|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 157-162
Studies on the nutritional supplement of mulberry leaves with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) to the silk worm Bombyx mori (L) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) upon the activities of midgut digestive enzymes
Saravanan Manjula1, Selvi Sabhanayakam1, Veeranarayanan Mathivanan1, Nadanam Saravanan2
1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India
2 Division of Biochemistry, Rani Meyyammai College of Nursing, Tamilnadu, India
|Date of Submission||24-Dec-2010|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Apr-2011|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Aug-2011|
Division of Biochemistry, Rani Meyyammai College of Nursing, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamilnadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Aim : To evaluate the changes in the activities of midgut digestive enzymes activities of silkworm fed with mulberry leaves supplemented with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Materials and Method: Finely powdered Vigna unguiculata was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% concentrations. Fresh mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were sprayed by each concentration and were fed to silkworms, from third to fifth instar, five feedings/day. Group 1 larvae received mulberry leaves sprayed with distilled water and served as control, group 2 larvae received 2.5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves, group 3 larvae received 5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves, group 4 larvae received 7.5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves and group 5 larvae received 10% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves. Result: Silkworm larvae fed on Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves enriched with 7.5% concentrations of Vigna unguiculata, significantly gained more pupa weight, silk length and silk weight as compared to those fed on normal MR 2 mulberry leaves. Hence, 7.5% dose was fixed as an effective dose. Further, same study was conducted to find out the changes in the digestive enzymes activities in the midgut occurred in the fourth day of fourth instar larvae. There was a significant increase in the midgut urease, amylase, sucrase, and protease activities. But midgut trehalase activity was significantly decreased. Conclusions: The results suggest that supplementation of Vigna unguiculata with mulberry leaves at a concentration of 7.5% has enhanced the digestion of ingested food which in turn reflects in the quantity of silk produced.
Keywords: Bombyx mori L., digestive enzymes, midgut, Morus alba L., Vigna unguiculata
|How to cite this article:|
Manjula S, Sabhanayakam S, Mathivanan V, Saravanan N. Studies on the nutritional supplement of mulberry leaves with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) to the silk worm Bombyx mori (L) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) upon the activities of midgut digestive enzymes. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2011;1:157-62
|How to cite this URL:|
Manjula S, Sabhanayakam S, Mathivanan V, Saravanan N. Studies on the nutritional supplement of mulberry leaves with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) to the silk worm Bombyx mori (L) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) upon the activities of midgut digestive enzymes. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Nov 22];1:157-62. Available from: http://www.ijnpnd.com/text.asp?2011/1/2/157/84207
| Introduction|| |
Nutrition is considered as a major influence on silkworm rearing. Better cocoon production has been found to be directly related by evolving successful rearing techniques. Successful rearing mostly depends on satisfying the nutritional demands of the silkworm, since there is a strong correlation between nutrition and the physiology of growth in silkworm. The quality of leaf has a greater influence on the amount of food ingested. The nutrition, particularly as it relates to the physiology of digestion, is the most fundamental and important challenges in the sericulture. Effective culture cannot occur unless a species can be grown quickly and economically. The Bombyx mori L. (silkworm) is a phytophagous lepidopteran insect that is monophagous feeder on Morus alba L. (mulberry leaves). According to Kellner,  the silkworm digests albumin, fat, and carbohydrates except cellulose. The ability of silkworm to produce and secrete digestive enzymes is to a great extent influenced by the nutrient composition of the meal. Scientists have tried alternative food for the rearing of silkworm, but they were not cost effective. So they used some nutrients, minerals and vitamins as food supplements. Mulberry leaves have been supplemented with various nutrients for silkworm feeding to promote silk quality and quantity. Mahmood et al0. found that silkworm larvae, when fed on mulberry leaves treated with farm yard manure and ammonia solution significantly consumed more food, gained more larval weight and produced heavier cocoons as compared with those fed on untreated leaves. Ravikumar has  emphasized that the quality and the nutritional status of mulberry has a great influence on the silkworm growth, silk yield and disease resistance. Silkworm requires specific essential sugars, amino acids, proteins and vitamins for its normal growth.  Javed and Gondal  have also reported that silkworm fed with nitrogen and ascorbic acid supplemented mulberry leaves showed higher growth and lower mortality. Silkworm midgut digestive enzymes have been studied in detail by various scientists. ,,,, Rationalization of some of these enzymes is a feature of the silkworm.  Midgut enzyme activity is also a developmental stage dependent, , and the diapause nature has relevance to enzymatic activities in the midgut of silkworm.  An understanding of the change in the digestive physiology when supplemented with the Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) may help to maximize the commercial production of silkworm.
Cowpeas are one of the most important food legume crops in the semi-arid tropics covering Asia, Africa, southern Europe and Central and South America. A drought-tolerant and warm-weather crop, cowpeas are well-adapted to the drier regions of the tropics, where other food legumes do not perform well. It also has the useful ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through its root nodules, and it grows well in poor soils with more than 85% sand and with less than 0.2% organic matter and low levels of phosphorus.  In addition, it is shade tolerant, and therefore, compatible as an intercrop with maize, millet, sorghum, sugarcane, and cotton. This makes cowpea an important component of traditional intercropping systems, especially in the complex and elegant subsistence farming systems of the dry savannas in sub-Saharan Africa. Research in Ghana found that selecting early generations of cowpea crops to increase yield is not an effective strategy. Francis Padi from the Savannah Agricultural Research Institute in Tamale, Ghana, writing in Crop Science, suggests other methods such as bulk breeding are more efficient in developing high-yield varieties.  According to the USDA food database, cowpeas have the highest percentage of calories from protein among vegetarian foods.  Although the effects of nitrogen, vitamin, and salts supplementation on the growth of silkworm have been investigated by many researchers, the effect of mulberry leaves enriched with Vigna unguiculata was not investigated. So, the present study was aimed to find out the effective dose of Vigna unguiculata application to mulberry leaves on pupa weight, silk length and silk weight. By using the effective dose, further analysis of the activities of the digestive enzymes were done in the midgut of fourth day of fourth instar larvae of silkworm and an ultimate aim to find out whether the change in activities of the enzymes have impact on the growth and silk production of silkworm.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The eggs of silkworm L NB4, D2 (local Bivoltine) race were collected from farmers' training centre at Jayankodapattiam, Tamilnadu, India. The eggs were placed at ambient temperature of 25±2° C and relative humidity of 70%--80% in an incubator for hatching. After hatching, larvae were isolated from stock culture. The larvae were divided into five experimental groups including controls (distilled water control), each group consisting of 10 larvae. The larvae were reared in card board boxes measuring 22 Χ 15 Χ 5 cm 3 covered with polythene sheet and placed in an iron stand with ant wells. The larvae were subjected to the following treatments. Vigna unguiculata was purchased from the local market surrounding Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India, identified and authenticated from the Department of Botany, Annamalai University. It was shade dried and powdered using mortar. Finely powdered Vigna unguiculata was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% concentrations. Fresh mulberry leaves were sprayed by each concentration and then dried in air for 10 min. The supplementary leaves were fed to silkworms, five feedings/day. Group 1 larvae received mulberry leaves sprayed with distilled water and served as control, group 2 larvae received 2.5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves, group 3 larvae received 5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves, group 4 larvae received 7.5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves and group 5 larvae received 10% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves, respectively. And they were maintained up to cocoon. Pupa weight, silk length and silk weight were determined for all groups.
The same protocol was repeated only with 7.5% Vigna unguiculata sprayed mulberry leaves and control larvae received mulberry leaves sprayed with distilled water for the estimation of digestive enzymes. On fourth day of fourth instar, the larval midgets were isolated and homogeized.
Preparation of tissue extracts for enzyme assays
The whole midgut was isolated from prefrozen larvae kept at -20°C for 12 h, and a 10% homogenate was prepared (after separating the Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, and other tissue fragments adhering to the gut) in ice-cold buffer solution. The homogenate was centrifuged at 3000 r/min and the supernatant was used as the enzyme source with appropriate dilution.
Assay of enzyme activities
Assay of urease was done by the following procedure. 0.5 ml of enzyme solution was incubated with the assay buffer consisted of 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4 (pH 7.5) containing 120 mM urea, 5 mM EDTA, 0.1% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 0.5% (w/v) ascorbic acid for 3 h at 30 °C. After incubation, the reaction was terminated by adding 1/24 volume of 1 N H 2 SO 4 . Ammonia released from urea was assayed by Nessler's method. One unit of the enzyme was defined as the amount that hydrolyzed 1 μmol of urea per min under the assay condition. Amylase activity was evaluated by the Bernfeld  method using glucose as standard. The reaction mixture contained 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 1% starch (freshly prepared), and appropriately diluted enzyme. Sucrase activity was measured according to the method of Ishaaya and Swirski  with glucose as standard. The incubation mixture contained 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 3.42 M sucrose, and appropriately diluted enzyme. Trehalase activity was determined by the Dahlman  method with slight modification of pH from 5.6 to 6.0. The assay mixture contained 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), 3.78 M trehalose, and appropriately diluted enzyme. The incubation period and temperature of incubation were 30 min and 24 ± 1 °C for amylase, and 60 min and 37 °C for sucrase and trehalase. The amount of glucose liberated was measured at 540 nm after inhibition of the reaction with dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent in the cases of amylase and sucrase and with concentrated H 2 SO 4 in the trehalase assay. The mixture was boiled over a boiling water bath for 10 min and diluted with distilled water. Activity is expressed as milligrams of glucose liberated per minute per milligram of protein in all three estimations. The protease enzyme assay was carried out with the method of Eguchi and Iwamoto  with slight modification of the pH of borate buffer (pH 11.0) as outlined by Sarangi  using tyrosine as standard. The reaction mixture contained 1% casein, 0.1 M borate buffer (pH 11.0), and appropriately diluted enzyme. The incubation was carried out for 30 min at 30 °C. The reaction was inhibited by adding 8.2 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and centrifuged. The supernatant was used with 0.5 N NaOH and Folin's reagent to measure the tyrosine liberated at 660 nm. Protein content in all assays was estimated with the Folin phenol reagent  using bovine serum albumin as standard.
Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) using a commercially available statistics software package (SPSS® for Windows, V. 16.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Results were presented as means ± SD.P values < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
| Results and Discussion|| |
[Table 1] shows the effects of various concentrations of Vigna unguiculata supplementation with mulberry on the pupa weight, silk length and silk weight. There is a significant raise in the pupa weight, silk length, and silk weight of the larvae fed with Vigna unguiculata supplemented mulberry when compared with control groups. This may be due to the increased protein content of the mulberry supplemented with Vigna unguiculata. This is in agreement with the work done by Hiware  regarding the increased pupa weight, silk length, and silk weight when silkworm treated with homeopathic drug Nux Vomica. There is a significant increase in the all parameters while there is no significance between the 7.5% and 10% dose of Vigna unguiculata with respect to pupa weight, silk length and silk weight. So, 7.5% was fixed as the effective dose.
|Table 1: Effects of various concentrations of Vigna unguiculata supplementation with mulberry leaves on the pupa weight, silk length, and silk weight of Bombyx mori|
Click here to view
[Table 2] and [Table 3] show the effects of 7.5% Vigna unguiculata supplementation with mulberry on the midgut urease, amylase, sucrase, protease, and trehalase activities of silkworm. There is a significant increase in the midgut urease, amylase, sucrase, protease in the Vigna unguiculata supplemented group when compared with control group supplemented with distilled water.
|Table 2: Effects of 7.5% concentrations of Vigna unguiculata supplementation with mulberry leaves on the midgut urease, amylase and sucrase activities of silkworm Bombyx mori|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Effects of 7.5% concentrations of Vigna unguiculata supplementation with mulberry leaves on the midgut protease and trehalase activities of silkworm Bombyx mori|
Click here to view
Ammonia produced from urea by the action of mulberry leaf urease is assimilated into amino acids via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway in the same way as plants and micro organisms.  Rosenthal et al. also explained about the utilization of urea in insects. Larvae of the bruchid beetle Caryedes brasiliensis feeds on a neotropical legume Dioclea megacarpa. It possesses high urease activity, and is capable of utilizing urea generated from canavanine, a toxic amino acid stored in the seeds of the host plant. However, the origin of the urease activity detected in the insect has not been clarified. The beetle's urease might originate from the legume seeds rather than from the insect itself as observed in the silkworm. Generally, legume seeds have high urease activity.  Therefore, in the present study the Vigna unguiculata, the leguminous plant, may also have more urease activity. Urea utilization as a nitrogen source for protein synthesis has been well studied in mammals ,,,, and chicks.  It has been shown that intestinal flora was indispensable for utilizing urea-nitrogen for protein synthesis. , The urea recycling system found in the silkworm more or less resembles that of mammals, but it is noteworthy that silkworm utilizes an enzyme of the host plant for the insect and that urea metabolism in silkworm is completely dependent on the diets that the insect is given. Mulberry leaf urease and the supplemented Vigna unguiculata urease may make a significant contribution to silk production in the silkworm by converting useless urea into ammonia available as a nitrogen source of silk-protein. As the pupa weight, silk length and silk weight are significantly increased upon supplementation of Vigna unguiculata, it is in agreement with Hirayama  who found that the silk production of the larvae reared on mulberry leaves was larger than that of the larvae reared on the artificial diet.
Poor nutrition and low-nutrient diets have direct effects on primary biochemical and physiological systems, and thus may decrease the performance of insects by effecting changes in the detoxification system that can alter the susceptibility of the insect,  the poor feeding behavior may be correlated with the alteration in digestive enzyme activity on insecticide treatment.  In the present study activity of the enzymes amylase, sucrase, and protease were increased, which may be due to the sufficient amount of substrate resulting from high food intake. Sumida et al. have reported that midgut sucrase is activated by sucrose at a higher concentration (<100 mM) derived from the ingested food in the midgut lumen. The rational food consumption by a lepidotpteran larva was correlated directly with the activities of amylase and invertase by Christopher and Mathavan,  with the larva receiving 100% food found to have the highest amylase and invertase activities, which declined as the percentage of food offered was reduced. Similarly, the heavier pupa weight on Vigna unguiculata supplementation could have resulted in the increased activity of amylase and sucrase.
Digestion of leaf proteins is aided by the proteolytic enzymes, proteases. Late silkworms are generally eat coarse leafs, and are suppose to have a highly specific protease enzyme system that hydrolyzes the fibrous protein found in abundance in coarse mulberry leaves.  The proteolytic activity of the alimentary canal in relation to feeding of proteins has been studied in many insects. , In the present study, protease activity has been increased on Vigna unguiculata supplementation and it is presumed that the bean may activate the enzyme molecules to act on their substrates, or the enzyme molecules may be have sufficient amount of substrate. Protease activity is influenced by the age, sex, and feeding behavior of silkworms and decreases significantly on starvation during late fifth instar.  The observations of the present investigation can thus be correlated with increased feeding behavior and increased quantity of food ingested by the silkworm for the active participation of these enzymes in the process of digestion, which in turn reflects in the high pupa weight, silk length and silk weight.
Trehalase activity to the contrary, was inhibited in the midgut of silkworms supplemented with Vigna unguiculata. Azuma and Yamashita  reported an increase in midgut trehalase activity serves for the utilization of hemolymph trehalose for metabolic energy to maintain active processes in various situations, such as starvation. The decreased trehalase activity may also be due to decreased hydrolysis of trehalose to release glucose molecules in drastic conditions and in high energy demand.  The energy demand, which might have been supplied in the form of glucose molecules by the hydrolysis of trehalose in the midgut by trehalase.  In this regard, Singaravelu et al have also been observed that there was a significant decrease in the ovarian enzymes when the silkworms were fed with mulberry leaves sprayed with biocide azadirachtin. In the present study as the trehalase activity was significantly decreased it is presumed that there is no such disturbance in the carbohydrate metabolism and also no drastic situations for the silkworm.
| Conclusions|| |
So, it is concluded that the supplementation of Vigna unguiculata at the level of 7.5% may have beneficial effects on the growth of the silkworm and also increase the quantity of the silk production by enhancing the digestibility of the mulberry leaves. So, this supplementation could be prescribed to the farmers to get more quantity of silk.
| References|| |
|1.||Kellner O, Kakizaki S, Matsuoka M, Yoshu T. XXIV. On the physiology of the silk worm. By Alexander pringle jameson and william ringrose gelston atkins. Landw Versuchs-stationen 1887;33:381. |
|2.||Mahmood R, Jan MT, Khan MI. Effect of nitrogen (farmyard manure + urea) treated mulberry trees on the larval development and cocoon weight of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Asian J Plant Sci 2002;2:93-4. |
|3.||Ravikumar C. Western ghat as a bivoltine region prospects, challenges and strategies for its development. Indian Silk 1988;26:39-54. |
|4.||Sengupta K, Singh BD, Mustafij C. Nutrition of silkworm. Bombyx mori L.I. Studies on the enrichment of mulberry leaf with various sugars, proteins, aminoacids and vitamins for vigorous growth of the worm and increased cocoon crop production. Indian J Sci 1972;11:11-27. |
|5.||Javed H, Gondal MH. Effect of food supplementation by N and Ascorbic Acid on larval mortality of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.). Asian J Plant Sci 2002;1:556-7. |
|6.||Kanekatsu R. Amylase in the digestive juice of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. J Seric Sci 1972;41:445-51. |
|7.||Kanekatsu R. Studies on further properties for an alkaline amylase in the digestive juice of silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Fac Text Sci Technol 1978;76:1-21. |
|8.||Eguchi M, Iwamoto A. Alkaline protease in the midgut tissue and digestive fluid of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem 1976;6:491-6. |
|9.||Sumida M, Yuan XL, Matsubara F. Sucrase activity and its kinetic properties in pertrophic membrans, and in membrane-bound and soluble fractions of midgut in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Comp Biochem Physiol A 1994;108:255-64. |
|10.||Abraham EG, Nagaraju J, Datta RK. Chemical studies of amylases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.: Comparative analysis in diapause and nondiapause strains. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 1992;22:867-73. |
|11.||Kanekatsu R, Ichimura H, Hori M. Distribution and developmental changes in midgut sucrase activity of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Seric Sci Japan 1989;58:517-23. |
|12.||Kanekatsu R, Satoh M, Kodaira R, Miyashita T. Midgut sucrase-1 (suc-1) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Geneties and changes in the activities during the pupal}adult development. J Seric Sci Japan 1993;62:13-9. |
|13.||Sumida M, Yuan X L, Mari YI. Mori H, Matsubara F. Changes in kinetic parameters and total activity of midgut sucrase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori during larval pupal}adult development. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1990;96:605-11. |
|14.||Asakawa H, Hamano K. Enzymatic properties of digestive amylase isozymes in silkworms, Bombyx mori L. J Seric Sci Japan1994;63:13-20. |
|15.||Singh B. "Improving the production and utilization of cowpea as food and fodder". Field Crops Research 2003;84:169-50. |
|16.||Scott C. "Sub-Saharan Africa news in brief: 25 March-9 April". Science and Development Network. Available from: http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-25-march-9-april.html. [Last accessed on 2008 Apr 10]. |
|17.||Shaw M. "100 Most Protein Rich Vegetarian Foods". SmarterFitter Blog. Available from: http://smarterfitter.com/blog/2007/10/28/100-most-protein-rich-vegetarian-foods/. [Last accessed on 2007 Oct 28]. |
|18.||Bernfeld P. Enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism: Amylases, á and â. Methods in Enzymology In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO, editors. New York: Academic Press; 1955;1:149-58. |
|19.||Ishaaya, Swirski E. Invertase and amylase activity in the armoured scales Chrysomphalus aordun and Aonidiella auranti. J Insect Physiol 1970;16:1599-606 |
|20.||Dahlman DL. Purification and properties of trehalase from tobacco hornworm larvae. J Insect Physiol 1971;17:1677-87. |
|21.||Eguchi M, Iwamoto A. Comparison of three alkaline proteases from digestive fluid of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. L. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1982;71:663-8. |
|22.||Sarangi SK. Alkaline protease in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L: Changes during metamorphosis. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Anim. Sci.) 1985;94:567-72. |
|23.||Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265- 75. |
|24.||Hiware CJ. Effect of fortification of Mulberry leaves with homeopathic drug Nux Vomica on Bombyx Mori. L. Homeopathy 2006;95:148-50. |
|25.||Hirayama C, Konno K, Shinbo H. The pathway of ammonia assimilation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol 1997;43:959- 64. |
|26.||Rosenthal GA, Hughes C, Janzen DH. l-Canavanine, a dietary source for the seed predator Caryedes brasiliensis (Bruchidae). Science 1982;217:353-5. |
|27.||Rosenthal GA, The interrelationship of canavanine and ureas in seeds of the Lotidae. J Exp Bot 1974;25:609-13. |
|28.||Liu CH, Hays VW, Svec HJ, Catron DV, Ashton GC, Speer VC. The fate of urea in growing pigs. J Nutr 1955;78:57-72. |
|29.||Rose WC, Dekker EE. Urea as a source of nitrogen for the biosynthesis of amino acids. J Biol Chem 1956;203:107-21. |
|30.||Snyderman SE, Holt LE, Dancis J, Roitman E, Boyer A, Balis ME. "Uuessential" nitrogen: A limiting factor in human growth. J Nutr 1962;78:57-72. |
|31.||Grimson RE, Bowland JP, Milligan LP. Use of nitrogen- 15 labelled urea to study urea utilization by pigs. Can J Anim Sci 1971;51:103-10. |
|32.||Richards P. Nutritional potential of nitrogen recycling in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1972;25:615-25. |
|33.||Okumura J, Tanaka H, Muramatsu T. Incorporation of 15Nurea in chicks. Jpn J Poult Sci 1979;16:45-8. |
|34.||Levenson SM, Crowly LV, Moriwitz RE, Malm OJ. The metabolism of carbon-labeled urea in the germfree rats. J Biol Chem 1959;234:2061-2. |
|35.||Deguchi E, Niiyama M, Kagota K, Namioka S. Role of intestinal flora on incorporation of 15N from dietary, 15N-urea, 15Ndiammonium citrate into tissue proteins in pigs. J Nutr 1978;108:1572-9. |
|36.||Hirayama C. Effect of mulberry leaf powder addition in artificial diet on the excretion of nitrogenous products and utilization of nitrogen in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (in Japanese with English summary). J Sericult Sci Japan 1994;63:206-13. |
|37.||Lindroth RL, Barman MA, Weisbra AV. Nutritient deficiencies and the gypsy moth, L. dispar: Effects on larval performance and detoxification enzyme activities. J Insect Physiol 1991;37:45-52. |
|38.||Vyjayanthi N, Subramanyam MV. E!ect of fenvalerate- 20EC on sericigenous insects. I. Food utilization in the late-age larva of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Ecotoxicol Ecol 2002;53:206-11. |
|39.||Christopher MS, Mathavan S. Regulation of digestive enzyme activity in the larva of Catopsilia crocale (Lepidoptera). J Insect Physiol 1985;31:217-21. |
|40.||Ito T, Arai N. Amino acid requirements in Bombyx mori. J. Insect Physiol 1966;23:861-9. |
|41.||Dadd RH. Proteolytic activity of the midgut in relation to feeding in the beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Ditiscus marinalis L. J Exp Biol 1956;33:311-24. |
|42.||Hamano K, Mukaiyama F. Some properties of digestive fluid proteases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, with reference to the relation between dissociation degree and nutritive value of some proteins. J Sericult Sci Japan 1970;39:371-6. |
|43.||Jadhav G, Kallapur VL. Influence of age, sex and feeding on the protease activity of certain tissues of fifth instar silkworm, Bombyx mori. Entomon 1988;13:289-93. |
|44.||Azuma M, Yamashita O. Cellular localization and proposed function of midgut trehalase in silkworm larva, Bombyx mori. Tissue Cell 1985;17:539-51. |
|45.||Hasegawa K, Yamashita O. Mode d′action de I′hormone de diapause dans le metabolisme glucidique de ver aand soie, Bombyx mori L. Ann Endocrinol 1970;31:631-6. |
|46.||Nath BS. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in haemolymph and fatbody of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L., exposed to organophosphorus insecticides. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2000;68:127-37. |
|47.||Singaravelu G, Sumathi S, Prabu P, Jagapriya L. Biological activity of azadirachtin on certain reproductive aspects of female moth of Bombyx mori L. Toxicol Int 2004;11:27-31. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]