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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 367-374

Phytochemical, antimicrobial investigation and formulations development of extract of Semicarpus anacardium seed for their antidandruff potential


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, J. L. Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Ratibad, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 S. L. T. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Central University, Koni, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sandhya P Godi
Department of Pharmacognosy, J. L. Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Nagpur - 440 016, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0738.119848

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Background: Dandruff is one of the most commercially exploited skin disease by the personal care industry all over the world, which affects 5% of the global population. Plant kingdom is a gold mine for novel and affordable skin care acting through novel mechanisms against skin pathogens. Identification of these remedies for such skin care is an important study for the preservation of traditional knowledge for the antimicrobial treatments. Semicarpus anacardium Linn. (Anacardiaceae) has been used for the skin care since ancient times. Aim of the Study: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidandruff potential of S. anacardium seed extract and development of phytochemical, antimicrobial, and formulations. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether extract of S. anacardium seed was studied by agar well diffusion method using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans strains. Two herbal antidandruff shampoo formulations were developed and evaluated using parameters, physical evaluation, that is, color and consistency, pH, washability, homogeneity, spreadability, and skin irritation tests. The developed herbal shampoo formulations were assessed for their antidandruff potential manually on the human volunteers, respectively. One phenolic compound was isolated using preparative column chromatography, followed by thin layer chromatography. Results: Results of present studies revealed that there was a concentration-dependent antimicrobial effect compared with standard antibiotic disc, that is, gentamicin. S. aureus showed more zone of inhibition than E. coli. The inhibitory zone of all isolates was determined as 0-23 mm. The observed antimicrobial activity was due to the potent bioactive phytoconstituents present in the extract. Our formulations were found to be semisolid consistency, brownish black color with very slightly alkaline pH, that is, 7.3 and 7.1, which is compatible with normal skin physiology, easily washable, homogenous aggregations, good spreadabilty along with free from skin irritation. The developed antidandruff herbal shampoo formulations were manually checked for its safety and efficacy on human volunteers for a week and were found that complete irradication of dandruff within a time period of 7 days. These formulations were also softening the hairs. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the petroleum ether extract of S. anacardium was showed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, carbohydrates, and alkaloids. Further, two compounds were detected in the thin layer chromatographic analysis of extract of S. anacardium which having their R f values 0.9 and 0.6. One phenolic compound was isolated which has R f value 0.85. Conclusion: The petroleum ether extract of S. anacardium seed possessed a broad spectrum of activity against a panel of bacteria and fungi responsible for the most common microbial diseases. This plant can be used as a cheap source of active therapeutics. Further, exploration of plant derived antimicrobials as well as their identity is needed. However, further series of scientific studies are required to prove its clinical reliability, safety, and efficacy for the beneficial of mankind.


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