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PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS AND THERAPEUTICS (ICBPT-2013)
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 410-416

Invited lecture abstracts


Date of Web Publication15-Oct-2013

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How to cite this article:
. Invited lecture abstracts. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2013;3:410-6

How to cite this URL:
. Invited lecture abstracts. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 17];3:410-6. Available from: http://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2013/3/4/410/119857

IL-1 Role of phytochemicals in prevention of cardiac diseases

Surendra Kumar Verma


Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry - 605 006, India. E-mail: skverma60@satyam.net.in

Several epidemiological studies have shown that a proper diet, in which plant foods provide the major portion of caloric intake, may reduce the development of certain diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Although fats and proteins in plants as opposed to those of animal origin are responsible to some extent for these protective effects, the contribution of other plant food components may also be relevant. The human body cannot synthesize lipid- and water-soluble vitamins that, therefore, must be derived from food; moreover, plants' secondary metabolism (the shikimate and acetate pathways, in particular, generates products that currently are grouped under the rubric of "phytochemicals" or incorrectly, "polyphenols." Phenolics are derivatives of benzene (cyclic derivatives in the case of polyphenols) with one or more hydroxyl groups associated with their ring. They can be conveniently classified into at least 10 different classes depending on their chemical structure.

Two main synthetic pathways originate phenolic compounds in plants: The acetate and the shikimate pathways. The term polyphenols includes several classes of compounds that share a common structure; among polyphenols, flavonoids constitute the most important single group, including more than 5,000 compounds that have been thus far identified.

Phenolics are important to plant physiology, contributing to resistance to micro-organisms and insects, pigmentation and organoleptic characteristics (odor and flavor). It is noteworthy that fruits and vegetables require a variety of compounds, e.g., antioxidants of different origin, to preserve their integrity due to their continual exposure to environmental stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and relatively high temperatures. Accordingly, UV light and heat stimulate the synthesis of protective compounds such as anthocyanins http://www.cardiovascres.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/3/419 full-ref-5 phenolic-rich crops such as grapes, olives, and heavily pigmented vegetables are particularly abundant in the Mediterranean area owing to the combination of heat and light radiation. Other phytochemicals prevail in cruciferous plants, such as cabbage and broccoli that are excellent sources of indoles, dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, and chlorophyllins. Legumes (soybeans, peanuts, beans, and peas) contain flavanoids, isoflavanoids, isoflavones, coumestans, lignans, and other polyphenols, some of which also act as estrogenic agonists/antagonists (see below); such compounds may be important in reducing risk of atherosclerosis as they have been shown to favorably affect plasma lipids and inhibit platelet aggregation.

Although "plant micronutrient" deficiencies in diets have yet to be described, the recent discovery that several phenolic molecules exert interesting biological activities - some of which may even be classified as 'pharmacological - led to a re-evaluation of the contribution of these compounds to human health. Indeed, a vast body of evidence indicating such healthful effects in vitro and in vivo is accumulating. Most researchers have focused on the activities of phytochemicals of widely consumed foods and beverages, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, chocolate, tea, wine, and olive oil.

IL-2 Effects of lecithin with Vitamin-B complex on ethanol-induced expression of adhesion molecules in liver

Subir Kumar Das 1,2 , Sukhes Mukherjee 1,2 , D. M. Vasudevan 1,2


1
Departments of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and JNM Hospital, WBUHS, Kalyani, Nadia - 741 235, West Bengal, 2 Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ponekkara P.O., Cochin - 682 041, Kerala, India. E-mail: drsubirkdas@gmail.com

Adhesion molecules play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including ethanol-induced liver injury. In this study, we examined the efficacy of lecithin with vitamin-B complex on the expression of adhesion molecules in liver of chronic male Albino Wistar rats (16-18 weeks old, 200-220 g) after 12 weeks of ethanol-exposure. The results were compared with the effects of lecithin alone. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that lecithin treatment ameliorated ethanol-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1 in liver tissues of rats. However, lecithin with vitamin-B complex treatment reversed the effect better than only lecithin treatment alone. The results further suggested that vitamin-B complex modulates the activity of lecithin in ethanol-induced liver damage.

IL-3 Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and adipogenesis

Nalini Ganesan


Department of Biochemistry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai - 600 116, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: nalinisrmc@gmail.com

The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly world-wide. Obesity is well-established metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor. Huge efforts are being made to elucidate the mechanism underlying adipose tissue development and pathology of obesity. Several studies have shown that obesity results as a consequence of adipocyte dysfunction. Adipogenesis is a tightly controlled process that involves an intricate network of transcriptional factors acting at different time points during adipocyte differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ) has been shown as a key regulator of adipocyte development in several in vitro and in vivo studies. PPAR γ is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily and is activated by a variety of fatty acids and their derivatives. This paper discusses the aspects of adipocyte dysfunction due to nutrient excess, structure, mechanism of action of PPAR γ, target sites and the role of this transcription factor in adipogenesis. A detail study in this transcriptional factor is essential as synthetic ligands of PPAR γ have been commonly used to treat metabolic diseases. An understanding of this important area of biology can provide us with additional direction in search for even more efficacious therapies for metabolic diseases.

IL-4 Cultivation technology of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus Florida) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica)

S. Krishnakumari


Department of Biochemistry, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: drskrishnakumari123@rediffmail.com


A mushroom is fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Mushrooms have fascinated humans since time immemorial. Mushroom farming is both a science and an art.

Nutritional security is a major concern in India. Mushrooms are one such component that not only impart diversification, but also help in addressing the problems of quality food, health and environment related issues. One of the major areas that can contribute toward the goal of conservation of natural resources as well as increased productivity is recycling of agro-wastes including agro-industrial waste. Utilizing these wastes for growing, mushrooms can enhance income and impart higher level of sustainability.

Commercial production of edible mushrooms bio converts the agricultural, industrial, forestry, and household wastes into nutritious food (mushrooms). Indoor cultivation of mushrooms utilizes the vertical space and is regarded as the highest protein producer per unit area and time-almost 100 times more than the conventional agriculture and animal husbandry. This hi-tech horticulture venture has a promising scope to meet the food shortages without undue pressure on land. Mushroom farming today is being practiced in more than 100 countries and its production is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7%. The areas where these mushrooms are popularly grown are Orissa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and North Eastern region of India. Mushroom growing is a highly labor-oriented venture and labor availability is no constraint in the country and two factors, that is, availabilities of raw materials and labor make mushroom growing economically profitable in India. India can enter into a big and lucrative international trade in the medicinal mushrooms, presently monopolized by some East Asian countries and America. With the current growth rate of the Indian economy, the domestic market too for the mushrooms is likely to enlarge sooner than later. India endowed with varied climate has the inherent advantage for the diversification of mushroom in different regions and seasons of the country.

Cultivation Technology of Oyster and Milky Mushroom

0The paddy straw is regarded as a suitable substrate for the growth of mushrooms. The paddy straw not more than 6 months old are taken and cut into pieces of 10-12 cm. It should be washed with water to remove all the dirty unwanted substances. The washed paddy straw has to be soaked in water overnight. The next day, the paddy straw has to be taken from water and sterilized by boiling for 45 min. The sterilized paddy straw is retained in the boiled vessel for 30 min and the water has to be drained and paddy straw is shade dried. After attaining the appropriate stage of dryness, it should be packed in the mushroom bags with mushroom spawn added in layers alternating with the paddy straw. After packing, the bags are hanged in the fumigated mushroom unit maintained at a temperature of 18-23°C. The spawn running will take place and on the 20 th day, complete mycelium spreading will occur.

Harvest of Oyster Mushroom

0After the 20 th day, the fruiting bodies will start protruding out. Watering should be done 3 times a day over the protruding so that the mushrooms start appearing on the 23 th day. The harvest of the mushrooms can be done until the 45 th day.

Harvest of Milky Mushroom

0After the 20 th day of mycelium spreading in the mushroom unit, casing process has to be performed. Fertile soil (g) has to take and sterilized with calcium carbonate (g) in the ratio 20:1. The mixture is shade dried and applied on the top of the mushroom bags, which were cut into two horizontal bags earlier. The bags should be kept in a specially prepared underground chamber in order to maintain high humidity and high temperature of 35°C. The mushrooms start appearing from the 4 th day of casing process. Watering should be performed twice a day on the bags and in the chamber. The harvest can be done until the 50 th day.

IL-5 A novel model system for assessing the in vivo effects of oxidative stress and antioxidant supplements

Padma Raghunathan


Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: prpadma@yahoo.co.in; padma_bc@avinuty.ac.in

Oxidative stress is now identified to be the root cause of several diverse diseases and disorders. This identification has also awakened the research community into searching for sources of antioxidants, to neutralize the effects of the oxidants. There are several reliable in vitro systems available to analyze the extent of oxidative stress and to assess the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts and their components. However, the conditions existing in vivo are complex and therefore, extrapolating the results observed in vitro to the human system should be done with caution. The in vivo conditions are influenced by the interplay of several physiological systems, barriers, and factors such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Thus, it becomes vital to confirm the results that we observe in vitro using reliable in vivo systems. The use of experimental animals not only involves ethical issues, but also requires expensive and expansive animal experimentation. In this context, a global effort is on to identify and standardize alternative model systems to the studies on animals. Drosophila melanogaster is one such alternative model system, which has been developed in our laboratory as a novel system to analyze the oxidant and antioxidant effects of herbal extracts and components. The genomes of both the organisms share a significant homology, making the extrapolation of the response observed in the fly to the humans meaningful. In our laboratory, we have found that the use of D. melanogaster as an in vivo model system for the study of oxidative stress and antioxidant effects provides reliable, reproducible, and valuable data.

IL-6 Role of mentha spicata in the regulation of preeclamptic progression during pregnancy

E. Padmini


Bharathi Women's College (A), Chennai - 600 108, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: dstpadmini@rediffmail.com

Pre-eclampsia is a physiological disorder and the pathophysiology of this disease is still elusive and its treatment empirical. Inadequate trophoblast invasion leading to incomplete remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries is considered to be a primary cause of placental ischemia. Thus, the poorly perfused and hypoxic placenta is thought to synthesize and release cytotoxic factors that may act systemically to activate or injure the maternal endothelium causing vascular damage of both mother and fetus. Trophoblast replaces the endothelial cells in the uterine spiral arteries as they remodel these vessels into wide bore conduits. The endothelial cell acts as the interface for maternal-fetal interaction, which plays a pivotal role in trophoblast migration, placental implantation and organ formation in the developing embryo. This predicts that both trophoblast and endothelial cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Studies demonstrate the association between inflammation and oxidative stress in the initiation of this disorder. Treatment and prevention measures for pregnancy related conditions should be administered with care due to the innate delicacy associated with the condition. Mint has been demonstrated to possess protective effect against a range of stressful situations. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the role of mint as a natural remedy in controlling pre-eclampsia and in regulating its progression. The inflammatory changes and the oxidative changes were evaluated in both normotensive and preeclamptic placental trophoblast and endothelial cell. The role of mint in modulating the inflammatory and the oxidative changes in the two conditions were also monitored. Results reveal the beneficiary effect of mint in regulating oxidative stress and in alleviating inflammatory reaction. Thus, the study confirms the protective role of mint extract in both the control of preeclamptic complications and in the prevention of preeclamptic progression during the hypertensive pregnancy.

IL-7 Inflammasomes: The targets of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals

Geetha Arumugam


Department of Biochemistry, Bharathi Women's College, Chennai - 600 108, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: geethav21@yahoo.co.in

Inflammasomes are protein complexes formed naturally to intervene the inflammatory changes and injury in organs insulted with excess production of cytokines. The activation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, the inducers of inflammation is carried out by caspase-1, the cysteine protease that cleaves pro IL-1β and IL-18 to make them mature and active. T lymphocytes can be directly activated by IL-1β, IL-18 and activated T cells induce cytotoxicity. Inflammasomes possess specific sites such as apoptosis associated speck like protein (ASC), which contains caspase activation recruitment domain (CARD) and pyrin domain (PYD) to accommodate procaspase-1 and to convert the inactive enzyme into its active form, which is involved in the maturation of cytokines. Hence, the activation of caspase-1 and its role on the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 are crucial in determining the degree of inflammation in organs.

Many human disorders are associated with localized inflammation in specific organs. Pancreatitis is one of the major gastrointestinal disorders associated with progressive inflammation in pancreas. Many drugs of phytochemical origin are being tried sub-clinically as therapeutic agents for pancreatitis. A study has been attempted to evaluate the mode of action of phytochemicals thymoquinone (TQ), rutin (RT), galangin, and naringenin as anti-inflammatory agents in alleviating the complications of pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether these anti-inflammatory agents have any role to play in modifying the action of inflammasomes.

Male Albino Wistar rats were subjected to experimental pancreatitis by alcohol with cerulein (20 μg/kg b.wt: i.p) administration (5 weeks). Few rats were co-administered orally with TQ (100 mg/kg b.wt) and RT (100 mg/kg b.wt) for the last 3 weeks. TQ and RT were very effective in reducing inflammatory changes in pancreas evidenced by the levels of marker enzymes serum lipase, amylase, myeloperoxidase, and caspase-1. mRNA was quantified for ASC-PYD, IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, caspase-1 and found to be down-regulated in TQ and RT co-administered rats. The regulatory gene ASC-CARD was found to be up-regulated due to TQ and RT administration. The results of the present study showed that the anti-inflammatory action of TQ and RT is mainly through their modifying effect on the effector domain of inflammasomes.

In future, many anti-inflammatory agents to be recommended for various human ailments can be studied in terms of their action on inflammasomes.

IL-8 Multiple approaches of phytomedicine in combating urolithiasis

R. Kokilavani


Department of Biochemistry, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore - 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: santhyanithya@gmail.com


Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human since the dawn of civilization. In India, medicinal plants form the backbone of several indigenous traditional systems of medicine. Pharmacological studies have acknowledged the value of medicinal plants as a potential source of bioactive compounds. Medicinal plants are believed to be an important source of new chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Many plants synthesize substances that are useful for the maintenance of health in humans and other animals. These include aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Many herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds Herbal therapy is used to treat a large variety of ailment and symptoms e.g., inflammation, fever and pain; however, there are no adequate experimental evidences about their effectiveness.

Phytochemicals from medicinal plants serve as lead compounds in drug discovery and design Medicinal plants are a rich source of novel drugs that forms the ingredients in traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates, bioactive principles, and lead compounds in synthetic drugs. World Health Organization, report depicts that more than 80% of world's population rely on plant based products to meet their health-care needs. Nearly, 25-45% of modern prescriptions contain plant derived lead molecules as a basic source in drug formulations. The value of plant based prescribed drugs in 1990 was estimated at $15.5 billon, which has been on the raise since then. Furthermore, about 42% of 25 top selling drugs marketed world-wide are either directly obtained from natural sources or entities derived from plant products.

Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognized systems of health in India viz. ayurveda, yoga, unani, siddha, homeopathy and naturopathy. More than 70% of Indian population still uses these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for observational therapeutics and reverse pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by well-organized industries. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of institutes/universities.

The most painful urologic disorder is calculi or stone formation in the kidneys and urinary bladder due to imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of crystallization in urine. Stone formation commonly occur due to inadequate urinary drainage, foreign bodies in the urinary tract, microbial infections, diet with excess oxalates and calcium, vitamin abnormalities such as vitamin A deficiencies, excess vitamin D and metabolic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, cystinuria, gout, and intestinal dysfunction. Herbal remedies are gaining their importance due to inefficiency of standard pharmaceutical drugs and recurrence is possible by treating with ultrasonic energy and surgery. As investigations proved that phytotherapy is potent in preventing and curing renal calculi and produced satisfactory results in preventing recurrence of renal stones, the present study is mainly focused on providing information on potent herbal wealth with litholytic property.

Urolithiasis is one of the painful urologic disorders that occur in approximately 12% of the global population and its recurrence rate in males is 70-81% and 47-60% in female. It is assessed that at least 10% of the population in industrialized part of the world are suffering with the problem of urinary stone formation. The occurrence of the renal calculi is less in the southern part when compared with other parts. The rate of occurrence is three times higher in men than women, because of enhancing capacity of testosterone and inhibiting capacity of estrogen in stone formation. It has been found that the formation of urinary calculi dates back not only to 4000 B.C in the tombs of Egyptian mummies also in graves of North American Indians from 1500 to 1000 B.C.

Stone formation is also documented in the early Sanskrit documents during 3000 and 2000 B.C. The problem of stone formation is considered as a medical challenge due to its multifactorial etiology and high rate of recurrence. Stone formation is also caused due to imbalance between the promoters and inhibitors. From ancient periods, a number of herbal medicines have been found with potential effect in treating the problem of renal calculi.

The treatment of urolithiasis is mainly considered with the dissolution of existing stones and preventing the recurrence of stones (Dodoala et al., 2010). Standard pharmaceutical drugs used to prevent and cure urolithiasis are not effective in all cases due to cost, recurrence, risk of long-term fertility, and side-effects. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is considered as a revolution in treating renal stones, but this treatment causes some problems such as long-term renal damage, hypertension, and recurrence of stones. Treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, orthophosphate, alkali-citrates and magnesium citrate used to reduce the rate of stone recurrence.

Non-allopathic Indian medicines referred to as complementary and alternative medicine have gathered increasing recognition in recent years with regard to both treatment options and health hazards. Ayurveda, siddha, unani, and homeopathy are practiced in India as non-allopathic systems. These systems comprise a wide range of therapeutic approaches that include diet, herbs, metals, minerals, precious stones, and their combinations as well as non-drug therapies.

Ayurveda is the oldest system of medicine in the world and by far the most commonly practiced form of non-allopathic medicine in India, particularly in rural India, where 70% of the population lives. The difference between modern medicine and these systems stems from the fact that the knowledge base of many of the above systems, unlike western medicine, is based on years of experience, observations, empiricism, and intuition and has been handed down generations both through word of mouth and treatises.

The focus on non-allopathic systems of medicine in India can be attributed to various causes including a need to revive a rich tradition, the dependency of 80% of the country's population on these drugs, their easy availability, increasing world-wide use of these medicines, the lack of focused concerted scientific research and the abuse of these systems. Elsewhere, the increasing use of herbal products world-wide and the growth of the herbal product industry have led to increasing concern regarding their safety. The challenges in these non-allopathic systems relate to patient, physician, regulatory authorities, the abuse/misuse of these medicines, quality and purity issues.

Safety monitoring is mandated by a changing ecological environment, the use of insecticides, new manufacturing techniques, and as yet unregulated pharmaceutical industry, the availability of combinations of herbs over the counter and not mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic texts and the need to look at the active principles of these medicines as potential chemotherapeutic agents. The Indian traditional medicine industry has come a long way from the times when it was considered unnecessary to test these formulations prior to use, to the introduction of Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines for the industry. However, we still have a long way to go. The conflict between the traditional practitioners and the purists demanding evidence of safety and efficacy needs to be addressed. There is an urgent need for the practitioners of the allopathic and non-allopathic systems to work together to optimize the risk-benefit profile of these medicine.

References prove that litholytic herbs for treatment of renal stones are used since ancient periods before inventing modern treatments Standard pharmaceutical drugs used to prevent and treat urolithiasis are not effective in all cases and also produce many adverse effects. Scientific studies are mostly focused on phytotherapy as it is proved to be vital in preventing recurrence of stones (Many investigators have demonstrated that studies of herbal plant used in traditional medicine as diuretic have increased recent years and might be a useful tool in the treatment of urolithiasis. A large number of Indian medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of urolithiasis and they have been reported to be effective with fewer side-effects. Even today, plants provide a cheap source of drugs for the majority of world's population. Several pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations on the medicinal plants used in traditional antiurolithiatic therapy revealed their therapeutic potential. Herbal drugs are reported to be effective with no side-effects. The drug for prevention of the disease or its recurrence is of great interest. The treatment of urolithiasis is mainly considered with the dissolution of existing stones and preventing the recurrence of stones. Standard pharmaceutical drugs used to prevent and cure urolithiasis are not effective in all cases due to cost, recurrence, risk of long-term fertility and side-effects. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is considered as a revolution in treating renal stones, but this treatment causes some problems such as long-term renal damage, hypertension, and recurrence of stones. Treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, orthophosphate, alkali-citrates, and magnesium citrate used to reduce the rate of stone recurrence. It is a well-known fact that glycosaminoglycons and urinary proteins, which are present in the matrices of the urinary stones are the strong inhibitors against CaOx crystal formation.

IL-9 Current concepts of phytochemicals in inflammation

S. Seethalakshmi


Department of Pharmacology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: seethakrishna97@gmail.com


Natural products have been used over the years and have contributed to the development of modern therapeutic drugs. Now, research has been focused on the phytochemicals of biological importance with greater emphasis on the therapeutics than toxicological aspects.

The understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism involved in the inflammation process has increased considerably in recent decades and this has permitted the discovery of many promising targets for the development of new drugs to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on their biosynthetic origins phytochemicals can be classified as carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, nitrogen containing compounds, and organosulphur compounds. Among these phenolics, alkaloids, and terpenoids are widely studied for their anti-inflammatory properties.

The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of the phytoconstituents includes (1) anti-oxidative and radical scavenging activities (2) Modulation of cellular activities of inflammation related cells (3) Modulation of Pro inflammatory enzyme activities (4) Modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression and the corresponding pro-inflammatory molecules.

To conclude, the phytochemicals show significant anti-inflammatory properties due to multiple cellular mechanisms active on multiple sites of cellular machinery. The main concern is that even though the promising plant derivatives will serve as lead compounds for the development of new pharmacological therapeutics, the knowledge of the main pharmaceutically active compound is important to standardize the procedures and formulations in order to study the safety and efficacy in clinical trials.

IL-10 Anti-lipidimic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of sesamol on isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage

L. Vennila, K. V. Pugalendi


Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: jvnitheesh@gmail.com

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major causes of death from cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sesamol, a dietary phenolic compound, on lipids, apoptotic and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol-induced rats. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol hydrochloride (ISO) (85 mg/kg BW), for first two consecutive days. Increased levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids in the plasma and the decreased levels of phospholipids in heart tissue were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the plasma of ISO-induced rats. ISO-induced rats also showed the upregulation of apoptotic proteins and increased expressions of inflammatory genes. Intra-peritoneal administration of sesamol (50 mg/kg BW) once in a day in the morning from 3 rd to 9 th day prevented the above changes and improved toward normality. Thus, the results of our study showed that the sesamol prevented the above changes in the lipids, regulated the expression of apoptotic proteins and decreased the expressions of inflammatory genes this is due to the phenolic OH group of sesamol.

IL-11 Cardioprotective potential of natural products in myocardial infarction

P. Stanely Mainzen Prince


Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability of adults in urban and rural India and occurs at a younger age than in the western population. Many modern drugs are effective in preventing MI, but their use is often limited because of their side-effects. Natural products are gaining importance owing to their non-toxic nature. Plants constitute an important source of bioactive natural products. Natural products play a vital role in the prevention of MI. MI is associated with altered electrocardiogram, oxidative stress, cardiac lysosomal, and mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Hence, therapeutic intervention that could diminish oxidative stress, maintain electrocardiogram, cardiac lysosomal and mitochondrial function and inhibit apoptosis in the ischemic myocardium has been of great interest. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest to explore the cardioprotective potential of natural products. The cardioprotective effects of two natural products such as (-) Epigallocatechin gallate and thymol in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats have been evaluated in this laboratory. The results revealed that (-) Epigallocatechin gallate prevents MI by ameliorating electrocardiogram; oxidative stress and cardiac lysosomal and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, thymol exhibits cardioprotective effects by attenuating oxidative stress, cardiac lysosomal function and apoptosis in MI. The findings thus indicate the possible use of these natural products in the prevention of MI.




 

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