterioration in total protein content, histological observations, and antioxidant status. However, pretreatment with W. somnifera significantly reversed (P < 0.05) the above changes compared to the control group as observed in the paracetamol-challenged rats.
The results clearly demonstrate that W. somnifera possesses promising hepatoprotective effects through its antioxidant effects and hence suggests its use as a potential therapeutic agent for protection from paracetamol overdose.
O-33: Antimutagenic and antibacterial activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) corr
Elavarasi Natarajan, J. Dilshad Begum
Department of Biotechnology, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, Madurantakam Taluk - 603 308, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
In this study, we investigated the antimutagenic and antibacterial activity of Aegle marmelos, an important medicinal plant of India. The antimutagenic effect of hydrogen peroxide damaged deoxyribonucleic acid was studied using acetone and aqueous dried fruit extracts of A. marmelos by Comet assay. The bioactive components present in dried fruit extracted by acetone and water exhibited promising antimutagenic activity. The antibacterial effect was studied against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains using petroleum ether, chloroform, and aqueous leaf extracts of A. marmelos by agar diffusion method in which all the extracts showed antibacterial activity equivalent to the standard antibiotic streptomycin.
O-34: 0 In vitro antioxidant studies and phytochemical analysis of acetone extract of Manilkara zapota L. seeds and profiling of its secondary metabolites
C. Mohanapriya, Rajathi D. Modilal, S. Rengaraj, R. Ranjith
Department of Biotechnology, KarpagaVinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, G.S.T. Road, Chinna Kolambakkam, Palayanoor Post, Madurantagam Taluk, Kanchipuram - 603 308, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases as they contain components of therapeutic use. The present study was carried to investigate the phytochemical principles, antioxidant properties and the secondary metabolites present in the acetone extract of Manilkara zapota L. seeds. Preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds was carried out with the solvents of different polarities and acetone extract was selected for further studies; since, it revealed the presence of the maximum number of compounds. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extract was evaluated by seven different in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), metal chelating assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, FRAP, FTC and TBA assay respectively. The acetone extract showed good DPPH radical scavenging activity; IC50 value. Phytochemical analysis showed that phenolic content was high; around 30 sary metabolites were detected in the GC-MS analysis of the acetone extract. FT-IR analysis indicated the presence of several active principles. In conclusion, M. zapota seeds could be considered as nutraceutical/functional foods for human consumption.
O-350 : Protein glycation inhibitory potential of some medicinal plants used to treat diabetes
D. C. R. Wijetunge, H. K. I. Perera
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. E-mail: email@example.com
Protein glycation is a non-enzymatic spontaneous reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins which compromise the function of the protein. Glycation depends on the degree and the duration of hyperglycemia. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and rapidly enhances early, intermediate and advance protein glycation. Accelerated chemical modifications of proteins due to glycation, contributes to the pathogenesis of long-term diabetic complications including nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and atherosclerosis. Thus, interventions that reduce protein glycation will be protective against the development of diabetic complications. Even though, there are more than 1200 plants with antidiabetic potential, studies conducted on their effect/s on protein glycation inhibition are very limited.
The objective of this study was to analyze some medicinal plants used to treat diabetes for their potential of inhibiting the protein glycation.
Parts from four plants used to treat diabetes and known to show hypoglycemic effects were selected for the study. Accordingly, water extracts from Cassia auriculata (flower), Gymnema lactiferum (leaf), Momordica charantia (fruit) and Salacia reticulate (stem bark), were prepared. Bovine serum albumin was incubated with fructose at 37°C in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 under sterile conditions for 4 weeks in the presence or absence of the plant extract. Appropriate negative and positive controls were conducted. Aliquots were collected from the incubation mixtures at intervals and analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method established by us recently.
G. lactiferum and M. charantia extracts showed marked inhibition of protein glycation at the experimental conditions used. C. auriculata and S. reticulate extracts showed lower inhibitory potential on protein glycation. As the sugar concentrations used in this study was same with all samples, the demonstrated inhibitory effects on protein glycation seem independent of the known hypoglycemic effects of these plants.
In conclusion, G. lactiferum leaf and M. charantia fruit show marked protein glycation inhibitory potential.
O-36: Therapeutic properties of Acalypha indica Linn. extracts
Rajathi D. Modilal, C. Mohanapriya, C. S. Jeba Samuel, D. Sangeetha, M. Subathra
Department of Biotechnology, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology, G.S.T. Road, Chinna Kolambakkam, Palayanoor Post, Madurantagam Taluk, Kanchipuram - 603 308, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Medicinal plants were extensively used to cure various infectious diseases in human beings from ancient times. The present investigation was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial activities and phytochemical properties in the leaf extracts of Acalypha indica against the urinary tract pathogens. A. indica leaves were used for the preparation of aqueous, hexane, chloroform, methanolic extracts; and for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for their absorbance pattern, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify possible functional groups, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the size of the nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity was studied by using agar well diffusion method. The present investigation reports the efficacy of A. indica as promising in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponin, tannins, quinine, coumarin, and phenol.
O-37: Anticancer drugs from marine flora of Bay of Bengal
T. Ugandhar 1,2 , U. Anitha Devi 1,2 , Ch. Kanaka Rajesham 1,2
1 Department of Biotechnology, S.R.R. Government Degree and P.G. College, 2 Department of Botany, Government Degree and P.G. College for Women, Karimnagar - 505 001, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, of Bay of Bengal constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumor activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.
O-38: Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Lantana camara
0M. Razia, V. Karthiga, K. Lavanya
Department of Biotechnology, Mother Teresa Women's University, Kodaikanal - 624 102, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Lantana camara L. is a noxious weed belonging to Verbenaceae family. The present study was carried out for phytochemical analysis and a thin layer chromatographic analysis. These studies revealed that the presence of various secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and saponins and further Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy characterized. Ethanolic extract of L. camara leaves showed good antioxidant activity than aqueous extract. Antibacterial activity was performed against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia More Details coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia More Details pestis. Leaves were showed strong inhibition of ethanolic extracts than aqueous on all tested bacterial strains. These results demonstrated that ethanolic extracts of L. camara have excellent biological activities and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products.
O-39: Impact of phytochemicals in human health
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India.
Phytochemicals by definition are important components of food that may not be essential in the classical sense, and may not even be required to sustain life as vitamins or minerals do, but are likely to contribute to optimal health. Phytochemicals are naturally occurring chemicals in plants that provide flavor, color, texture, and smell. Hundreds of phytochemicals are currently being studied. Phytochemicals with discrete bio-activities toward animal biochemistry, and metabolism are being widely examined for their ability to provide Health benefits. Eating large amounts of brightly colored fruits and vegetables (yellow, orange, red, green, white, blue, purple) and Phytochemical-rich foods include cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage), umbelliferous vegetables (e.g., carrots, celery, parsley, parsnips), allium vegetables (e.g., garlic, onions, leek), berries, citrus fruits, whole grains, and legumes (e.g., soybeans, beans, lentils). It is important to establish the scientific rationale to defend their use in foods as potential nutritionally active ingredients. Phytochemicals provide health benefits such as Substrates for biochemical reactions, cofactors or inhibitors of enzymatic reactions, Fermentation of substrates for beneficial oral, gastric or intestinal bacteria, Enhance the absorption or stability of essential nutrients. So, regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer as well as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart disease cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, Maculopathy, Alzheimer disease (AD), cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. The action of phytochemicals varies by color and type of food. Beneficial phytochemicals include terpenoids, phenolics, alkaloids and fiber. They may act as antioxidants or nutrient protectors, or prevent carcinogens (cancer causing agents) from forming. Phytochemicals in particular, have the potential to affect human biology. If malabsorption in foods rich in phytochemicals leads to phytochemical deficiency disorders. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is the treatment of chronic diseases. Therefore, their net interactive effect ultimately requires a study of the food itself and food patterns, so that food component intake may need to be subject to sophisticated mathematical modeling. Research supporting the beneficial roles of Phytochemicals had been established that a distinction needs to be drawn between the types of information obtained from in vitro in animals and in Humans. Detailed studies have been preceding both on the positive and negative effects of phytochemicals in human health.
O-40: Preventive effect of mangiferin on neurochemical, biochemical, behavioural and molecular changes against 1-methyl-4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease
M. Kavitha, K. Tamil Selvam, T. Manivasagam
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second neurodegenerative disorder that normally affects elder population and has no appropriate medicine to cure various animal models involving neurotoxins mimic the characteristics of PD are used to study the therapeutic implications. MPTP is a neurotoxin, known to induce PD in various experimental animals and humans by degenerating dopaminergic neurons in the substantia Nigra and depleting striatal dopamine. Mangiferin, a glucosyl xanthone is reported to cross blood brain barrier and has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties against various neurotoxins. The present experiment is carried out to study the preventive role of mangiferin against MPTP-induced mice model of PD. We assessed the levels of neurochemicals (dopamine, DOPAC and HVA), oxidative stress indices thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and antioxidants), behavioral changes (Rotarod, Hang test, Openfield) and expression patterns of apoptotic markers (cyt c, caspases 3, Bax and Bcl-2 by western blotting techniques) in normal, MPTP and mangiferin treated groups. MPTP injection depletes the levels of striatal dopamine and nigral glutathione and its dependent glutathione peroxidase and enhanced levels of nigral TBARS and activities of antioxidants (SOD and catalase). It up-regulates of Bax, cyt c, caspase-3 and 9 expressions and down-regulates Bcl-2 expression and declines behavior patterns. Results of our study indicated that the mangiferin exerts its preventive effect by its antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties to nullify the toxic effects of MPTP.
O-41: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of herniarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
K. Vinothiya, N. Ashokkumar
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: Vinothiya43@gmail.com
Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanism are important factors in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes mellitus and other oxidant-related diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antihyperglcaemic and antioxidant effect of herniarin in control and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult Albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighting 180-200 g, by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg b.w). Diabetic rats showed an elevation in the levels of glucose, lipid peroxidative markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides, with the reduction in the level of insulin and the activity of nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the liver and kidney. Oral administration of herniarin (10, 20 40 mg/kg b.w) in diabetic rats for 30 days reversed the above changes to near normal level. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney also supported the biochemical findings, which reveal the antidiabetic effect of herniarin. Thus, our results show that herniarin possess antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity at the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w.
O-42: Ethanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles
A. Amirthambal K. Dhineka, V. Divya, P. Rajasekar
Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Plant mediated biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its simplicity, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and eco friendliness. The present study aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using ethanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera, a potent antidote for snake venom. The synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color changes and ultraviolet absorption range. The size and shape of NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Flavonoid contents of ethanolic extract of L. aspera were quantified by HPLC using different flavonoid standards. The stability of Ag-NPs was identified by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed dark dirty green color, λmax at 420 nm, sizes ranging from 8 nm to 30 nm and spherical morphology under SEM and TEM observations revealing the effective biosynthesis mediated by L. aspera. The identified and quantitated flavonoids (gallic acid, rutin, and luteolin) present in L. aspera might be responsible for the bio reduction of Ag + to Ag0. The FTIR spectra of Ag-NPs showed the peaks for several functional groups, which depicted active functional group, mediated the stability of Ag-NPs. In conclusion, the study implies that the usage of Ag-NPs of L. aspera would give additional antidote impact against snake bite.
O-43: Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of antidiabetic potent Hemidesmus indicus
N. Hemavathy, S. B. Swarnalatha, P. Rajasekar
Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has received considerable attention in recent years because of its numerous advantages such as simplicity, eco friendliness, and economic viability. Thus, our study is aimed to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using aqueous root extract of antidiabetic potent Hemidesmus indicus. The bio reduced Ag-NPs were confirmed by its color transformation and λmax value. The size and morphology of Ag-NPs were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The bioactive components of H. indicus responsible for the possible bio-reduction of Ag + to Ag0 were identified and quantified by HPLC. The stability of Ag-NPs was detected by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Interestingly, biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed dark brown color, λmax at 430 nm, sizes ranging from 45 nm to 60 nm and spherical morphology under SEM and TEM observations, which confirmed the bioreduced Ag-NPs. HPLC chromatogram for H. indicus displayed peaks for flavonoids (lupeol octacosonate, rutin, quercetin, and luteolin), polyphenols (2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid, gallic acid, and pyrogallol) indicated the possible bioreductive agents responsible for the biosynthesis of Ag-NPs. FTIR spectra of Ag-NPs showed the peaks for several functional groups, which indicated the stabilization of Ag-NPs. The study concluded that the utilization of nanoparticles of H. indicus in the medical field would be promised as a most efficient drug to destroy microbial infections in diabetic foot ulcer patients.
O-44: Hepatoprotective action of Andrographis paniculata on bifenthrin induced hepatotoxicity in a fresh water fish Pangasius sutchi
V. R. V. Ashwaniy, G. Hinduja, P. Rajasekar
Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai - 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
Bifenthrin is a pesticide, which induces toxicity to humans and aquatic organisms. Therefore, the study evaluated the acute effect of bifenthrin in a fresh water fish Pangasius sutchi and also examined the effect of Andrographis paniculata on bifenthrin induced liver damage. Fish were divided into four experimental groups of 6 fish each. Group 1 was maintained as the control, Group 2 fish were exposed to bifenthrin (10 μL/kg) for 96 h. Group 3 and 4 fish were exposed to Bifenthrin + A. paniculata whole plant powder (AP) (500 mg/day) and AP for 96 h, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, fish were sacrificed; blood and liver tissue were collected. The markers for hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP), tissue damage thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and LHP), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, GST) and non-enzymatic glutathione (GSH) antioxidants status and liver histology were examined. Phytochemical screening also performed using TLC and HPLC to elucidate hepatoprotective action of A. paniculata. Bifenthrin exposed fish showed abnormal levels of hepatotoxicity markers, oxidative stress markers, elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and altered liver histology confirming the toxic effect of bifenthrin in fish. The observed abnormalities linked with bifenthrin exposure were reversed to the normal pattern on simultaneous exposure to A. paniculata. The TLC and HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolics (chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, and phenolic acid) and flavonoids (rutin and kampherol) in A. paniculata. The observed beneficial role of AP on bifenthrin induced hepatotoxicity in fish might be due to its rich polyphenols and flavonoids.
O-45: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L)
R. Manikandan 1,2 , N. Ezhili 1,2 , P. Venkatachalam 1,2
1Department of Biotechnology, Plant Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology Lab, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar - 636 011, Salem, 2Department of Zoology, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Peelamedu, Coimbatore - 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India.
The development of ecofriendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticle through plant mediated process is evolving an important branch of nanobiotechnology. It offers controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles with well-defined shape, size and composition. The present study reveals a rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) that are non-toxic, novel and eco-friendly using Vetiveria zizanioides. The Ag-NPs synthesized at room temperature by treating the leaf sample with 1 mM silver nitrate. Stable Ag-NPs synthesis was carried out by treating an aqueous AgNO 3 solution with boiled leaf extracts of V. zizanioides as reducing agents. The ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy analysis was performed in the range of 200-700 nm to determine the Ag-NPs. The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, and SEM with EDAX analysis. SEM analysis confirmed that size of the synthesized Ag-NPs was 20-50 nm. This work provides a simple green method for extracellular synthesis of highly stable Ag-NPs in large scale.
O-46: Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil)
S. Samundeeswari, S. Lakshmi 1
Departments of Botany, Government Thirumagal Mills College, Gudiyatham - 632 602, Vellore, and 1 Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Villupuram - 605 602, Tamil Nadu, India.
Plants are one of the most important sources of medicines. Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn. Sweet basil) is one such plant which symbolizes all that is wondrous in nature because, the whole plant has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments from antiquity. O. basilicum specifically, for its chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, and scientific studies. O. basilicum to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, cardiac stimulant, chemomodulatory, CNS depressant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulator, and larvicidal activities. The drug was also searched for its folkloric claims. It is used in traditional medicine as a tonic and vermifuge, and Basil tea taken hot is good for treating nausea, flatulence, and dysentery. The oil of the plant has been found to be beneficial for the alleviation of mental fatigue, cold, spasm, rhinitis, and as a first aid treatment for wasp stings and snakebites. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous leaf extract revealed that the concentration of saponin and alkaloids were high, flavonoids, terpenes, and steroids were present in medium quantity while traces of tannins and carbohydrates were also present. The extracts of O. basilicum were found to possess antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus species, Salmonella More Details species, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aureginose at high doses.
O-47: Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA
0D. Varalakshmi, R. Rukkumani
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, India.
Alcoholism is a broad term for problems with alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically addictive illness, abuse and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in Western countries. Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Chronic consumption of alcohol activates the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and acetaldehyde toxicity and cause inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated oils exacerbates the disturbances induced by alcohol. Due to multiple double bonds, polyunsaturated oils are highly unstable and vulnerable to oxidation. Refined polyunsaturated oils are damaged fats and are linked to various degenerative diseases. Studies show that omega-6 fatty acids could accelerate the growth of prostate tumor. The repeated deep frying process has been documented to be deleterious to the stability of unsaturated fatty acids. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass is used as supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as a liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of wheatgrass on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA in male Albino Wistar rats. The composition of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids (PLs), phospholipase A and C were assayed in liver homogenate. Marked changes in the membrane fatty acid composition, decreased PLs levels and an increase in PLA, PLC were observed in diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in wheatgrass treated rats. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. Thus, our results show that wheatgrass maintains the membrane integrity during alcohol and heated PUFA induced hepatotoxicity.
O-48: Phytochemical properties of Asclepias curassavica L. latex extract
N. Karpagam, Yamini Balachandran, K. Ujwala, Sulochana Somasundharam, M. Sivanandham
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur Tamil nadu, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Asclepias curassavica L. is one of the highly significant plant known from ages for its many notable potential applications, which also includes its pro-coagulant and thrombin-like activities, which were assessed here. The latex was collected in vials and stored at − 4°C from the superficial incisions that were made on the petiolar nodes of this tropical plant, also known by its prominent scarlet colored cyme flowers. The crude enzyme was then prepared using 0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer and the fractionation was carried out by column chromatography. The proteolytic activity studies were also included wherein the cysteine protease compound like asclepain c II was isolated from the crude extract. The amount of protein content was measured by standard biochemical methods. The fibrinogen polymerization assay was also carried out on blood agar plates to visualize the clear zone around the wells loaded with latex confirming the formation of fibrinogen. The blood clotting with both the top and bottom fractions of the latex showed visible clot on a glass slide and it was also visualized under the microscope. The plasma clotting time was calculated and found to be faster than the regular plasma clotting time. Carbohydrate and lipid analysis were also carried out. Currently, the phytochemical properties of the latex are being studied by screening the fractions obtained. The cytotoxic screening will also be studied by cytotoxicity tests like MTT assay, ELISA on specific cell lines.
O-49: Modulating effect of ferulic acid on cell proliferative markers during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis
M. Manoj Prabhakar, S. Manoharan
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.
The anti-cell proliferative efficacy of ferulic acid was assessed by analyzing the expression pattern of cell proliferative markers (Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen [PCNA] and Cyclin D1) in the buccal mucosa of golden syrian hamsters treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA). Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of hamsters using topical application of 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. Immunohistochemical (PCNA) and RT-PCR (Cyclin D1) analysis revealed over expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1 in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of ferulic acid at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumor formation, but also down regulated the expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1. The present study thus, suggests that ferulic acid might have inhibited tumor formation in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA through its anti-cell proliferative potential as evidenced by decreased expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1.
O-50: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Alstonia scholaris
G. Prasannaraj, P. Venkatachalam 1
Department of Biotechnology, Plant Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology Lab, and 1 Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that the silver ions can be reduced by aqueous leaf extract of Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) to produce stable silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Ag-NPs were formed by treating aqueous solution of silver nitrate (1 mM) with A. scholaris leaf extracts as reducing agent of Ag + into Ag0. The major chemical components present in the A. scholaris are alstonine, echitamine chloride, villastonine and three alkaloids are ditamine, echitamine or ditaine and echitenines were responsible for the synthesis of Ag-NPs. The synthesized Ag-NPs were monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrum and it was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average particle size ranged from 53 nm to 90 nm. The present eco-friendly biological method for Ag-NPs production provides a new avenue for rapid and large scale synthesis of nanoparticles than that of chemical methods.
O-51: Production of recombinant peanut allergen
T. Poonkodi, Ashretha Latha, R. B. Narayanan
Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: poonkodi. firstname.lastname@example.org
Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of who outgrow the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Peanut allergy is characterized by more severe symptoms than other food allergies due to its potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions and the high rate of reactions on minimal contact. However, the prevalence of peanut allergy is very less. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this illness is ne cessary for treatment and prevention. This study is aimed at characterizing the three major peanut allergens (Ara h 1, 2 and 3) from four Indian varieties of peanuts (TMV-1, TMV-2, POL − 2 , CO3) by determining similarities/differences in their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences, followed by recombinant production the allergen. The characterization and cloning of these proteins may make it possible to develop new forms of immunotherapies, such as immunization with peanut allergen plasmid - DNA, peptide fragments or engineered recombinant proteins.
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