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SEMINAR ABSTRACT
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 10-30

Seminar abstract


Date of Web Publication17-Sep-2011

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How to cite this article:
. Seminar abstract. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1, Suppl S1:10-30

How to cite this URL:
. Seminar abstract. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 Jan 21];1, Suppl S1:10-30. Available from: http://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2011/1/3/10/84996


   01. Protective Effects of Artemisia Vulgaris Leaf Extracts on Cells Challenged with H2O2 causing Biomolecular Damage Top


Sharmila K., Haniya A. K., Padma P. R.

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known mediators of intracellular signaling cascades. Excessive production of ROS may, however, lead to oxidative stress, loss of cell function and, ultimately, apoptosis or necrosis. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the basic mechanisms of tissue damage caused by free radicals, which disturb the normal structure and functions of the membrane. Essential cellular functions, like oxidative respiration, create ROS that can damage DNA and also proteins. A balance between oxidant and antioxidant intracellular systems is hence vital for cell function, regulation and adaptation to diverse growth conditions. Antioxidants, both exogenous and endogenous, whether synthetic or natural, can be effective in preventing free radical formation by scavenging them or promoting their decomposition and suppressing such disorders. Currently, there is a growing interest toward natural antioxidants of herbal resources. In this study, the antioxidant potential of Artemisia vulgaris leaf extracts were evaluated for their protective action against oxidative damage inflicted upon cellular biomolecules (DNA, lipids and proteins) in vitro. The results showed that the methanolic extract of the leaves rendered the maximum protection against oxidative damage thus protecting the cellular biomolecules. These results strongly iterate the medicinal properties of the leaves.


   02. Effect of Borreria Articularis Linn on Liver Antioxidant Defense System in Female Albino Rats Top


P. Mozhiyasi, V. Ahilandeswari

P.G. Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College, Mannargudi, Tamilnadu, India

The antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract of Barreiro articularis root and leaf power was examined using paracetamol-intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with the aqueous extract for 14 days. Three different does of Barreiro articularis (100, 200 and 300 mg/dose/b.wt) were tested to decide the dose-related antioxidant efficacy. Lipidperoxidation in paracetamol-administered rats was evidenced by marked elevation in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and also a profound diminution in glutathione and vitamin C content in the liver. The decreased activities of antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione Peroxidase in paracetamol-intoxicated rats and its retrival toward near-normalcy in aqueous extract-coadministered animals revealed the effectiveness of Borreria articularis in combating oxidative stress due to hepatic damage. The maximum protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury was afforded by the 300 mg/does/bwt. of Barreiro articularis.


   03.Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants and their Effect on Food Products Top


D. Rameshkumar, T. Prabu, K. Rameshkumar

Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India

The antimicrobial activity of different medicinal plants like Aegle marmelos, Cissus quadranqularies, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus niruri was tested against various food-borne pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella mitis, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium. Medicinal plants were extracted with ethanol and used in agar well diffusion for antimicrobial activity. In this method, the zone of inhibition was observed in different sizes based on the quantity of the ethanol extract. Phyllanthus niruri, Cissus quadranqularies and Ocimum sanctum were found to show the maximum inhibiting zone against the pathogens, except the plant of Agele marmelos. Then, the plant powder was incorporated in different concentrations to foods like uppuma and khakra. Total acceptability of Phyllanthus niruri was high in bitterness when increasing the quantity above 2 g. Other plants like A. marmelos, C. quadrangulareis and Ocimum sanctum were slightly bitter in concentrations above 3 g. The panel members recommended increasing the quality to more than 3 g for patients.


   04.Nephroprotective Effect of Methanolic Extract of Pongamia Pinnata on Lead Acetate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Albino Rats Top


R. Anuradha, P. Krishnamoorthy*

S.T.E.T. Women's College, Sundarakkottai, Mannargudi - 614 016, *Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The nephroprotective efficacy of the methanolic extract from flowers of Pongamia pinnata was studied on lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Administration of 160 mg/kg body weight/day of lead acetate for 90 days to male Albino rats resulted in a significant elevation in the level of serum urea, creatinine and uric acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and conjugated dienes (CD) and decreased the levels of kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E, which were observed in the kidney of the treated rats than in the controls. In the methanolic extract from flowers of Pongamia pinnata at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight/day and 160 mg/kg body weight/day of lead acetate combining administrated rats showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, TBARS, LOOH and CD, and there was also a significant elevation in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E that were recorded in the kidney of treated rats as compared with that of the control rats. Thus, the present results indicate that treatment with the methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata offers protection against free radical-mediated oxidative stress by lead acetate in the kidney of animals.


   05. Antinephrotoxic Effect of Boerhaavia Diffusa Linn. Root on Lead Acetate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Albino Rats Top


N. Vaidegi, R. Anuradha, B. Raka

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College,

Mannargudi - 614 001, Tamilnadu, India


Many nephroprotective herbal preparations have been recommended in the Indian system of medicine for the treatment of nephritic disorders. Protective action of the Boenhaavia diffusa extract (BDE) was evaluated in the animal model of nephrotoxicity induced by lead acetate kidney marker enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes were changed in lead acetate in toxicant rates. The BDE extract brought about a moderate change in the activities of all the above said levels. The present observation suggested that the treatment with BDE enhanced recovery from lead acetate-induced nephritic damage and its nephroprotective activity.


   06. Hypoglycemic Effect of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxb. Top


R. Kalaivani, M. Chitra, P. Suganya devi

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College,

Mannargudi - 614 001, Tamilnadu, India


The effect of the ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium was studied in Albino rats after induction of diabetes mellitus by alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). Biochemical parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, total protein, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoproteins and high lipoprotein in serum were observed in the experimental animal. The parameters were reversed after drug administration. This study proved that the ethanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium is effective in controlling the blood sugar level in the experimental animal. It was concluded that Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has an effective hypoglycemic activity.


   07. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Activity of Ziziphus Mauritiana Lam in Excision Wounds in Albino Rats Top


J. Radhika, V. Revathy

Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College, Tiruchirappalli - 05, Tamilnadu, India

Wound healing is a complex dynamic process that results in the restoration of anatomic continuity and function. Herbal plants are more potent healers because they promote the repair mechanism in natural ways. An attempt was made to study the beneficial efficiency of a plant extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in treating excision wounds. The rats were divided into three groups comprising of six rats each. Group I served as wound control, Group II was wounded and treated with the extract of Ziziphus mauritiana aqueous extract for 20 days at a dose of 1 g/day and Group III was wounded and treated with standard drug Soframycin for 20 days at a dose of 1 g/day. After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation and granulation tissue blood and serum was used for further studies.

The aqueous extract was prepared as per protocol. Excision wounds were created and topical application of the plant extract was followed for 20 days. The rate of wound contraction, biochemical parameters such as hydroxyl proline, hexosamine content of granulation tissue, serum protein and antioxidant parameters as superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase/tion (LPO) and ascorbic acid were studied. The results showed that the plant extract has potent wound healing capacity by decreasing the wound size and increasing the epithelization. The level of collagen and hexosamine were found to be increased in the treated group. The plant also possesses potent antioxidant activity, which was evident from the lowered LPO levels and increased level of SOD. The present study depicted the wound healing properties of Ziziphus mauritana, a common plant available in most household gardens. The study has also paved the way toward the use of herbs for the healing process, promoting health in the "HERBAL WAY."


   08. Effect of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima (l.) SW on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Top


G. Jothi, A. Saranya

Department of Biochemistry, Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College, Tiruchirappalli - 620 005, Tamilnadu, India

The present study aims at evaluating the antidiabetic potential of the aqueous leaf extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into five groups and treated accordingly; Group I served as normal control, Group II served as the alloxan-induced group (150 mg/kg bw), Group III as the alloxan + Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw (250 mg/kg bw) group, Group IV as the alloxan + Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw (500 mg/kg bw) group and Group V as the Glibenclamide (1 mg/kg bw) group. After the experimental period of 45 days, the blood and the tissue samples were collected and pre-clinical trials were carried out. Oral administration of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. leaf extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed a marked decrease (P < 0.05) in the levels of biochemical parameters such as glucose, liver glycogen and glycosylated hemoglobin. The serum insulin level was found to be elevated on treatment with the plant extract. The activities of glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased, with a significant decrease in the glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Light microscopic studies of pancreatic tissues showed profound regeneration of beta-cells of islets, which proved the antidiabetic potential of the Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw leaf extract. Results were compared with the standard drug Glibenclamide. From this present observation, it was evidenced that Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. could be an effective antidiabetic drug source.


   09. Radical Scavenging Effect of Tagetes Erecta on Lead Acetate-Induced Renaltoxcity in Rats Top


S. Anitha, R. Anuradha, J. Nishanthi

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College, Mannargudi - 614 001,Tamilnadu,India

The methanol and benzene extracts of Tagetes erecta were found to have potential antioxidant activity as they could inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Administration of lead acetate extract causes oxidative stress, with free radical formation, and oral administration of Tagetes erecta extract for 21 days produced a significant result reversal of the levels of Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), Vit C and Vit E to that of carnitine-treated rats observed in Tagetes erecta (200 mg/kg/body weight)-treated experimental rats when conformed to the normal and reference drug-treated animals.


   10. Extraction, Isolation and Purification of Genomic DNA from Salacia Oblonga for Molecular Marker Studies Top


P. Maheswari, M. Chitra

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College, Mannargudi - 614 001,Tamilnadu, India

A simple and efficient protocol for the extraction of high quality of genomic DNA from the roots of Salacia oblonga collected from three different places (Agumbi, Jogimat, Badsii) in Kerala has been developed. The important steps in this CTAB protocol include (a) use of 3.5 M NaCl in the extraction buffer, (b) 2M NaCl during precipitation, (c) Tris-saturated phenol in place of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol at purification phase, (d) 80% ice cold ethanol for DNA precipitation and, at last, (e) performing all the reactions at room temperature. The DNA thus extracted from roots have 1.36, 1.7 and 1.26 OD at A 260/280, and the yield was 68, 87 and 143 μg/g material. The extracted DNA was found to be suitable for the DNA fingerprinting technique and RAPD for the development of molecular marker studies on genetic diversity. Three different samples (Agumbi, Jogimat, Badsii) in Kerala were subjected to RAPD analysis using 15 different random decamer primers. Of the 15 primers, amplification was obtained in only three primers, producing 29 bands, showing the greatest genetic polymorphism between the samples.


   11. Antifertility Efficacy of Crataeva Magna Leaf Extract on Male Albino Mice Top


V. Anbuselvi, K. Rajeswari, P. Krishnamoorthy

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous),Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamilnadu, India

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Crataeva magna leaf extract on the reproductive system of male Albino mice. Changes were observed in animals treated with the Crataeva magna extract, with respect to body weight and organ weight, like testis and Cauda epididymis, throughout the experimental period. The sperm count, motility and the level of FSH and testosterone in the serum were obviously reduced in the treated animals. The biochemical analysis revealed that the concentration of protein, glucose cholesterol, of testis and cauda epididymis have shown marked reduction. The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, reduced glutathione and CAT were considerably declined in the animals treated with the extract; subsequently, the SOD, GPx, GST and lipid peroxidation enzymes were increased. It could be due to the administration of the extract and the long effect of the secondary metabolites on protective enzymes of the testis. Histopathological studies revealed that the changes in the seminiferous tubules leads to a lesser number of spermatocytes throughout the seminiferous tubules. It could be due to the administration of the extract and its effect on the normal physiology of the testis. Therefore, from the investigation, it is concluded that the administration of the extract of Crataeva magna could cause impairment in the antifertility of male Albino mice.


   12. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Fresh and Dry Rhizomes of Curcuma Longa  Top
Mohana M., Padma P.R.

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore - 43, Tamilnadu, India

Free radicals are chemical species possessing an unpaired electron that can be considered as fragments of molecules that are very reactive. They are produced continuously in cells either accidentally or as by-products of metabolism. Reactive free radicals formed within cells can oxidize biomolecules and lead to cell death and tissue injury. A number of Indian medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional system of medicine, which possesses strong antioxidant activity. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one such candidate plant that is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries. It is also well known for its medicinal value. In the present study, the fresh and dry rhizomes were serially extracted into different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) of increasing polarity using a Soxhlet apparatus. The radical quenching potential of the rhizome was evaluated in vitro against a battery of free radicals, namely DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Both fresh and dry rhizome extracts showed significant radical scavenging activity.


   13. Majorana Hortensis Leaves - A Potent Antioxidant Against Goat Liver Slices Challenged with H 2O2 Top


Radha Palaniswamy, P.R. Padma

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamilnadu, India

Plants and plant-derived products are a part of the health care system since ancient civilization. Oxidative stress can arise from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to excess ROS levels, which in turn cause various diseases and cell death. ROS can be eliminated by a number of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant defense mechanisms. This was studied in a candidate plant Majorana hortensis using an in vitro model, simulating the in vivo system. Precision-cut goat liver slices were challenged with a standard oxidant (H 2 O 2 ), both in the presence and in the absence of the different extracts of M. hortensis leaves. The enzymic (SOD, CAT, POD, GST and GR) and non-enzymic (vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A and reduced glutathione) antioxidants were analyzed in the homogenate of the liver slices after incubation. The oxidant (H 2 O 2 )-treated liver slices showed a decrease in the levels of antioxidants compared with the untreated control. But, in the presence of M. hortensis leaf extracts, the antioxidant status was reverted back to a significant extent. Thus, the results showed that the leaf extracts of the candidate plant can improve the antioxidant status in the goat liver slices exposed to oxidative stress in vitro.


   14. Food Safety and Quality Management Top


S. Dhanalakshmi, A. Murugalakshmi

P.G. and Research Department of Botany K.N. Government Arts and Science College (Autonoums), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Food safety is related to the presence of food-borne hazards in food at the point of consumption. As the introduction of food safety hazards can occur at any stage of the food chain, adequate control throughout the food chain is essential. Thus, food safety is ensured through the combined efforts of all personnel. The concentration in food technology provides the student with extra emphasis on food processing operations. This concentration will prepare graduates for careers in production supervision, quality assurance, inspection, product development and process development. Students may concentrate their study within one or more of the four commodity groups, integrating the study of production methods and their effect on food quality and process characteristics. Graduates will also be prepared for postgraduate studies leading to research, production and management careers in the food industry, government and academia. This concentration prepares students for employment in food or food-related businesses, where knowledge of food science, marketing and business is important. Course work readies students for careers in manufacturing management, technical sales, food product marketing or similar areas. Courses in marketing and food systems supplement the core program of basic sciences and food science, thereby integrating the science of food with business, management and economics. Selected electives in this concentration can prepare students for entry into MBA programs at most business schools. Several courses in this concentration can be used toward completion of Specialization in Food Industry Management.

The Basic Food Science concentration fills many, but not all, of the minimum requirements for admission to professional schools. Students interested in preparing for post-graduate professional programs should consult with a pre-professional advisor in the College of Natural Science. Admission requirements of professional schools vary, and the student is responsible for reviewing the requirements of each school of interest and consulting regularly with an advisor.


   15. Antiulcer Activity of Tephrosia Villosa Pers . Root Top


R. Praveena, S. Amarnath Pandian, M. Jegadeesan

Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Faculty of Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: rpraveenaa@gmail.com

Peptic ulcer occurs due to an imbalance between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin and Helicobactar pyroli and defense factors such as gastric mucus, bicarbonate secretion, prostaglandin and innate resistance of the mucosal cells. A number of drugs, including proton pump inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues, histamine receptor, antagonist and cytoprotective agents, are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Several natural drugs have been reported to possess anti-ulcer activity by virtue of their predominant effect on the mucosal defense factor. Tephrosia villosa family Fabaceae is a well known weed plant. As per the literature survey, all parts of this plant are being used to cure various kinds of illnesses. This study was designed to study the gastroprotective effect of the 50% alcoholic extract of the root of T. villosa in ethanol-induced models in rats at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w. concentrations. The parameters studied were gastric volume, ulcer score, pH, free acidity, total acidity, pepsin, total protein, hexose and hexosamine. The extracts exhibited a dose-dependant activity. Maximum activity was found at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w.


   16. Effect of the Flowers of Caesalpinia Pulcherrima Swartz . on Apoptotic Events Induced by Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cells Top


S.T. Yamuna, P.R. Padma

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamilnadu, India

Apoptosis, the programmed cell death, is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical features. Most chemotherapeutic drugs exert their anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, an effective compound inducing apoptosis appears to be a relevant strategy to suppress various human tumors. Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that can be used for anticancer therapy. The basis of this study is to determine the relationship between the candidate plant, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and induced apoptosis, which could be beneficial for anti-cancer therapy. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were studied by analyzing their effects on events associated with apoptotic death induced by oxidative stress. Yeast cells, a potentially useful eukaryotic model system for antioxidant studies at the cellular level, were used. Oxidative stress was induced by a standard oxidant, H 2 O 2 . The effects of flower extracts on cell viability were quantified. Characteristic features of apoptosis, such as morphological changes, nuclear changes and apoptotic index, were also analyzed. The results showed that the three flower extracts significantly increased the cell viability of untransformed cells subjected to oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 and also influenced the process of apoptosis induced in vitro.


   17. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Chrysopogon Zizanioides against some Clinical Pathogens Top


P. Rajeswari, K. Rameshkumar

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Tamilnadu, India E-mail: *rameshnila1@rediffmail.com

Chrysopogon zizanioides
is a densely tufted, wiry, perennial grass that is considered sterile outside its natural habitat. The leaves are used in basketry, mat weaving and also make an excellent roof thatching. Even though pharmacological industries have produced a number of antibiotics in last three decades, the present study was carried out on phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Chrysopogon zizanioides against some clinical pathogens. In this investigation, tannin, Phlobatannins flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids showed positive results whereas saponin and steroids showed negative results in the aqueous extract. The disc diffusion method was adopted for evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Chrysopogon zizanioides plant roots against clinical pathogens. In this study, maximum antibacterial activity was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus (0.00; 8 ± 0.30; 11 ± 0.19; 14 ± 0.33, aqueous, ethanol, methanol, standard, respectively). Moderate antibacterial activity was noted against Bacillus subtilis. Lowest antibacterial activity was recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.00; 6 ± 0.33; 09 ± 0.57; 12 ± 0.45, aqueous, ethanol, methanol, standard, respectively). Totally, the standard antibiotic streptomycin highly suppresses the growth of all the pathogens. Among the four solvent extracts, the methanolic extract has maximum activity against all the pathogens.


   18. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Eclipta Prostrata against some Clinical Bacteria Top


R. Ranjani, K. Rameshkumar

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Tamil Nadu, India E-mail:rameshnila1@rediffmail.com

Medicinal plants are most valuable natural resources, and it is necessary to identify those medicinal plants. The aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata is used in traditional India as a remedy against cough, intestinal disorder and bacterial infection. The aim of the present study was to analyze the phytochemical compounds and antibacterial activity of Eclipta prostrata plant extract using different solvents. The disc diffusion method was adopted for evaluation of antibacterial activity. In this investigation, tannin, phlobatannins, saponin, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids showed positive results, and only steroids showed negative results in the aqueous extract. In the present work, ethanol and methanol extracts of Eclipta prostrata showed higher activity to the test bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Low antimicrobial activity was recorded in aqueous extracts against bacterial pathogens. From this study, it is clear that Eclipta prostrata indeed exhibits an anti-bacterial activity. More research needs to be carried out to unravel the inhibitory effect of this plant. Because this herb had been used for ages traditionally and effectively, it is presumed that side-effects should be less. This will enable the use of our own local, rich plant heritage as effective medicines.


   19. Phytochemical Screening and Hepatoprotective Effect of Cassia Tora on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Albino Rats Top


N. Tarbina, K. Rameshkumar

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The present study was undertaken to analyze the phytochemical screening and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia tora on carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in Albino rats. In this investigation, tannin, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponin, steroids and terpenoids showed positive results, whereas phlobatannins showed negative results in the aqueous extract. Oral administration of carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg of body weight) led to significant increase in the LDH, AST, MDA and SOD levels, and reduced the concentration of GSH level was decreased. Treatment with the aqueous extracts of Cassia tora was continued for 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage was possibly reduced to a significant level, which may be due to the presence of herbal extracts. The extracts showed the toxicity effect on Cassia tora. Significant treatment effects were noticed in the herbal extract when compared with others. In general, the aqueous extract of Cassia tora was more effective against hepatotoxicity.


   20. A Comparative Study of Hydrological Factors before and after Injecting the Plant Extract of Thaneervitan Kizhangu in the Fish Black Molly and Gold Fish Top


S. Maharasi, G. Sridharan

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur,Tamilnadu, India

This was a comparative study of hydrological factors before and after injecting the root extract of Thaneervitan kizhangu in the fish Black molly (live bearer) and Gold fish (egg laying) veil tail. The experiment was conducted in a rectangular tank containing ground water. The water samples before introducing the fish and after 24 h of administration in the tank water were analyzed. Factors such as color, turbidity, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, sodium, potassium, ammonia, nitrate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand were analyzed. There were decreases in water contents such as chloride, CaCo 3 and magnesium in the medicated fish tank. An increase in water turbidity, sodium, sulfate and phosphate in the medicated tanks was noted.


   21. Studies on the Antimicrobial Activity of some selected Medicinal Plants on Pathogenic Microorganisms Top


J. Roopavathy, R. Uma Mageswari, M. Sukumaran, P. Krishnamoorthy

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Biological active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great importance in the field of medicine. In recent years, this interest to evaluate the antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Therefore, in the present investigation, an attempt was made to study the antimicrobial activity of different medicine plants on various pathogenic organisms such as Streptococcus, Yarsina pestis, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella paratyphii, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Two different solvents were used to extract the active compounds from medicinal plants like Busella ruba, Centella asiatia, Polygala elongate, Acalypha indica, Coleus aromaticus, Datura metal and Solanum nigam, which were collected from various locations in Kabisthalam and Thanjavur. These plant extracts were also compared with standard antibiotics like penicillin and gentamicine. The present investigation concludes that the plant extract has a great potential of antimicrobial compounds against pathogenic microorganisms and that it can be used in the treatment of infectious disease caused by microorganisms.


   22. Studies on the Pathogenic Escherichia Coli from Channa Striatus and the Antibacterial Activity of Aloe Vera Plant Top


S.R. Manikandan, M. Sukumarn, G. Sridharan, J. Roopavathi

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomus), Tamilnadu, India

Members of the genus Escherichia coli are primarily aquatic organisms found in freshwater and in association with aquatic animals. Some Escherichia coli species are pathogenic for fishes, frogs and turtles. Whether acting alone or in mixed infections with organisms, the motile Escherichia coli are responsible for significant financial losses annually. Hence, for the present investigation, the fish sample of Channa striatus was collected from (live and dead) Thirumanur pond, dead knife cut in fish market in Thanjavur. The fish pathogens of Escherichia coli were isolated, cultured and identified by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. The higher incidence of Escherichia coli in live fish collected from Thirumanur pond was mainly due to the stress caused by pollutants minimum colonies in dead fish, and no Escherichia coli in knife cut fish was observed. Antibacterial compounds were extracted from the Aloe vera plant using methanol and qualitative analysis of thin layer chromatography (TLC) were proved and RF values ranged from 0.63 to 0.80 in the extracted compound. The extracted compound of Aloe Vera exhibited (in 200 mg concentration) a maximum zone of incubation recorded at SAL.1 of Escherichia coli bacterial (fish pathogen) inhibitory responsibility due to the availability of phytocompounds.


   23. Physico-Chemical properties of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Digestive Enzyme Top


R. Dhanapal, P. Prabavathi, M.P. Murugaian

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Trypsin and chymotrypsin are both serine proteases with high sequence and structural similarities, but with different substrate specificity. Previous experiments have demonstrated the critical role of two loops outside the binding pocket in controlling the specificity of the two enzymes. To understand the mechanism of such a control of specificity by physical and chemical properties of trypsin and chymotrypsin and its roles, a clustering method was introduced to analyze the correlated motions of residues. We have found that trypsin and chymotrypsin have distinct dynamic signatures in the two loop regions, which are in turn highly correlated with motions of certain residues in the binding pockets. Interestingly, replacing the two loops of trypsin with those of chymotrypsin changes the motion style of trypsin to chymotrypsin-like, whereas the same experimental replacement was shown to be necessary to make trypsin have chymotrypsin's enzyme specificity and activity. These results suggest that the cooperative motions and the substrate-binding sites contribute to the activity and substrate specificity of trypsin and chymotrypsin based on physicochemical properties.


   24. Antimicrobial Activity and Therapeutic Compounds from Mukia Maderaspatana by GC-MS Top


V. Ramamurthy, S. Raveendran, O. Sathick, S. Thirumeni, R. Wajitha Jasmine, A. Kavitha Amirthanyagi, K. Radhika, M. Veerasamy*, V. Valarmathi**, S. Krishnaveni***

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu

*Department of Zoology, M.R. Govt. Arts College, Manargudi,

Tamil Nadu **Department of Zoology, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu ***Department of Biochemistry,

ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamilnadu, India


Ethanol extracts of Mukia maderaspatana were used traditionally in India for the treatment of skin diseases. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Aspergillus nνger and Candida albicans, using the well diffusion method. The results revealed that the leaf extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity against both bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus in 18 mm) and fungi (Candida albicans in 20 mm). Phytochemical analysis of all the extracts revealed that the antimicrobial activity of the plant material is due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds. The ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant M. maderaspatana have been investigated by gas chromatogarphy mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) to identify compounds responsible for its therapeutical properties. The tincture was prepared by mixing all parts of the plant with an 80% alcoholic solution for 30 days. These two extraction methods were compared for extraction of the active therapeutic compounds of M. maderaspatana. For this purpose, we have prepared alcoholic extracts from each part of the plant and we have studied them separately.


   25. Antiulcer Activities of Mukia Maderaspatana against Aspirin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats Top


V. Ramamurthy, S. Raveendran, O. Sathick, S. Thirumeni, R. Wajitha Jasmine, A. Kavitha Amirthanyagi, K. Radhika, M. Veerasamy*, V. Valarmathi**, S. Krishnaveni***

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu

*Department of Zoology, M.R. Govt. Arts College, Manargudi,

Tamil Nadu **Department of Zoology, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu ***Department of Biochemistry, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu


The ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer (antisecretory) in Albino rats. Various biochemical parameters such as gastric volume, pH of gastric content, free acidity and total acidity and total carbohydrate content such as total protein, hexoses, hexosamine, fructose and sialic acid, were estimated in 90% alcoholic precipitate of gastric juice examined on the test and control group animals. The extract, at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg, exhibited a protective effect on ulcer-induced models in a dose-dependent manner and was comparable with the standard drug, ranitidine. The extract of Mukia maderaspatana showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcer index. The extracts possess significant gastroprotective activity as compared with the standard drug. The present study revealed that the extract of Mukia maderaspatana had ulcer protective activity comparable with the standard drug, ranitidine, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects


   26. Effect of Boerhaavia Diffusa against Isoniazid-induced Liver Toxicity in Albino Rats Top


V. Ramamurthy, S. Raveendran, O. Sathick, S. Thirumeni, R. Wajitha Jasmine, A. Kavitha Amirthanyagi, K. Radhika, M. Veerasamy*, V. Valarmathi**, S. Krishnaveni***

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu

*Department of Zoology, M.R. Govt. Arts College, Manargudi,

Tamil Nadu **Department of Zoology, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu ***Department of Biochemistry, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu


The hepatoprotective activity of acetone and ethanolic extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa was studied against isoniazid-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatoprotective activity was monitored by estimating the serum transaminases glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and protein, bilirubin in serum and by histopathological changes in the livers of experimental rats. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of rats at different doses of B. diffusa in the experimental models of hepatotoxicity showed that treatment of rats with 200 mg/kg, ip and 100 mg/kg, po before isoniazid administration challenge leads to complete normalization of toxin-induced increase in the levels of all the biochemical parameters, and significantly ameliorates toxin-induced histopathological changes in the livers of experimental rats. The ethanol extract of B. diffusa (100 and 200 mg) showed significant hepatoprotective activity similar to that of the standard drug, silymarin (25 mg/kg).The weight of the organs such as liver, heart, lungs, spleen and kidney in isoniazid-induced experimental animals administrated with B. diffusa showed an increase over the isoniazid control group. The results confirmed the in vivo hepatoprotective effect of B. diffusa against isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Because the protective effect of B. diffusa was observed in two types of intoxication, which are very different in their primary mechanism of inducing hepatotoxicity, it is suggested that protective mechanisms of B. diffusa that are not specific to isoniazid toxicity may be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity of the compound.


   27. A Study of the Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leucas Aspera on Albino Rats Top


S. Raveendran, V. Ramamurthy, O. Sathick, S. Thirumeni, R. Wajitha Jasmine, A. Kavitha Amirthanyagi, K. Radhika, M. Veerasamy*, V. Valarmathi**, S. Krishnaveni***

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701, Thanjavur District, *Department of Zoology, M.R. Govt. Arts College, Manargudi, **Department of Zoology, ADM College (Women), Nagapattinam, ***Department of Biochemistry, ADM

College (Women), Nagapattinam, Tamilnadu, India


This study was designed to elucidate the toxicity of the widely used plant Leucas aspera in rats. We have taken the alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts from the leaves of L. aspera and studied their toxic effects. Acute, subacute and LD50 values were determined in experimental rats. The dead animals were obtained from primary screening studies, LD50 value determination experiments and acute studies subjected studies. From the acute administration of L. aspera, the LD50 values were determined using the graphical method. The experimental paradigm used for antiulcer activity was Aspirin-induced ulcer model in rats. It was observed that L. aspera produced significant 55.5% and 59.4% protection in cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and 58.19% and 63.39% protection in Aspirin-induced ulcer at the 200 mg/kg dose level when compared with the controls. This study has been undertaken to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of L. aspera (100 and 200 mg/kg) and Ranitidine (20 mg/kg) against experimentally Aspirin-induced gastric ulcers. The parameters studied include volume of gastric secretion, free and total acidity, pepsin activity, ulcer index, gastric wall mucus content, dissolved mucosubstances of gastric juice such as total carbohydrates (total hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) and protein content of gastric juice using an Aspirin plus pylorus ligation model. The protein content of the gastric juice was significantly decreased. The results suggest that this ayurvedic preparation possesses significant gastroprotective and antiulcer activity in lower doses of therapeutic range and its effect is not dose-dependent.


   28. Studies on the Effect of the Stem Extract of Andrographis Paniculata on Culex Mosquito Hatching Top


S. Aruldoss, P. Krishnamoorthy

Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases. The available chemical insecticides to control vector mosquitoes cause adverse environmental and health effects. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative vector control in the future. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to study the mosquito larvecidal effect of the aqueous extract of the stem of Andrographis paniculata. The egg raft of Culex pipiense was collected and incubated with different concentrations of aqueous the extract, from 1 ppm to 10 ppm, for 48 h. After 24 h of treatment, the eggs failed to hatch out at the higher concentration and the percentage of hatching out larva from the egg was inversionally proportional to the concentration of the extract. The time of larval development of the mosquito was prolonged in the extract-treated larvae. The present result clearly indicates that the aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata stem served as potential suppress of larval development on Culex pipiense.


   29. In Vitro Studies on the Toxicity of various parts of Andrographis Paniculatya Goat Epididiymal and Vas Deference Sperm Top


D. Kalaiselvan, V. Sindhubala, P. Krishnamoorthy

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

In the present investigation, an attempt was made to evaluate the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Andrograhius paniculata leaves, stem and root on adult goat epididiymal and vas deference sperm. Semen sample was collected and diluted with Ringer phosphate solution (RPS) and tentative toxicity-incubated experiments were conducted to determine the LD50 of the extracts. Five milliliters of diluted semen samples were incubated, and the biochemical constituents such as protein, cholesterol, sialic acid, total lipid and glycogen, and antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Vit C, were analayzed in the semen samples. The morphological changes of sperm, sperm motility and viability were recorded. Significant changes were noted in all biochemical parameters and antioxidant constituents. In the extract-treated group, the motility and viability were decreased in a dose- and duration-dependant manner. There were remarkable changes in morphology and motility of the sperm in the extract-treated groups. Therefore, the present findings suggest that these plant extracts possess an adverse toxicity effect in mature goat epidididymal and vas deferences sperm.


   30. Study on the Proximate Composition of commonly available Sea Foods at Kaduvayar landing center, Nagapattinam District Top


P. Veeramani, A. Elavarasan, K. Rajeswari, G. Sridharan, P. Krishnamoorthy,

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Sea food has immense value in humans, and it is a stable food item in the diet of today's health-conscious people. The composition of fish muscle is highly variable between species and may fluctuate widely, depending on size, season fishing grounds and diet. Analysis of food for the presence of bacteria is a common practice today for ensuring food quality and safety. In the present study, seven different seafood samples such as fishes (Anchovy- S. commersonii, Catfish- A. maculatus, Indian mackerel- A. kanagurta, Grey mullet- M. cephalus, Black pompert mud crab- S. sereta and Indian white prawn-P. indicus) were obtained from the Kadavagar fish landing center and were then analyzed for the proximate compositions.


   31. Economic Valuation of Bivalves in the Agniyar Estuary, East Coast of Tamilnadu Top


B. Alagusundaram, M. Sukumaran, G. Sridharan, S. Ramanathan

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur,Tamilnadu, India

Estuaries provide valuable resources like fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, etc. Thus, it plays a pivotal role in the rural livelihood and constitutes an important socioeconomic entity. Mangrove vegetation, ranking high in productivity, is often associated with tropical and subtropical estuaries. Biological productivity in estuaries depend on a fresh water ecosystem and hence its terrestrial ecosystems. Estuaries being inter-tidal zones form a vital interface between marine and terrestrial environments. These semienclosed bodies of coastal water have a free connection with the open sea, within which seawater is measurably diluted with fresh water of terrestrial origin, forming a highly productive, dynamic and unique ecosystem, providing food, transport, recreation etc. A study was undertaken focusing on bivalves of the Agniyar river estuary of South Indian West Coast in an effort to document the edible bivalve diversity and the often neglected socioeconomic life based on it. Estimates have been made of people involved in bivalve collection and trade, quantity and species collected and the overall role of bivalves in sustaining a rural economy. Bivalves harvested are Paphia malabarcia, Katelysia opima and Meretrix meretrix, M. casta and Crassostrea sp. The estuary provides diverse kinds of habitats for different bivalve species. Harvests are higher during post-monsoon (November-May) compared with that during monsoon (June-October). The bivalve-based economy has an estimated turnover of Rs. 50 million per year. It generates direct employment for about 2000 people, and nutritional security of millions more along the TamilNadu coast and also in neighboring  states.


   32. Ameliorative Effect of Trianthema Portulacastrum Linn. on lead Acetate-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Mice Top


J. Karthiga, M. Chitra

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T. Women's College, Mannargudi, Thiruvarur (Dist), Tamilnadu, India

Ameliorative effect of an ethanolic leaf extract (EETP) of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae) was examined against lead acetate-toxicated Swiss Albino mice. The oral administration of the extract for 21 days against lead acetate-induced mice was assayed in the liver homogenate and serum, which was significantly increased in levels of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants and decreased in the liver of lead acetate-administrated (60 mg/kg b.wt/day/orally) mice. The protective effect was found to be further supported by histological changes. Histological examination of the liver section of the mice confirmed the hepatic injury with lead acetate administration and near-normal pattern with the ethanolic extract of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Pre-treatment. The results of the present study provide clear evidence of defense provided by the Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. extract against lead acetate-induced toxicity in the liver of Albino mice.


   33. Effect of Supplementation of Cardiospermum Halicacabum Capsules on the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis Subjects of Shillong Top


Markynti. M. Sohlang, R. Radha

Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics, Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail: mar_leogirl@yahoo.com

Osteoarthritis is a heterogenous group of conditions that leads to joint symptoms and signs that are associated with defective integrity of articular cartilage in addition to related changes in the underlying bone at the joint margins. According to the World Health Report 2002, osteoarthritis is the 4th leading cause of year lived-with disease at the global level. By 2030, a projected 67 million people will have doctor-diagnosed arthritis around the world. In India, the incidence of osteoarthritis is as high as 12% of the population. This high frequency of osteoarthritis in India is the consequence of its prevalence among women who fall victim to it. Osteoarthritis affects both men and women. In the present study, 50 subjects were selected; socioeconomic, anthropometry, lifestyle pattern and dietary intake were recorded. From the total sample, a subsample of six was selected for the intervention. These subjects were at first analyzed for their present symptoms using the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) Index of Osteoarthritis. They were then given a Cardiospermum halicacabum capsule of 2 g each for a period of 60 days. After the supplement, their symptoms were then again analyzed using the WOMAC Index of Osteoarthritis. The results showed that there was a significant improvement in their symptoms.


   34. Biochemical and Enzyme Studies on Brachyuran Food Crab Charybdis Natator (Herbst) during its Moulting Cycle Top


A. Kannathasan, K. Rajendran

PG & Research Department of Zoology & Biotechnology, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi - Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: kannathasana@gmail.com

The marine crab Charybdis natator was collected from the offshore region of Nagapattinam (Lat. 100 46' NS and Long. 790 51' EW) on the south east coast of Bay of Bengal. Random collections of crab were made and biochemical composition and enzymes of hemolymph, muscle, hepatopancreas and gonad were thoroughly studied in various stage of the moulting cycle, classified into four stages: post-moult stage, inter-moult stage, pre-moult stage and moulting stage. The biochemical and enzyme constituents such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum glutamate aspartate trasminase (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT) were calculated. The results indicate that there was a higher value of biochemical components estimated in the crabs of the inter-moult stage. Hence, the study critically suggested that the crab Charybdis natator is suitable for consumption at the inter-moult stage because of its high nutritive profile.


   35. Immunostimulatory Effect of Lemon Epicarp and Amla Powder Extract on Tilapia Fish (Oreocrhomis Mossambicus) Top


Elavarasi S., Sivabakiyam P., Saravanan K.

Department of Zoology, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, Thiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India

Because of the increasing human population in the world, humans are continuously facing many problems such as scarcity of food, etc. Animal meat, especially fish meat, might be an alternative food. In fish farming, infectious diseases are a major problem, causing heavy loss to fish farmers. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate the diseases has been of interest for many years. Medicinal plants are used for immunomodulation, which can provide potential alternatives to conventional chemotherapies for a variety of diseases. In the present study, the immunostimulatory effect of lemon epicarp powder extract and amla powder extract on the SRBC antigen-dosed fish was carried out. In order to determine the presence of the immunostimulant compound in the lemon, the phytochemistry study was also performed. The stimulatory effect of plant extract on cellular immunity was studied by counting blood cells and comparing the number of cells in the control, treatment control and extract-treated fishes, and the humoral immunity was studied by antibody titer value and by comparing the antibody titer value in control, treatment control and extract-treated fishes. The titer value was studied by the hemagglutination test. The phytochemistry study revealed that 25 chemical compounds were present in the epicarp, which were then identified. These compounds belonged to five groups, viz. alkaloids (3), steroids (2), terpenoids (10), flavonoids (5) and carbohydrates (5). The hematological parameters (RBC and WBC) in the extract-treated fishes were highly and favorably altered by the lemon extract. Similarly, the antibody titer value was also not in favor in the extract-treated fishes.

The present results suggested that the high dose of amla fruit extract favorably altered the immune system of fishes by increasing macrophages and producing antibodies against SRBC antigen. The extract did not affect the growth of the fishes and thus it is concluded that the ethanolic extract of amla fruit had a potential immunostimulatory effect. From the result, it is suggested that the ethanolic extract of amla fruit powder can be able to inhibit or stop microbial infection in the fish. Further, it could not inhibit the growth of the fish. Further study is needed to determine its toxicity and how long this induced protection could last in fish after the exposure of the extract. The ethanolic extract of lemon epicarp was not able to inhibit or stop the microbial infection in the fish. Further, it caused excessive breakdown of RBC and destruction of WBC, which may also inhibit the growth of the fish.


   36. Irradiation of Food : A Boon to the Society Top


C. Deepa, X. Agnello, J. Naveen, C. Sivasubramanian

Department of Environment and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Food is one of the most important necessities in life. Fortunately, many advanced and several developing countries have abundant supplies of fresh, safe and nutritious foods. Yet, despite the many precautions and process in place to ensure safe food supply, microbial contaminations are still a concern. There are a number of food processing tools available that provide additional protection for the foods that we consume. One very promising tool is food irradiation, which is the process of imparting ionising energy to kill microorganisms. Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to a controlled source of ionizing radiation for the purpose of reduction of microbial load, destruction of pathogens, extension of product shelf-life and/or disinfection of produce.

The term irradiation often evokes fears of nuclear radioactivity and cancer among consumers. The process seems frightening because it is powerful and invisible. Consequently, questions and concerns exist, particularly about the safety or wholesomeness of the irradiated food. This paper highlights food irradiation as food safety measures and the issues of concern for consumers.


   37. Food Adulteration in India : Learn to Deal with it Top


X. Agnello, J. Naveen, C. Deepa, C. Sivasubramanian

Department of Environment and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

Several studies have shown that most of the edibles are adulterated or contaminated with infectious microbes, heavy metal toxins, artificial additives, preservatives, coloring agents, emulsifying agents or chemical residues. Adulteration is most risky for life sustenance. It makes our existence unsecured. We are gulping slow poison through adulterated items. It is not only the consumer that suffers but also the industry and government that suffer equally because of adulterated, fake and duplicate goods. Adulteration starts at the production level till it reaches to the consumer level. Adulteration in case of medicines is reported to the extent of 35%. According to a survey, the most commonly used cosmetics, e.g. parachute oil, fair and lovely cream, vics and dabur amla oil, have more than 100 duplicates in the market. It is a well-organized profession and has covered almost all the items of daily need.


   38. A Study on Effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts on the Antimicrobial Sensitivity against Ornamental Fish Pathogens Top


M.C. Vachanth, G. Sridharan

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur - 5, Tamilnadu, India.

E-mail: chanth27@gmail.com


The use of natural products with therapeutic properties is as ancient as human civilization. During the 19th century, man began to isolate the active particles of medicinal plants, and the one particular landmark was the discovery of quinine from Cinchona bark. About 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Of the 252 drugs considered as basic and essential by the WHO, 11% are exclusively of plant origin. Currently, the total number of plant species on earth varies from 5 to 50 million. Only 1100 among the world's 365,000 plants species have so far been examined for their medicinal properties. But, still, the majority of the plants have yet to be tested. Development of herbal medicine for the newly emerging unknown pathogens and continuous development of antibiotic-resistant pathogens have gained top priority in recent years. Moreover, the treatment of cultivable fish diseases by herbal medicines has also been recognized. Ornamental fish is a crucial component of the market. There is a potential market for aquarium fish in the United States and Europe. They ban import of aquarium fish from Asian countries because of diseases. This led to a great set back in aquarium industries in Asian countries. To overcome this, experiments are on the way to find a remedy for the diseases by means of synthetic medicine as well as herbal medicine. The present research comes under the latter category. The pathogens isolated from the diseased fish, i.e. 17 bacteria species, are tested against the extracts of 18 species of coastal medicine plants. Of the 18 plant species, all exhibit antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial species. Among them, Cinnamomum verbum showed sensitivity against all bacterial species.


   39. Trace metal Concentration of the Marine Crab (Charybdis Natator) along the South East Coast of Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, India Top


A. Kannathasan, K. Rajendran


PG & Research Department of Zoology & Biotechnology, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi - Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: kannathasana@gmail.com

Brachyuran crab Charybdis natator was collected from the offshore region of Nagapattinam (Lat. 100 46' NS and Long. 790 51' EW) on the south east coast of Bay of Bengal, a random collection of crab transport to the laboratory. In the present investigation, trace metals were thoroughly studied in various stages of the reproductive cycle, by studying the calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and chromium (Cr) concentrations. The results showed fluctuation during the trace metal analysis in the crab Charybdis natator, suggesting that the crab can be used as a bioindicator


   40. Impact of a Fiber-Rich Supplement on Hypertensive Subjects Top


Rajaathi G., R. Radha

Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Hypertension is an important public health challenge worldwide. Hypertension is a very common and serious condition that can lead to many health problems. It is more prevalent in Asian countries and in developing parts of the world. The middle-aged workmen are the major group affected. Hypertension is reported to be the fourth contributor to premature death in developed countries and the seventh in developing countries. Nearly 1 billion adults (more than a quarter of the world's population) had hypertension in 2000, and this is predicted to increase to 1.56 billion by 2025. Prevalence of hypertension is rapidly increasing in developing countries, and is one of the leading causes of death and disability. With due consideration to these facts, a study was performed with the supplementation of oats with herbal powder for hypertensive subjects. Fifty hypertensive subjects were selected and, from them, a subsample of 10 were selected for supplementation. The supplementation was carried out for a period of 8 weeks. Blood pressure of the subjects was recorded before and after the supplementation. The result shows that there was a significant improvement (i.e., reduction in blood pressure) after the period of 8 weeks.


   41. Impact of Natural Processing on the Quality of Selected Fruits Top


T. Thilagavathi, Dr. V. Saradha Ramadas, V. Jyothi

Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics, Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

E-mail: thilagakshaya@gmail.com; saradharamadasv@gmail.com


India is an agricultural country and one-third of her population depends on the agricultural sector directly or indirectly. Fully mature ripe Guava (Psidium guajava - hill) and Papaya (Carica papaya [country]) were selected for the study. The osmotic dehydration method was followed to increase the shelf-life of the products. Dried papaya dices and guava candy were selected. The shelf-life in terms of microbial count, moisture content and acceptability test was examined up to 2 months storage period. The cost of raw fruits during the seasonal and off-seasonal periods was noted and the cost of each product was calculated accordingly and comparison was made so as to understand the need for preserving the surplus fruits available during seasons at a reasonable price.


   42. Increasing Childhood Obesity in India : A Review and Case Study in Thanjavur Top


Sheela, Jayaprabha, Jeyaselvi, P. Mariappan

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur,Tamilnadu, India

Obesity is a natural consequence of over-nutrition, and sedentary life is a disease that is characterized by excessive body fat. It is considered as a "Killer lifestyle" disease. Death due to obesity is preventable death worldwide. Obese people usually are affected by behavior, genetic and environmental factors that are difficult to control with dieting. Stages of overweight are medically defined by body mass index (BMI), and an individual with a BMI of 25-29.9 is clinically classified as overweight. Further, if a person is with a BMI of 30 or more, he/she is said to be obese. Obesity increases the likelihood of certain diseases and other related health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and respiratory problems and some cancers.

Obesity is not only found in adults but is also reported in children. Nearly 22 million children worldwide under the age of 5 years are estimated to be overweight. Studies conducted in school going children in India alarms the rise of obesity among children. More than 30% children have developed childhood obesity in urban centers. More and more children are being diagnosed with diabetes, hypertension and other co-morbid conditions associated with obesity and morbid obesity. Lack of physical activity, genetics, dietary pattern and socioeconomic status are the major concern of development of childhood obesity. This paper reviews the present situation of childhood obesity in India with a study conducted in Thanjavur district.


   43. Significance of Samudhram Lake , Thanjavur District , Tamilnadu , a Cauvery Delta Region as a Wetland Habitat Top


A. Venkatesh, S. Raveendran*

Center for Research and Development PRIST University,

*P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adhirampattinam, Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu, India

E-mail: Avenkatesh70@gmail.com


The Cauvery delta region is known for a number of natural as well as man-made wetlands, like Udhayamarthandapuram lake, Vaduvoor lake, Kallperambur lake, Karaivetti lake and Thirumeni lake. Samudhram lake is one among them. No studies have been reported on Samudhram lake. Therefore, the present study is being undertaken. Among the winged visitors to the lake, Darter and Large Cormorant have been found in the lake, establishing its importance as a birds' habitat. Other particulars, variety of species of birds observed, threats pertaining to the lake and the steps to conserve it are discussed and suggestions have been made.


   44. Mosquito Larvicidal Efficacy of the Leaf Extracts of Three Plant Species Top


R. Elakkiya, S. Soundravalli, S. Babu

Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The aqueous extracts of plants, viz. Acalypha indica, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus sp., were verified for mosquito larvicidal activity. But, for the Eucalyptus leaves, larvicidal activity was observed with the leaf extracts of Acalypha indica and Azadirachta indica. Lethal effect (LC50 ) was found to be relatively higher in the extracts of Azadirachta leaves than in those of Aacalypha. According to the Hodge and Sterner scale, the toxicity ratings of the plant extracts were 3 (moderately toxic) and 4 (slightly toxic), respectively, for Azadirachta indica and Aacalypha indica. As per the Gosselin, Smith and Hodge scale, the ratings were 3 (slightly toxic) for both Azadirachta and Acalypha. Small-scale field-level application of the extracts showed promising results.


   45. Impact of the Pesticide Rogor on Selected Hematological Parameter Changes of the Fish , Oreochromis Mossambicus Top


O. Sathick, S. Raveendran, K. Muthukumaravel

Department of Zoology, KathiMohaideen College, Adirampattinam,

Tamil Nadu,India


Modernization and intensification of agricultural production is generally accompanied by a rapid increase in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are stable compounds that enter the aquatic ecosystem through the agricultural run-off. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to study the toxicity of the pesticide Rogor with respect to the hematology of the fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The RBC count and Hb content decreased with increasing concentration of the pesticide Rogor. However, WBC number increased with increasing concentration.


   46. Effect of the Pesticide Curacron on Oxygen Consumption and Selected Biochemical Parameter Changes of the Estuarine Catfish Mystus Gulio (Hamilton ) Top


O. Sathick, S. Raveendran, K. Muthukumaravel

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu, India

E-mail: osathick@yahoo.com


Pesticide contamination of surface water from agriculture use is a problem of worldwide importance. Once a pesticide is introduced into the environment, there is a reasonable chance that it will eventually find its way into water. Therefore, aquatic systems probably represent one of the most important complexities of the environment as far as describing the fate and behavior of pesticides is concerned. The test organisms were treated with a sublethal concentration of Curacron for 96 h and the LC 50 was determined. Oxygen consumption of pesticide-treated fish showed an initial increase with a lower concentration of Curacron, which decreased with increasing concentrations. The biochemical contents in the present study showed a gradual decrease in protein, glycogen and lipid content quantitatively with effect to different concentrations of the pesticide.


   47. Electron Microscopic Study of the Gill of the Freshwater Mussel , Lamellidens Marginalis , Exposed to the Heavy Metal Nickel Top


K. Muthukumaravel, K. Abdul Kader, P. Neelanarayanan*

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam - 614 701 E-mail: kumar_phd_2003 @yahoo.co.in *Department of Zoology, Nehru Memorial College,

Puthanampatti - 621 007


The impact of nickel on gill histology of freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis was studied. L. marginalis was exposed for 10, 20 and 30 days to a 10% sublethal concentration (SLC) of 96-h LC50 of nickel (3.8 mg/l). The gills exposed to SLC of nickel showed mild morphological alterations during 10 days of exposure. However, after 30 days, fusion of adjacent lamellae, vacuolization, clumping of lamellae and hyperplasia were prominent. The transmission electron microscopy micrograph of the gill of nickel-treated freshwater mussel showed reduced number of mitochondria with less cristae, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, more nuclear space and vacuoles. Such ultrastructural changes could serve as a useful tool and biomarker in studies of toxic stress in an aquatic environment.


   48. Studies on the Toxicity of Mercury on the Hepatopancreas : Ultrastructure of an Estuarine Hermit Crab , Clibanarius Infraspinatus (Hilgendorf ) Top


D. Kandasami, K. Muthukumaravel, R. Sivakami*

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, *Department of Zoology, Arignar Anna Govt. College, Musiri, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: kumar_phd_2003 @yahoo.co.in

The effect of heavy metal mercury on the histology of the hepatopancreas of an estuarine hermit crab, Clibanarius infraspinatus, after exposure to 1/10 and 1/30 96-h LC50 (0.25 mg/l) for 30 days was investigated. The results showed that the histopathological changes induced in the hepatopancreas were mainly represented by disorganization of hepatopancreatic tubules, necrosis, disappearance of the epithelial cell and vacuolization of the digestive tubules. The transmission electron microscopy micrograph of the digestive gland of mercury-treated hermit crab showed a reduced number of mitochondria with less cristae, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, more nuclear space, vacuoles, prominent lipid granules and disintegration of cytoplasmic contents. Ultrastructural studies can be used as "biomarkers" for assessing pesticide/herbicide pollution in the aquatic environment.


   49. Effect of Herbicide Glyphosate on the Protein Pattern of the Freshwater Fish , Labeo Rohita Top


K. Muthukumaravel, K. Jayaseelan, S. Raveendran, A. Amsath, O. Sathick

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: kumar_phd_2003@yahoo.co.in

The freshwater fish, Labeo rohita, was exposed to different concentrations of herbicide glyphosate for 96 h and LC50 was determined to be 0.0025 ppm. One-tenth of the LC50 (0.00025 ppm) was selected as the sublethal concentration for chronic studies (30 days). In the present investigation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed for the tissues of gill, liver, intestine and muscle of carp exposed to glyposate, which revealed variation in protein fractions between the control and treated fish. On treatment with the herbicide, several protein fractions have disappeared and some new fractions have appeared. The reduction of proteins could be due to the impact on the protein synthetic pathway or due to the depletion of reserve proteins and the appearance of new protein fractions could be stress proteins to overcome the toxic effect of glyphosate.


   50. Distribution of Gastgropods in Muthupet Saline Swamp Top


S. Ramanathan

Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur,

Tamil Nadu, India


The molluscan resource of our country is rich along the coasts of bays, estuaries and in the seas. An estuary is a semienclosed coastal body of water that has a free connection with the open sea and with the sea. The water here is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. Estuaries are important to human welfare as they play a significant role in the production of food resources. The estuary, muthupet saline swamp, is formed 60 km away from Thanjavur and it has five branches of the river Cauvery by which fresh water enters into the sea. The banks of the river are occupied by mangrove vegetation (Avicenia sps). The gastropods such as Cervithidea fluviatils, Littorina scabra, Melampus ceylonicus, Nassarius stolatus, Neritina violacea, Pythia plicata and Telescopium telecopium were collected from the muthupet saline swamp and the length berth of each were studied.


   51. Lambda Cyhalothrin-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of the Freshwater Fish, Labeo Rohita Top


K. Muthukumaravel, O. Sathick, S. Raveendran

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, Tamil Nadu, India

Biochemical parameters and histopathological lesion have been studied in the liver of Labeo rohita under 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure to a 10% sublethal concentration of lambda cyhalothrin (96-h LC50: 0.025 ppm; 10% sub lethal concentration (SLC) : 0.0025 ppm). The glycogen content was found to be depleted in the liver at all periods after treatment. In contrast to the observation of glycogen, the glucose level was elevated in blood at all periods. In control carp, the liver was comprised of polygonal hepatocytes with centrally placed nucleus. Pesticide-induced dilation of blood sinusoids, vacuolization and disintegration of cell boundaries were noticed in 10 and 20 days of exposed fish. The complete damage of hepatocytes and loss of integrity of cell wall were noticed on 30 days of exposure


   52. Role of Hygienic and Healthy Natural Food in Asthmatic Patients Top


A. Radha, M. Chandran*

K.N. Government Arts College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu *Thiyagaraja College, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India

Both the prevalence and the severity of respiratory allergic disease such as bronchial asthma have increased in recent the years. Food allergy may present with a variety of respiratory tract symptoms that generally involve immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated responses. Food allergy can cause both immediate and delayed patterns of asthma, and it is a very important cause of asthma, but is often overlooked. Food allergens travel from the digestive tract to the lungs, where they cause the formation of many abnormalities in the lungs. Patients with delayed-pattern food allergy have the most persistent inflammatory form of chronic asthma. The good news is that complete diet revision may allow remission of chronic symptoms. Food-borne illness is any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses or parasites that contaminate food rather than contamination from chemicals or natural toxins. There is an effective defence against the spread of food-borne illness. Good hygienic practices before, during and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. These substances are highly available in certain natural food items, and we should ensure taking more of these food items as part of the asthmatic diet. In this context, the present review paper focus on creating an awareness among the young people to ensure to take natural healthy food items and tell them how to say hello to a healthy and asthmatic-free life.


   53. Histological and Biochemical Investigations on the Cancer Therapy Potential of Antioxidant Vitamins A, C, E and their Anlogues on p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene-Induced Hepatoma in Rats Top


Antony Joseph Velanganni, C. Balasundaram*

Department of Biochemistry, *Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamilnadu, India

The effect of antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and their analogues on chemically induced hepatoma by p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) in male Albino rats has been studied. To study the effect of vitamins, experiments were conducted on a group of 275 rats divided into three sets. The first set served as control, the second set received 0.06% DAB and the third set received 0.06 % DAB along with analogues of vitamins A, C and E. Rats fed with 0.06% DAB were provided water ad libitum for a period of 4 months, followed by a normal (basal) diet for a further 2 months. Vitamins A (10,000-50,000 IU), C (75-1000 mg) and E (50-500 mg) and their analogues were given (per kg body weight) to the third set of rats by the gavage route once in a week for a period of 6 months. Supplementation of antioxidant vitamins has a protective effect on the incidence of liver tumor monitored on the basis on liver weight, histological studies and biochemical analysis.

Histological studies revealed that normal rats have more compact and well-distributed junctional complexes, whereas in DAB-administered rats, hyperplasia of hepatic parenchymal cells and damaged central vein of liver lobules were observed. When DAB administration was coupled with antioxidant vitamin therapy, the liver showed recovery changes such as higher cell density with compact junctional complexes. In DAB-administered rats, hepatic cells had poorly differentiated cytoplasm with pleomorphic nuclei. The loss of contact inhibition between hepatic cells observed in DAB-administered rats was restored with vitamin therapy. Individual supplementation of high doses of vitamin A, L-ascorbic acid and vitamin E succinate significantly reduced the content of DNA, RNA, Alpha protein (AFP) and Gamma glutamate (γ-GT) in DAB-induced hepatoma of rats; the increased levels of acetylcholinesterase, Alakaline Phosphatase (ALP), aspartate (AST), alanaine amino transferase (ALT), reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione -s-Transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), Lipid Peroxidase (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT) and bilirubin were lowered by vitamin treatment. However, administration of a mixture of these vitamins at low doses enables restoration of γ-GT, a marker of hepatoma, and the chosen enzymes level to normal, which may due to their synergistic effect.


   54. Angiogenic Activity of the Hexane Extract of the Star Fish , Clypeaster Sp. Top


B. Uma, P. Padmapriya

Department of Zoology, Bharathi Women's College, Tamilnadu, India

Marine organisms are known for their rich source of biologically active metabolites. The present study aims to identify the angiogenic potential of the hexane extract of Clypeaster sp. The angiogenic activity was tested with the CAM assay with different concentrations of the hexane extract. Spoke wheal angiogenic response could be seen. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed with GC-MS.


   55. Studies on the Effect of Heavy Metal Chromium on Some Biochemical Aspects of the Estuarine Clam , Meretrix Casta Top


A. Nageema, K. Muthukumaravel, O. Sathick, B. Uma, S. Raveendran, S.V.S.A. Hameed*

PG and Research Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, Tamilnadu *Syed Ammal Arts and Science College, Ramanad, India E-mail: kumar_phd_2003@yahoo.co.in

The aim of this present study was to ascertain the impact of the heavy metal chromium on the biochemical composition of various tissues like gill, hepatopancreas, foot and mantle, of the estuarine clam, Meretrix casta. The LC50 value of chromium at 96 h was determined. The results of glycogen have shown a significant dose- (10%, 20% and 30% sublethal concentrations of 96 h LC50) and time-dependent (10, 20 and 30 days) decrease in all tissues of the treated clams. Histological studies revealed that the normal rats have more compact and well-distributed junctional complexes, whereas in DAB-administered rats, hyperplasia of hepatic parenchymal cells and damaged central vein of liver lobules were observed.


   56. Inheritory Effect of Bacteria by GC-MS Indentify Compound Top


P. Indubharathi, C.R. Jayanthi, S. Sivasuriyan, P. Murugaian

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The bacterial activity of food-borne pathogens like bacteria was evaluated in this study, especially the bioactive compounds present in the aqueous extract and their bioactivity. The Cinnamon zeylanicum was extracted and aqueous-based extracted cinnamon was analyzed by GC-MS. It contains three higher-peak as well as three lower-peak important phytochemical compounds such as cinnamaldehude(E), eugenol, caryophyllene, cinnamyl alcohol, acetate, 7-hexdecenal(z) and 11-oxatetracyclo {4.2.1.1(2.5) undec-7-en-10-one.4.bromo,Benzyl Benzoate, Didodecylphtalate, 1.2-B-enxendicarboxylic acid. Mono(2-ethykhecyl) ester, squalene} respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of various secondary bioactive compounds and the antimicrobial activity of dried cinnamon and crude extract against pathogenic bacteria like Gram positive (seven) and three Gram negative (Escherichia oil, Salmonella sp and Klebsiella pneumoneae). These results showed the relative analysis of the aqueous extract (50%) of crude cinnamon extract as a natural autochtonous antimicrobial agent on some food spoilage by Gram negative as well as Gram positive bacteria. The cinnamon extract was found to be very effective, with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against Staphyloccus epidermids and the Staphylococcus sp., was found to be highly sensitive to the cinnamon extract. Sorbic acid (std food preservative) was used as a positive control. Cinnamon was found to be more effective when compared with both the cinnamon extract and sorbic acid. This study shows the potential of cinnamon to be used as a food biopreservative.


   57. Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Compounds by GC-MS Top


C.R. Jayanthi, P. Indubharathi, S. Sivasuriyan, P. Murugaian

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The fungal activity was evaluated by clove against a range of food-borne microorganisms. In this study, the bioactive compounds present in the aqueous extract and their bioactivity was studied. The Syzygium aromaticum (extracted) and aqueous based-extracted clove was analyzed by GC-MS. It contains three higher-peak as well as three lower-peak important phytochemical compounds such as 3-carene, limonene, methyl salicylate, copaene, caryophyllene, a-caryophyllene, phenol,2-methoxy-4-(-propenyl)-acetate, caryophyllene oxide, cubenol, tetracyclo, tridencan-9-01,4,4-dimethyl-aromadendrene oxide(2), isoaromadendrene epoxide,2',3',4' Trimethoxyacetophenone,4-((1E)-3-Hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxy phenol,2-cyclohexen-1-one,3-(3-hydroxybuty)-2,4,4-timethyl,1H-purine-2,6-dione,37-dihydro-7-(4-tert butylbenzyl)-1,3-dimethy- and piperine, respectively.

The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of various secondary bioactive compounds and the antimicrobial activity of dried clove and crude extract against pathogenic fungal organisms like Szygium aromaticum. This result showed the relative analysis of the aqueous extract (50%) of the crude clove extract as a natural autochthonous fungal agent on some food spoilage Gram negative as well as inhibitory concentration of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp., which was found to be highly sensitive to the clove extract. Sorbic acid (std food preservative) was used as a positive control and clove was found to be more effective when compared with both the clove extract and sorbic acid. This study shows the potential of clove to be used as a food biopreservative.


   58. Fast Food : A Silent Killer Top


G. Sathishkumar, M.C. Vachanth, G. Sridharan

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: chanth27@gmail.com

In our house, food means many things. However, the ones that mean the most to us are family, home and happiness. Each one of these elements is present when we cook and make food. But, in today's age of convenience, fast food needs no introduction. Everyone from a 2-year-old toddler to a 60-year-old grandpa/ma seems to be enjoying it every chance they get. Fast food covers a wide range of products like processed food, pre-prepared foods like burger, fries etc., and other foods that can be quickly prepared without any traditional cooking can also be categorized as fast food. The main reason for people's approach to fast food is that it is easy and convenient to be cooked. It can be prepared within less time and its taste and flavor can also be appreciated by everyone. In spite of this meager advantage, it has a very high energy density. It is not nutritionally balanced and loaded with calories. It is also very high in sodium. On top of all this, it is deficient in dietary and essential micronutrients like vitamins and minerals.

Consuming fast food on a regular basis, ignoring the above facts, results in nutritional deficiencies, obesity, increased cholesterol levels, cardiac problems and many other threatening heath hazards. Recent scientific studies have shown that the ingredients in the fast food could reconfigure the hormones in the body in such a way that they make you crave for such foods and always leave you asking for more. To sum up, consuming fast food on a regular basis lead to many health hazards. In order to overcome this, what one could do is to successively reduce the frequency of eating fast food and eat home-cooked food more frequently, with plenty of fast foods and vegetables.


   59. Studies of the Growth and Survival of the Giant Freshwater Prawn , Mactobrachium Rosenbergii (de man), Using Three Different Feeds Top


N. Karthi, G. Sridharan

P.G. & Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India E-mail: Karthizoo77@gmail.com

The study on the post-larvae 20 of Macrobrachium resenbergii was collected from SRK farm, at Thirumanur, Thanjavur District. The juveniles were brought to the laboratory and cultured in fiber glass containers (24" x 21" x 12"), with a temperature of 29° ± 2°C. The medium was aerated continuously and changed daily without disturbing the larvae. During the acclimatization period, classic scampi feed was given ad libitum. For experimental studies, three types of feed, namely pellatized CP feed, classic scampi feed with feed additives and live feed, were given for a period of 60 days. The growth and survival of Macrobrachium resenbergii was recorded and analyzed statistically.


   60. Analysis of Cardiac Biomarkers in Myocardial Infarction Top


V. Sinduja, M. Chitra

Department of Biochemistry, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust for Women's College, Manargudi, Tamilnadu, India

The present study was undertaken to analyze the biomarkers from cardiac patients. About 10 myocardial patient samples were collected from the age groups of 30-40, 40-50, 50-60 and 60-70 years, and 10 subjects were used as controls. The blood was collected for the test within 24 h after the attack of myocardial infarction. There are three cardiac biomarkersthat are used to identify acute myocardial infarction. They are Troponin, CK-MB and Myoglobin. If a person has a heart attack, then the results of Troponin, CK-MB and Myoglobin are positive; otherwise, these give negative results. Therefore, the results of these biomarkers play an important role in myocardial infarction. Also, determining the level of urea, creatinine, lipid profile, sugar, SGOT and SGPT is very important. These levels are normal in normal persons whereas these levels are increased in cardiac patients.

The mean values of the cardiac markers, namely SGPT, SGOT, CK-MB, TROPONIN and MYOGLOBIN, in normal persons lies within the normal range, and the mean values of the cardiac patients are uniformly elevated. The blood level of cardiac TROPONIN increases as early as 1-10 h after through onset of cardiac injury, whereas in CK-MB, they increase within 4-6 h into the circulation after the onset of myocardial infarction. In our study, in 60% of the cardiac patients, results were found to be positive in the serum. The above-50 age persons were found to be 100% positive in TROP T. In this age group, for CK-MB, 60% of the persons were found to be positive when compared with that of TROPONIN; and CK-MB, MYOGLOBIN was found to be positive in 70% of the cardiac patients.

No single cardiac marker used alone is ideal. Although troponin assays achieve the highest score of all cardiac markers, they still fail in one important aspect-the ability to detect reinfraction. Therefore, use of multiple markers as a cardiac panel has a better chance of meeting all requirements of an ideal marker.


   61.Analysis of Important Minerals and Biochemicals in various parts of Cardiospermum Halicacabum Top


P. Suriya, R. Udayakumar

Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology & Biochemistry, Govt. Arts College (Autonomous) Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, India

Today, the implementation of herbal medicine to treat body ailments has become a profession all over the world. Many secondary metabolites of plants are commercially important and find use in a number of pharmaceutical compounds. Cardiospermum halicacabum is an important medicinal plant that was selected in this study, which belongs to the family Sapindaceae, and is commonly known as known as Balloon vine. Cardiospermum is an active ingredient in creams and lotions for dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. It was collected from Kumbakonam, Tanjore District, Tamilnadu, during the month of January 2011. The collected plant materials and their parts like leaf, stem, root and seed were used in this study. Ash, mineral and biochemical content were determined. The maximum level of ash content in the leaf was determined to be 27.96%. High levels of mineral contents of the order calcium-10.0 mg/g, sodium-8.88 mg/g, potassium-5.33 mg/g and phosphorus-0.4 mg/g were observed in the stem and nitrogen-0.39 mg/g was observed in the root sample. High levels of carbohydrate-8.15 mg/g in the leaf, protein-19.2 mg/g in the seed and lipid-0.25 mg/g in the stem were observed. 0.2 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was observed in the leaf. Therefore, these minerals and biochemicals, including ascorbic acid, may also take part in the curing diseases when taken as drug.


   62. Mineral and Biochemical Analyses in Various Parts of Vernonia Cinerea Top


R. Ponni, R. Udayakumar

Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology & Biochemistry,

Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, India


In the recent years, interest in medicinal plants has increased to a great deal. Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used as medicine. Vernonia cinerea, an important medicinal plant, was selected in this study, which belongs to the family Asteraceae, and is commonly known as Sahadevi. The traditional healers in India use all parts of Sahadevi as medicine. It was collected from Kumbakonam, Tanjore District, Tamilnadu, during the month of January 2011. The collected plant materials and their parts like leaf, stem and root were used in this study. Ash, minerals, biochemicals and phytochemicals contents were determined. The maximum level of ash content was determined in the root to be 11.0%. A higher level of calcium-12.5 mg/g in leaf, sodium-20.4 mg/g in stem, potassium-0.46 mg/g in leaf, phosphorus-0.46 mg/g in root and nitrogen-0.39 mg/g in root were observed. The maximum level of carbohydrate-30.61 mg/g, protein-8.0 mg/g and lipid-1.08 mg/g in root were observed. The content of ascorbic acid of 0.1 mg/g was observed in the leaf. Therefore, the minerals and biochemicals may take part in curing diseases when taken orally as a medicine.


   63. Mineral , Biochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Melothria Maderaspatana : A Promising Medicinal Plant Top


R. Pappathi, R. Udayakumar

Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology & Biochemistry,

Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, India


There is a growing demand for plant-based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements and cosmetics in the recent days. Melothria maderaspatana Linn., belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, has been used traditionally from a long time for a number of ailments. The plant was collected from the plains of Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, Tanjore District, Tamilnadu, during the month of January 2011. The collected plant materials and their parts like leaf, stem and root were used in this study for the determination of mineral, biochemical and phytochemical content. Maximum level of carbohydrate was found to be 11.3 mg/g in the stem, of protein was 15.4 mg/g in the root and of lipid was 0.17 mg/g in the leaf. A higher level of calcium (12.5 mg/g), potassium (4.9 mg/g), phosphorus (0.32 mg/g) and sodium (33.4 mg/g) in stem and nitrogen (0.37 mg/g) in the leaf were observed. 0.2 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was observed in the leaf. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined qualitatively.


   64. Mineral , Biochemical and Phytochemical Analysis in Various Parts of Ipomoea Sepiaria Top


S. Karthikaveni, R. Udayakumar

Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology & Biochemistry, Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, India

Plants have been one of the major sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. Ipomoea sepiaria is a medicinal plant known as Lakshmana in Sanskrit, which belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. It was collected from the plains of Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, Tanjore District, Tamilnadu, during the month of January 2011. The collected plant materials and their parts like leaf, stem and root were used in this study for the determination of the mineral, biochemical and phytochemical content. A higher amount of carbohydrate of 26.46 mg/g and protein of 10.2 mg/g in the root and of lipid (0.2 mg/g) in the leaf were observed. Maximum level of calcium was 16.6 mg/g, of potassium was 4.9 mg/g, of phosphorus was 0.29 mg/g and of nitrogen was 0.30 mg/g in the stem and of sodium was 22.0 mg/g in the leaf. An ascorbic acid content of 0.3 mg/g was observed in the leaf. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also determined qualitatively. Thus, it was shown that minerals, biochemicals and phytochemicals may play a role in the curing of diseases.


   65. Protection of Stored Maize , Rice and Wheat from Insect Pests using a Neem Oil-Isolated Component Biologicalcontrol Method Top


K. Jayasakthi, M.P. Murugaian

P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India

The rice, wheat and maize powder were tested to determine whether their individual or combined use would protect stored grain from infestation by both internal and external insect pests. Small-scale tests were conducted in plastic jars containing 2 kg each of rice, wheat and maize powder. We tested treatments of 100 ug, 200 ug, 400 ug and 800 ug dose levels of the powdered neem oil compound. One pair each of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stphens) was added to each jar. The above doses were treated for the control, before and after. After 8 weeks, the entire contents of each jar were examined for adult insects. One hundred micrograms of the powders had no detrimental effects on the beneficial insect because these larvae developed inside the rice, wheat and maize kernels. Two hundred micrograms of the powder suppressed populations of the internal feeder S. zeamais. The 400 microgram powder treatment had a good effect on S. zeamais, and 800 microgram on S. zeamaissame. In contrast, populations of the external feeder T. castaneum were not suppressed by 100 ug but were suppressed by 200, 400 and 800 ug powder treatment. The treatment produced the greatest percentage reduction for all three insect species and resulted in 88%, 96% and 86% reductions in populations of S. zeamais, T. castaneum and C. ferrugineus, respectively, when compared with the control treatment. Before treatment, the percentage reductions for the 100 ug treatment were 70%, 68% and 62% for S. zeamais, T. castaneum and C. ferrugineus, respectively. For the 200, 400 and 800 ug powder treatment, populations of S. zeamais, T. castaneum and C. ferrugineus were reduced by 79%, 74% and 70%, 85%, 86% and 86%, and 90%, 85% and 92%, respectively. The neem oil compound effectively reduced the pest. The results indicate that the neem oil compound effectively prevents food materials from pests.




 

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    07. Evaluation o...
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    13. Majorana ...
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    15. Antiulcer Ac...
    16. Effect of th...
    17. Phytochemica...
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    19. Phytochemica...
    20. A Comparativ...
    21. Studies on t...
    22. Studies on t...
    23. Physico-Chem...
    24. Antimicrobia...
    25. Antiulcer Ac...
    26. Effect of
    27. A Study of t...
    28. Studies on t...
    29. In Vitro<...
    30. Study on the...
    31. Economic Val...
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    33. Effect of Su...
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    37. Food Adulter...
    38. A Study on ...
    39. Trace metal ...
    40. Impact of a ...
    41. Impact of Na...
    42. Increasing C...
    43. Significance...
    44. Mosquito Lar...
    45. Impact of th...
    46. Effect of th...
    47. Electron Mic...
    48. Studies on t...
    49. Effect of He...
    50. Distribution...
    51. Lambda Cyhal...
    52. Role of Hygi...
    53. Histological...
    54. Angiogenic A...
    55. Studies on t...
    56. Inheritory E...
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    58. Fast Food : ...
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    63. Mineral , Bi...
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